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1.
Oecologia ; 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613574

RESUMO

Insect herbivores and their parasitoids play a crucial role in terrestrial trophic interactions in tropical forests. These interactions occur across the entire vertical gradient of the forest. This study compares how caterpillar communities, and their parasitism rates, vary across vertical strata and between caterpillar defensive strategies in a semi deciduous tropical forest in Nditam, Cameroon. Within a 0.1 ha plot, all trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were felled and systematically searched for caterpillars. We divided the entire vertical gradient of the forest into eight, five-metre strata. All caterpillars were assigned to a stratum based on their collection height, reared, identified, and classified into one of three defensive traits: aposematic, cryptic and shelter-building. Caterpillar species richness and diversity showed a midstory peak, whereas density followed the opposite pattern, decreasing in the midstory and then increasing towards the highest strata. This trend was driven by some highly dense shelter-building caterpillars in the upper canopy. Specialisation indices indicated decreasing levels of caterpillar generality with increasing height, a midstory peak in vulnerability, and increasing connectance towards the upper canopy, although the latter was likely driven by decreasing network size. Both aposematic and shelter-building caterpillars had significantly higher parasitism rates than cryptic caterpillars. Our results highlight nuanced changes in caterpillar communities across forest strata and provide evidence that defences strategies are important indicators of parasitism rates in caterpillars and that both aposematic and shelter-building caterpillars could be considered a "safe haven" for parasitoids.

2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 549, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263406

RESUMO

Temperature is a fundamental driver of species distribution and ecosystem functioning. Yet, our knowledge of the microclimatic conditions experienced by organisms inside tropical forests remains limited. This is because ecological studies often rely on coarse-gridded temperature estimates representing the conditions at 2 m height in an open-air environment (i.e., macroclimate). In this study, we present a high-resolution pantropical estimate of near-ground (15 cm above the surface) temperatures inside forests. We quantify diurnal and seasonal variability, thus revealing both spatial and temporal microclimate patterns. We find that on average, understory near-ground temperatures are 1.6 °C cooler than the open-air temperatures. The diurnal temperature range is on average 1.7 °C lower inside the forests, in comparison to open-air conditions. More importantly, we demonstrate a substantial spatial variability in the microclimate characteristics of tropical forests. This variability is regulated by a combination of large-scale climate conditions, vegetation structure and topography, and hence could not be captured by existing macroclimate grids. Our results thus contribute to quantifying the actual thermal ranges experienced by organisms inside tropical forests and provide new insights into how these limits may be affected by climate change and ecosystem disturbances.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Temperatura , Mudança Climática , Sistemas Computacionais
3.
J Anim Ecol ; 92(9): 1759-1770, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37438871

RESUMO

Climate change poses a severe threat to many taxa, with increased mean temperatures and frequency of extreme weather events predicted. Insects can respond to high temperatures using behaviour, such as angling their wings away from the sun or seeking cool local microclimates to thermoregulate or through physiological tolerance. In a butterfly community in Panama, we compared the ability of adult butterflies from 54 species to control their body temperature across a range of air temperatures (thermal buffering ability), as well as assessing the critical thermal maxima for a subset of 24 species. Thermal buffering ability and tolerance were influenced by family, wing length, and wing colour, with Pieridae, and butterflies that are large or darker in colour having the strongest thermal buffering ability, but Hesperiidae, small, and darker butterflies tolerating the highest temperatures. We identified an interaction between thermal buffering ability and physiological tolerance, where species with stronger thermal buffering abilities had lower thermal tolerance, and vice versa. This interaction implies that species with more stable body temperatures in the field may be more vulnerable to increases in ambient temperatures, for example heat waves associated with ongoing climate change. Our study demonstrates that tropical species employ diverse thermoregulatory strategies, which is also reflected in their sensitivity to temperature extremes.


