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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6998, 2024 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38523197

RESUMO

Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to infer one's own and others' mental states. Growing research indicates that ToM is impaired in Chronic Migraine with Medication Overuse (CM + MO). However, the research in this field has been conducted using static scenario-based tasks, often failing to test mentalization in everyday situations and measuring only performance accuracy. We filled this gap by administering the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) to subjects with CM + MO compared to episodic migraine (EM). This test allows us to assess both affective and cognitive ToM and which, in addition to being accurate, also analyzes the type of error in attribution of mental states, distinguishing between hypo-mentalization and hyper-mentalization. Thirty patients suffering from CM + MO and 42 from EM were enrolled. Results showed that CM + MO patients were less accurate in mental state attribution than EM. In addition, compared to EM, CM + MO individuals were more impaired in the affective ToM dimensions and committed more errors of hypo-mentalization. In conclusion, the application of MASC in patients with CM + MO allowed for the detection of an alteration in their ability to correctly draw conclusions about other people's mental states. This latter contributes critically to appropriate social reactions and also, possibly, to satisfactory social interactions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos , Teoria da Mente , Humanos , Cognição Social , Filmes Cinematográficos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339171

RESUMO

Resistant migraine characterizes those patients who have failed at least three classes of migraine prophylaxis. These difficult-to-treat patients are likely to be characterized by a high prevalence of psychological disturbances. A dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), including alteration in the levels of endocannabinoid congeners, may underlie several psychiatric disorders and the pathogenesis of migraines. Here we explored whether the peripheral gene expression of major components of the ECS and the plasma levels of endocannabinoids and related lipids are associated with psychological disorders in resistant migraine. Fifty-one patients (age = 46.0 ± 11.7) with resistant migraine received a comprehensive psychological evaluation according to the DSM-5 criteria. Among the patients, 61% had personality disorders (PD) and 61% had mood disorders (MD). Several associations were found between these psychological disorders and peripheral ECS alterations. Lower plasma levels of palmitoiletanolamide (PEA) were found in the PD group compared with the non-PD group. The MD group was characterized by lower mRNA levels of diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) and CB2 (cannabinoid-2) receptor. The results suggest the existence of peripheral dysfunction in some components of the ECS and an alteration in plasma levels of PEA in patients with resistant migraine and mood or personality disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética
3.
Neurol Ther ; 13(2): 415-435, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galcanezumab is approved in the European Union (EU) as migraine prophylaxis in adults with at least four migraine days per month. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of galcanezumab on migraine-related burdens and its impact on the use of healthcare resources for migraine prophylaxis in an Italian setting. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in patients with migraine who initiated treatment with galcanezumab for migraine prevention between September 2019 and December 2020. Patient data for monthly migraine days (MMDs) and MMDs with acute medication intake were obtained by medical chart reviews. Information on patient-reported outcomes (using the Migraine Disability Assessment [MIDAS] questionnaire and Headache Impact Test 6 [HIT-6] questionnaire) and on the use of healthcare resources were also collected. The time points of interest were 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months after the initiation of galcanezumab, and the most recent time point available during follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled in the study. Starting from month 3 after treatment initiation, more than half of the patients presented at least a 50% reduction in MMDs, and approximately one-third of non-responders at month 3 became responders at month 6. From month 3 to month 12, MMDs decreased on average by 10 days. Headache impact and disability, as well as migraine-associated health resource utilization decreased significantly during the treatment period. A positive significant association among the three dimensions of clinical burden (MMDs, MIDAS and days of acute medication intake) was also observed. CONCLUSION: The results of this Italian real-world study confirmed that galcanezumab has a rapid onset of effect and provides a long-term response among patients over different migraine-related burdens. The use of healthcare resources was also remarkably reduced.