El cambio climático representa una grave amenaza para muchos taxones, con un aumento de las temperaturas medias y la frecuencia de eventos climáticos extremos pronosticados. Los insectos pueden responder a las altas temperaturas mediante comportamientos, como inclinar sus alas fuera del alcance del sol o buscar microclimas frescos locales para termorregular, o a través de la tolerancia fisiológica. En una comunidad de mariposas en Panamá, comparamos la capacidad de las mariposas adultas de 54 especies para controlar su temperatura corporal en un rango de temperaturas del aire (capacidad de amortiguación térmica), así como evaluar el máximo térmico crítico para un subconjunto de 24 especies. La capacidad de amortiguación térmica y la tolerancia se influenciaron por la familia, la longitud del ala y el colour del ala; con Pieridae y mariposas grandes o de colour más oscuro teniendo la capacidad de amortiguación térmica más fuerte, pero Hesperiidae, mariposas pequeñas y de colour más oscuro tolerando las temperaturas más altas. Identificamos una relación entre la capacidad de amortiguación térmica y la tolerancia fisiológica, en la que las especies con mayores capacidades de amortiguación térmica tenían una menor tolerancia térmica, y viceversa. Esta interacción implica que las especies con temperaturas corporales más estables en el campo pueden ser más vulnerables a los aumentos en las temperaturas ambientales, por ejemplo, las olas de calor asociadas con el cambio climático actual. Nuestra investigación demuestra que las especies tropicales emplean diversas estrategias de termorregulación, las cuales también se reflejan en su sensibilidad a las temperaturas extremas.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Temperatura , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Mudança Climática
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(15): 4180-4192, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37315654

RESUMO

Climate change is a major threat to species worldwide, yet it remains uncertain whether tropical or temperate species are more vulnerable to changing temperatures. To further our understanding of this, we used a standardised field protocol to (1) study the buffering ability (ability to regulate body temperature relative to surrounding air temperature) of neotropical (Panama) and temperate (the United Kingdom, Czech Republic and Austria) butterflies at the assemblage and family level, (2) determine if any differences in buffering ability were driven by morphological characteristics and (3) used ecologically relevant temperature measurements to investigate how butterflies use microclimates and behaviour to thermoregulate. We hypothesised that temperate butterflies would be better at buffering than neotropical butterflies as temperate species naturally experience a wider range of temperatures than their tropical counterparts. Contrary to our hypothesis, at the assemblage level, neotropical species (especially Nymphalidae) were better at buffering than temperate species, driven primarily by neotropical individuals cooling themselves more at higher air temperatures. Morphology was the main driver of differences in buffering ability between neotropical and temperate species as opposed to the thermal environment butterflies experienced. Temperate butterflies used postural thermoregulation to raise their body temperature more than neotropical butterflies, probably as an adaptation to temperate climates, but the selection of microclimates did not differ between regions. Our findings demonstrate that butterfly species have unique thermoregulatory strategies driven by behaviour and morphology, and that neotropical species are not likely to be more inherently vulnerable to warming than temperate species.


El calentamiento global es una gran amenaza para las especies alrededor del mundo, sin embargo, no se tiene bien definido sí en los insectos, las especies distribuídas en las zonas tropicales son más vulnerables a los cambios de temperature que las especies de zonas templadas o viceversa. Para responder a este interrogante, utilizamos un protocolo de campo estandarizado aplicado a especies de mariposas distribuídas en zonas tropicales (Panamá) versus zonas templadas (Reino Unido, República Checa y Austria), con el cual buscamos: (1) Evaluar la capacidad de amortiguación (capacidad de regular la temperatura corporal en relación con la temperatura del aire circundante) en el a nivel de ensamblaje y familia, (2) Determinar sí las diferencias en la capacidad de amortiguación es facilitada por sus características morfológicas, y (3) Investigar cómo las mariposas usan los microclimas y el comportamiento para termorregularse a tráves de mediciones de temperatura ecológicamente relevantes. Nuestra hipotesis incial soportaba que las mariposas templadas estaban adaptadas para amortiguar los cambios de temperatura en comparación con las mariposas neotropicales, ya que las especies templadas experimentan un rango más amplio de temperaturas que sus contrapartes tropicales. Contrariamente a nuestra hipótesis, a nivel de ensamble, las especies neotropicales (especialmente familia Nymphalidae) fueron mejores en la capaicidad de amortiguacion que las especies templadas, explicado por el hecho de que individuos se enfrían más a altas temperaturas del aire. Así, la morfología fué el principal impulsor de las diferencias en la capacidad de amortiguación entre las especies neotropicales y templadas en comparación con el ambiente térmico experimentado por las mismas. Encontramos que las mariposas templadas utilizaron la termorregulación de postura para elevar su temperatura corporal más que las mariposas neotropicales, probablemente como una adaptación a los climas templados, aunque la selección de microclimas no difirió entre regiones. Nuestros hallazgos demuestran que las especies de mariposas tienen estrategias de termorregulación únicas, impulsadas principalmente por el comportamiento y morfología, además nuestros resultados demuestran que a diferencia de lo que se ha pensado, las especies neotropicales son igual de vulnerables al calentamiento de su hábitat que las especies templadas.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Humanos , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura , Temperatura Baixa
5.
Mol Ecol ; 32(13): 3657-3671, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37096441

RESUMO

Gut microbial communities are complex and heterogeneous and play critical roles for animal hosts. Early-life disruptions to microbiome establishment can negatively impact host fitness and development. However, the consequences of such early-life disruptions remain unknown in wild birds. To help fill this gap, we investigated the effect of continuous early-life gut microbiome disruptions on the establishment and development of gut communities in wild Great tit (Parus major) and Blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nestlings by applying antibiotics and probiotics. Treatment neither affected nestling growth nor their gut microbiome composition. Independent of treatment, nestling gut microbiomes of both species grouped by brood, which shared the highest numbers of bacterial taxa with both nest environment and their mother. Although fathers showed different gut communities than their nestlings and nests, they still contributed to structuring chick microbiomes. Lastly, we observed that the distance between nests increased inter-brood microbiome dissimilarity, but only in Great tits, indicating that species-specific foraging behaviour and/or microhabitat influence gut microbiomes. Overall, the strong maternal effect, driven by continuous recolonization from the nest environment and vertical transfer of microbes during feeding, appears to provide resilience towards early-life disruptions in nestling gut microbiomes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Herança Materna , Passeriformes/microbiologia , Galinhas
6.
Ecol Evol ; 13(2): e9835, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36818525

RESUMO

Birds constitute one of the most important seed dispersal agents globally, especially in the tropics. The feeding preferences of frugivorous birds are, therefore, potentially of great ecological importance. A number of laboratory-based and observational studies have attempted to ascertain the preferences of certain bird species for certain fruit traits. However, little attention has been paid to community-wide preferences of frugivorous birds and the impact this may have on fruit traits on a broader scale. Here, we used artificial fruits of different colors and sizes to investigate community-wide fruit trait preferences of birds at three sites along an elevational gradient in Papua New Guinea. We recorded attack rates on artificial fruits as visible impressions made by a bird's beak during a feeding attempt. We also measured the colors and sizes of real fruits at each site, and the gape widths of frugivorous birds, allowing for comparisons between bird feeding preferences and bird and fruit traits. Regardless of elevation, red and purple fruits were universally preferred to green and attacked at similar rates to one another, despite strong elevational patterns in real fruit color. However, elevation had a significant effect on fruit size preferences. A weak, non-significant preference for large fruits was recorded at 700 m, while medium fruits were strongly preferred at 1700 m and small fruits at 2700 m. These patterns mirror those of both real fruit size and frugivorous bird gape width along the gradient, suggesting the potential for selective pressure of birds on fruit size at different elevations.

7.
Ecol Evol ; 12(3): e8709, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342614

RESUMO

Urbanization is an important driver of the diversity and abundance of tree-associated insect herbivores, but its consequences for insect herbivory are poorly understood. A likely source of variability among studies is the insufficient consideration of intra-urban variability in forest cover. With the help of citizen scientists, we investigated the independent and interactive effects of local canopy cover and percentage of impervious surface on insect herbivory in the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) throughout most of its geographic range in Europe. We found that the damage caused by chewing insect herbivores as well as the incidence of leaf-mining and gall-inducing herbivores consistently decreased with increasing impervious surface around focal oaks. Herbivory by chewing herbivores increased with increasing forest cover, regardless of impervious surface. In contrast, an increase in local canopy cover buffered the negative effect of impervious surface on leaf miners and strengthened its effect on gall inducers. These results show that-just like in non-urban areas-plant-herbivore interactions in cities are structured by a complex set of interacting factors. This highlights that local habitat characteristics within cities have the potential to attenuate or modify the effect of impervious surfaces on biotic interactions.