4.
CNS Drugs ; 37(12): 1069-1080, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37999868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world studies on fremanezumab, an anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibody for migraine prevention, are few and with limited follow-up. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the long-term (up to 52 weeks) effectiveness and tolerability of fremanezumab in high-frequency episodic migraine and chronic migraine. METHODS: This s an independent, prospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling outpatients in 17 Italian Headache Centers with high-frequency episodic migraine or chronic migraine and multiple preventive treatment failures. Patients were treated with fremanezumab 225 mg monthly. The primary outcomes included changes from baseline (1 month before treatment) in monthly headache days, response rates (reduction in monthly headache days from baseline), and persistence in medication overuse at months 3, 6, and 12 (all outcome timeframes refer to the stated month). Secondary outcomes included changes from baseline in acute medication intake and disability questionnaires scores at the same timepoints. A last observation carried forward analysis was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients who received at least one dose of fremanezumab and with a potential 12-month follow-up were included. Among them, 15 (18.0%) patients discontinued treatment for the entire population, a reduction in monthly headache days compared with baseline was reported at month 3, with a significant median [interquartile range] reduction in monthly headache days (- 9.0 [11.5], p < 0.001). A statistically different reduction was also reported at month 6 compared with baseline (- 10.0 [12.0]; p < 0.001) and at 12 months of treatment (- 10.0 [14.0]; p < 0.001). The percentage of patients with medication overuse was significantly reduced compared with baseline from 68.7% (57/83) to 29.6% (24/81), 25.3% (19/75), and 14.7% (10/68) at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment, respectively (p < 0.001). Acute medication use (days and total number) and disability scores were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001). A ≥ 50% response rate was achieved for 51.9, 67.9, and 76.5% of all patients at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Last observation carried forward analyses confirmed these findings. Fremanezumab was well tolerated, with just one patient discontinuing treatment because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for the real-world effectiveness of fremanezumab in treating both high-frequency episodic migraine and chronic migraine, with meaningful and sustained improvements in multiple migraine-related variables. No new safety issue was identified.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Método Duplo-Cego , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Neurol Sci ; 2023 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37936018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While migraine is markedly prevalent in women, gender-related phenotype differences were rarely assessed. For this reason, we investigated, through a multicenter observational cross-sectional study, based on an online questionnaire, gender-related differences in stress factors, emotions, and pain perception in migraine patients and controls and their impact on migraine severity. METHODS: The study was designed as an online questionnaire. The link was emailed to healthy subjects (C) and migraine patients (MIG) (age 18-75, education ≥ 13 years) recruited during the first visit in 8 Italian Headache Centers adhering to Italian Society for Headache Study (SISC). The questionnaire included personal/social/work information, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Romance Quality Scale, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Body Perception Questionnaire, the pain perception, and a self-assessment of migraine severity in the last 3 months. RESULTS: 202 MIG and 202 C completed the survey. Independently from gender, migraine was characterized by higher pain sensitivity and more severe partner relationships. The female gender, in MIG, exhibited higher anxiety scores, body awareness, and reduced emotional suppression. Body awareness and emotional suppression were discriminating factors between genders in control and migraine groups without relevant influence on disease features. Perceived perception of migraine severity was similar between genders. CONCLUSION: Gender-related emotional and stress factors did not contribute to delineate a distinct phenotype in migraine men and women. The possible impact of emotional and stress factors characterizing genders could be considered for a single case-tailored therapeutic approach.

6.
Pain Res Manag ; 2023: 6685372, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37671122

RESUMO

Background: Chronic headache (CH) is a condition that includes different subtypes of headaches and that can impair different life domains. Personality traits can play a relevant role both in the development and in coping with this medical condition. The first aim of the present study is to realize a systematic review of the personality traits associated with CH compared to healthy controls; the second objective is to carry out a quantitative meta-analysis with the studies using the same instrument to assess personality traits. Method: The literature search encompassed articles published from 1988 until December 2022 on the major databases in the field of health and social sciences: PubMed, Scopus, PsychInfo, and Web of Science. Results: Thirteen studies were included in the systematic review, but only three studies were deeply explored in a meta-analysis since the only ones used a common instrument for personality assessment (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). According to the meta-analysis, different subtypes of CH patients scored higher than healthy controls on Hypochondriasis and Hysteria Scales. The systematic review showed higher levels of depressive and anxious personality dimensions and pain catastrophizing in CH compared to healthy controls. Moreover, frequent-chronic forms and medication-overuse headache were the most symptomatic and frail categories showing higher levels of dysfunctional personality traits and psychopathological symptoms. Conclusions: These results seem to confirm a "neurotic profile" in patients suffering from CH. The identification of the main personality traits involved in the onset and maintenance of headache disorders represents an important objective for developing psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários , Transtornos da Cefaleia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Cefaleia
7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 15(6)2023 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37368665