8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(11): 3694-3710, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243726

RESUMO

Current climate change is disrupting biotic interactions and eroding biodiversity worldwide. However, species sensitive to aridity, high temperatures, and climate variability might find shelter in microclimatic refuges, such as leaf rolls built by arthropods. To explore how the importance of leaf shelters for terrestrial arthropods changes with latitude, elevation, and climate, we conducted a distributed experiment comparing arthropods in leaf rolls versus control leaves across 52 sites along an 11,790 km latitudinal gradient. We then probed the impact of short- versus long-term climatic impacts on roll use, by comparing the relative impact of conditions during the experiment versus average, baseline conditions at the site. Leaf shelters supported larger organisms and higher arthropod biomass and species diversity than non-rolled control leaves. However, the magnitude of the leaf rolls' effect differed between long- and short-term climate conditions, metrics (species richness, biomass, and body size), and trophic groups (predators vs. herbivores). The effect of leaf rolls on predator richness was influenced only by baseline climate, increasing in magnitude in regions experiencing increased long-term aridity, regardless of latitude, elevation, and weather during the experiment. This suggests that shelter use by predators may be innate, and thus, driven by natural selection. In contrast, the effect of leaf rolls on predator biomass and predator body size decreased with increasing temperature, and increased with increasing precipitation, respectively, during the experiment. The magnitude of shelter usage by herbivores increased with the abundance of predators and decreased with increasing temperature during the experiment. Taken together, these results highlight that leaf roll use may have both proximal and ultimate causes. Projected increases in climate variability and aridity are, therefore, likely to increase the importance of biotic refugia in mitigating the effects of climate change on species persistence.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta
9.
Ecology ; 103(4): e3639, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060615

RESUMO

The construction of shelters on plants by arthropods might influence other organisms via changes in colonization, community richness, species composition, and functionality. Arthropods, including beetles, caterpillars, sawflies, spiders, and wasps often interact with host plants via the construction of shelters, building a variety of structures such as leaf ties, tents, rolls, and bags; leaf and stem galls, and hollowed out stems. Such constructs might have both an adaptive value in terms of protection (i.e., serve as shelters) but may also exert a strong influence on terrestrial community diversity in the engineered and neighboring hosts via colonization by secondary occupants. Although different traits of the host plant (e.g., physical, chemical, and architectural features) may affect the potential for ecosystem engineering by insects, such effects have been, to a certain degree, overlooked. Further analyses of how plant traits affect the occurrence of shelters may therefore enrich our understanding of the organizing principles of plant-based communities. This data set includes more than 1000 unique records of ecosystem engineering by arthropods, in the form of structures built on plants. All records have been published in the literature, and span both natural structures (91% of the records) and structures artificially created by researchers (9% of the records). The data were gathered between 1932 and 2021, across more than 50 countries and several ecosystems, ranging from polar to tropical zones. In addition to data on host plants and engineers, we aggregated data on the type of constructs and the identity of inquilines using these structures. This data set highlights the importance of these subtle structures for the organization of terrestrial arthropod communities, enabling hypotheses testing in ecological studies addressing ecosystem engineering and facilitation mediated by constructs. There are no copyright restrictions and please cite this paper when using the data in publications.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Insetos , Folhas de Planta , Plantas
10.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053082

RESUMO

The tri-trophic interactions between plants, insects, and insect predators and parasitoids are often mediated by chemical cues. The attraction to herbivore-induced Plant Volatiles (HIPVs) has been well documented for arthropod predators and parasitoids, and more recently for insectivorous birds. The attraction to plant volatiles induced by the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone typically produced in response to an attack of chewing herbivores, has provided controversial results both in arthropod and avian predators. In this study, we examined whether potential differences in the composition of bouquets of volatiles produced by herbivore-induced and MeJA-treated Pyrenean oak trees (Quercus pyrenaica) were related to differential avian attraction, as results from a previous study suggested. Results showed that the overall emission of volatiles produced by MeJA-treated and herbivore-induced trees did not differ, and were higher than emissions of Control trees, although MeJA treatment showed a more significant reaction and released several specific compounds in contrast to herbivore-induced trees. These slight yet significant differences in the volatile composition may explain why avian predators were not so attracted to MeJA-treated trees, as observed in a previous study in this plant-herbivore system. Unfortunately, the lack of avian visits to the experimental trees in the current study did not allow us to confirm this result and points out the need to perform more robust predator studies.

11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 268, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022441

RESUMO

Tropical mountains harbor exceptional concentrations of Earth's biodiversity. In topographically complex landscapes, montane species typically inhabit multiple mountainous regions, but are absent in intervening lowland environments. Here we report a comparative analysis of genome-wide DNA polymorphism data for population pairs from eighteen Indo-Pacific bird species from the Moluccan islands of Buru and Seram and from across the island of New Guinea. We test how barrier strength and relative elevational distribution predict population differentiation, rates of historical gene flow, and changes in effective population sizes through time. We find population differentiation to be consistently and positively correlated with barrier strength and a species' altitudinal floor. Additionally, we find that Pleistocene climate oscillations have had a dramatic influence on the demographics of all species but were most pronounced in regions of smaller geographic area. Surprisingly, even the most divergent taxon pairs at the highest elevations experience gene flow across barriers, implying that dispersal between montane regions is important for the formation of montane assemblages.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves/genética , Genética Populacional , Animais , Clima , Fluxo Gênico , Geografia , Nova Guiné , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo Genético , Densidade Demográfica
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 713, 2022 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027664

RESUMO

The composition of gut bacterial communities is strongly influenced by the host diet in many animal taxa. For birds, the effect of diet on the microbiomes has been documented through diet manipulation studies. However, for wild birds, most studies have drawn on literature-based information to decipher the dietary effects, thereby, overlooking individual variation in dietary intake. Here we examine how naturally consumed diets influence the composition of the crop and cloacal microbiomes of twenty-one tropical bird species, using visual and metabarcoding-based identification of consumed diets and bacterial 16S rRNA microbiome sequencing. We show that diet intakes vary markedly between individuals of the same species and that literature-based dietary guilds grossly underestimate intraspecific diet variability. Furthermore, despite an effect of literature-based dietary guild assignment of host taxa, the composition of natural diets does not align with crop and cloacal microbiome similarity. However, host-taxon specific gut bacterial lineages are positively correlated with specific diet items, indicating that certain microbes associate with different diet components in specific avian hosts. Consequently, microbiome composition is not congruent with the overall consumed diet composition of species, but specific components of a consumed diet lead to host-specific effects on gut bacterial taxa.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Animais , Aves/classificação
13.
Ecol Evol ; 11(16): 10917-10925, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429890

RESUMO

When searching for food, great tits (Parus major) can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) as an indicator of arthropod presence. Their ability to detect HIPVs was shown to be learned, and not innate, yet the flexibility and generalization of learning remain unclear.We studied if, and if so how, naïve and trained great tits (Parus major) discriminate between herbivore-induced and noninduced saplings of Scotch elm (Ulmus glabra) and cattley guava (Psidium cattleyanum). We chemically analyzed the used plants and showed that their HIPVs differed significantly and overlapped only in a few compounds.Birds trained to discriminate between herbivore-induced and noninduced saplings preferred the herbivore-induced saplings of the plant species they were trained to. Naïve birds did not show any preferences. Our results indicate that the attraction of great tits to herbivore-induced plants is not innate, rather it is a skill that can be acquired through learning, one tree species at a time.We demonstrate that the ability to learn to associate HIPVs with food reward is flexible, expressed to both tested plant species, even if the plant species has not coevolved with the bird species (i.e., guava). Our results imply that the birds are not capable of generalizing HIPVs among tree species but suggest that they either learn to detect individual compounds or associate whole bouquets with food rewards.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039709

RESUMO

Papua New Guinea is home to >10% of the world's languages and rich and varied biocultural knowledge, but the future of this diversity remains unclear. We measured language skills of 6,190 students speaking 392 languages (5.5% of the global total) and modeled their future trends using individual-level variables characterizing family language use, socioeconomic conditions, students' skills, and language traits. This approach showed that only 58% of the students, compared to 91% of their parents, were fluent in indigenous languages, while the trends in key drivers of language skills (language use at home, proportion of mixed-language families, urbanization, students' traditional skills) predicted accelerating decline of fluency to an estimated 26% in the next generation of students. Ethnobiological knowledge declined in close parallel with language skills. Varied medicinal plant uses known to the students speaking indigenous languages are replaced by a few, mostly nonnative species for the students speaking English or Tok Pisin, the national lingua franca. Most (88%) students want to teach indigenous language to their children. While crucial for keeping languages alive, this intention faces powerful external pressures as key factors (education, cash economy, road networks, and urbanization) associated with language attrition are valued in contemporary society.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica/tendências , Idioma , Adolescente , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Papua Nova Guiné , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1949): 20210446, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878920

RESUMO

Animal hosts have evolved intricate associations with microbial symbionts, where both depend on each other for particular functions. In many cases, these associations lead to phylosymbiosis, where phylogenetically related species harbour compositionally more similar microbiomes than distantly related species. However, evidence for phylosymbiosis is either weak or lacking in gut microbiomes of flying vertebrates, particularly in birds. To shed more light on this phenomenon, we compared cloacal microbiomes of 37 tropical passerine bird species from New Guinea using 16S rRNA bacterial gene sequencing. We show a lack of phylosymbiosis and document highly variable microbiomes. Furthermore, we find that gut bacterial community compositions are species-specific and tend to be shaped by host diet but not sampling locality, potentially driven by the similarities in habitats used by individual species. We further show that flight-associated gut modifications, coupled with individual dietary differences, shape gut microbiome structure and variation, contributing to the lack of phylosymbiosis. These patterns indicate that the stability of symbiosis may depend on microbial functional diversity rather than taxonomic composition. Furthermore, the more variable and fluid host-microbe associations suggest probable disparities in the potential for coevolution between bird host species and microbial symbionts.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Passeriformes , Animais , Dieta , Nova Guiné , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Anim Microbiome ; 3(1): 20, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbial communities play important roles in nutrient management and can change in response to host diets. The extent of this flexibility and the concomitant resilience is largely unknown in wild animals. To untangle the dynamics of avian-gut microbiome symbiosis associated with diet changes, we exposed Parus major (Great tits) fed with a standard diet (seeds and mealworms) to either a mixed (seeds, mealworms and fruits), a seed, or a mealworm diet for 4 weeks, and examined the flexibility of gut microbiomes to these compositionally different diets. To assess microbiome resilience (recovery potential), all individuals were subsequently reversed to a standard diet for another 4 weeks. Cloacal microbiomes were collected weekly and characterised through sequencing the v4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina MiSeq. RESULTS: Initial microbiomes changed significantly with the diet manipulation, but the communities did not differ significantly between the three diet groups (mixed, seed and mealworm), despite multiple diet-specific changes in certain bacterial genera. Reverting birds to the standard diet led only to a partial recovery in gut community compositions. The majority of the bacterial taxa that increased significantly during diet manipulation decreased in relative abundance after reversion to the standard diet; however, bacterial taxa that decreased during the manipulation rarely increased after diet reversal CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbial response and partial resilience to dietary changes support that gut bacterial communities of P. major play a role in accommodating dietary changes experienced by wild avian hosts. This may be a contributing factor to the relaxed association between microbiome composition and the bird phylogeny. Our findings further imply that interpretations of wild bird gut microbiome analyses from single-time point sampling, especially for omnivorous species or species with seasonally changing diets, should be done with caution. The partial community recovery implies that ecologically relevant diet changes (e.g., seasonality and migration) open up gut niches that may be filled by previously abundant microbes or replaced by different symbiont lineages, which has important implications for the integrity and specificity of long-term avian-symbiont associations.

17.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(2): 460-470, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080048

RESUMO

A single adverse environment event can threaten the survival of small-ranged species while random fluctuations in population size increase the extinction risk of less-abundant species. The abundance-range-size relationship (ARR) is usually positive, which means that smaller-ranged species are often of low abundance and might face both problems simultaneously. The ARR has been reported to be negative on tropical islands, perhaps allowing endemic species in such environments to remain extant. But there is a need to understand how endemism and land-use interact to shape ARR. Using 41 highly replicated transects along the full elevational gradient of Sri Lanka, we determined the following: (a) the direction of ARR, (b) if endemism affects ARR and (c) if land-use (rainforest, buffer and agriculture) changes ARR differently for endemics and non-endemics. Additionally, (d) we identified endemics that had both lower abundances and smaller range sizes, and ranked them from most threatened (specific to rainforests) to least threatened using a weighted-interaction nestedness estimator. (a) We found a positive relationship between species abundances and range size. This positive ARR was maintained among endemic and non-endemic species, across land-use types and at local and regional scales. (b) The ARR interacted with endemicity and land-use. Endemics with smaller range sizes had higher abundances than non-endemics, and particularly higher in rainforests compared to agriculture. In contrast, species with larger range sizes had similar abundances across endemicity and land-use categories. Many endemics with smaller range sizes are globally threatened; therefore, higher abundances may buffer them from extinction risks. (c) Nine (29%) endemics had both below average abundance and elevational range size. The nestedness estimator ranked the endemics Sri Lanka Whistling Thrush Myophonus blighi, Red-faced Malkoha Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus, Sri Lanka Thrush Zoothera imbricata and White-faced Starling Sturnornis albofrontus as the four most vulnerable species to local extinction risk, which corresponds to their global extinction risk. We demonstrate that ARR can be positive on tropical islands, but it is influenced by endemism and land-use. Examining shifts in ARR is not only important to understand community dynamics but can also act as a tool to inform managers about species that require monitoring programmes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Animais , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Densidade Demográfica , Floresta Úmida
18.
PeerJ ; 8: e9727, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923179

RESUMO

The usually positive inter-specific relationship between geographical range size and the abundance of local bird populations comes with exceptions. On continents, the majority of these exceptions have been described from tropical montane areas in Africa, where geographically-restricted bird species are unusually abundant. We asked how the local abundances of passerine and non-passerine bird species along an elevational gradient on Mt. Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea relate to their geographical range size. We collected data on bird assemblages at eight elevations (200-3,700 m, at 500 m elevational increments). We used a standardized point-counts at 16 points at each elevational study site. We partitioned the birds into feeding guilds, and we obtained data on geographical range sizes from the Bird-Life International data zone. We observed a positive relationship between abundance and geographical range size in the lowlands. This trend changed to a negative one towards higher elevations. The total abundances of the assemblage showed a hump-shaped pattern along the elevational gradient, with passerine birds, namely passerine insectivores, driving the observed pattern. In contrast to abundances, the mean biomass of the bird assemblages decreased with increasing elevation. Our results show that montane bird species maintain dense populations which compensate for the decreased available area near the top of the mountain.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849371

RESUMO

The uropygial gland (preen gland) of birds plays an important role in maintaining feather integrity and hygiene. Although a few studies have demonstrated potential defensive roles of bacteria residing within these glands, the diversity and functions of the uropygial gland microbiota are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the microbiota of great tit (Parus major) uropygial glands through both isolation of bacteria (culture-dependent) and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing (culture-independent). Co-culture experiments of selected bacterial isolates with four known feather-degrading bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis, Kocuria rhizophila, Pseudomonas monteilii, and Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis), two non-feather degrading feather bacteria, one common soil bacterial pathogen and two common fungal pathogens enabled us to evaluate the potential antimicrobial properties of these isolates. Our results show major differences between bacterial communities characterized using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. In the former, we were only able to isolate 12 bacterial genera (dominated by members of the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria), while amplicon sequencing identified 110 bacterial genera (dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria). Uropygial gland bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus and Kocuria were able to suppress the growth of four of the nine tested antagonists, attesting to potential defensive roles. However, these bacterial genera were infrequent in our MiSeq results suggesting that the isolated bacteria may not be obligate gland symbionts. Furthermore, bacterial functional predictions using 16S rRNA sequences also revealed the ability of uropygial gland bacteria to produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties, such as terpenes. Our findings support that uropygial gland bacteria may play a role in feather health and that bacterial symbionts might act as defensive microbes. Future investigations of these bacterial communities, with targeted approaches (e.g., bacterial isolation and chemical analyses), are thus warranted to improve our understanding of the evolution and function of these host-microbe interactions.

20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 82, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quaternary climate fluctuations are an engine of biotic diversification. Global cooling cycles, such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), are known to have fragmented the ranges of higher-latitude fauna and flora into smaller refugia, dramatically reducing species ranges. However, relatively less is known about the effects of cooling cycles on tropical biota. RESULTS: We analyzed thousands of genome-wide DNA markers across an assemblage of three closely related understorey-inhabiting scrubwrens (Sericornis and Aethomyias; Aves) from montane forest along an elevational gradient on Mt. Wilhelm, the highest mountain of Papua New Guinea. Despite species-specific differences in elevational preference, we found limited differentiation within each scrubwren species, but detected a strong genomic signature of simultaneous population expansions at 27-29 ka, coinciding with the onset of the LGM. CONCLUSION: The remarkable synchronous timing of population expansions of all three species demonstrates the importance of global cooling cycles in expanding highland habitat. Global cooling cycles have likely had strongly different impacts on tropical montane areas versus boreal and temperate latitudes, leading to population expansions in the former and serious fragmentation in the latter.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Aves Canoras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Altitude , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Papua Nova Guiné , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Probabilidade , Especificidade da Espécie
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