RESUMO

OnabotulinumtoxinA (BonT-A) reduces migraine frequency in a considerable portion of patients with migraine. So far, predictive characteristics of response are lacking. Here, we applied machine learning (ML) algorithms to identify clinical characteristics able to predict treatment response. We collected demographic and clinical data of patients with chronic migraine (CM) or high-frequency episodic migraine (HFEM) treated with BoNT-A at our clinic in the last 5 years. Patients received BoNT-A according to the PREEMPT (Phase III Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy) paradigm and were classified according to the monthly migraine days reduction in the 12 weeks after the fourth BoNT-A cycle, as compared to baseline. Data were used as input features to run ML algorithms. Of the 212 patients enrolled, 35 qualified as excellent responders to BoNT-A administration and 38 as nonresponders. None of the anamnestic characteristics were able to discriminate responders from nonresponders in the CM group. Nevertheless, a pattern of four features (age at onset of migraine, opioid use, anxiety subscore at the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS-a) and Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) score correctly predicted response in HFEM. Our findings suggest that routine anamnestic features acquired in real-life settings cannot accurately predict BoNT-A response in migraine and call for a more complex modality of patient profiling.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle
8.
J Headache Pain ; 24(1): 47, 2023 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37106347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social cognition refers to all mental operations to decipher information needed in social interactions. Here we aimed to outline the socio-cognitive profile of Chronic Migraine with Medication Overuse (CM + MO), given they are recognized to be at risk of socio-cognitive difficulties. Given the multidimensionality of this construct, we considered: (1) socio-cognitive abilities, (2) socio-cognitive beliefs, (3) alexithymia and autism traits, and (4) social relationships. METHODS: Seventy-one patients suffering from CM + MO, 61 from episodic migraine (EM), and 80 healthy controls (HC) were assessed with a comprehensive battery: (1) the Faux Pas test (FP), the Strange Stories task (SS), the Reading Mind in the Eyes test (RMET), (2) the Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale, (3) the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Autism Spectrum Quotient, (4) the Lubben Social Network Scale, the Friendship Scale. RESULTS: CM + MO: (1) performed similar to EM but worse than HC in the FP and SS, while they were worse than EM and HC in the RMET; (2) were similar to EM and HC in social intelligence; (3) had more alexithymic/autistic traits than EM and HC; (4) reported higher levels of contact with their family members but felt little support from the people around them than HC. CONCLUSIONS: CM + MO results characterized by a profile of compromised socio-cognitive abilities that affects different dimensions. These findings may have a relevant role in multiple fields related to chronic headache: from the assessment to the management.


Assuntos
Mentalização , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Cognição Social , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos , Cognição , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Relações Interpessoais
9.
Neurol Sci ; 44(8): 2845-2851, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36939946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cluster Headache Impact Questionnaire (CHIQ) is a specific and easy-to-use questionnaire to assess the current impact of cluster headache (CH). The aim of this study was to validate the Italian version of the CHIQ. METHODS: We included patients diagnosed with episodic CH (eCH) or chronic CH (cCH) according to the ICHD-3 criteria and included in the "Italian Headache Registry" (RICe). The questionnaire was administered to patients through an electronic form in two sessions: at first visit for validation, and after 7 days for test-retest reliability. For internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha was calculated. Convergent validity of the CHIQ with CH features and the results of questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, stress, and quality of life was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: We included 181 patients subdivided in 96 patients with active eCH, 14 with cCH, and 71 with eCH in remission. The 110 patients with either active eCH or cCH were included in the validation cohort; only 24 patients with CH were characterized by a stable attack frequency after 7 days, and were included in the test-retest cohort. Internal consistency of the CHIQ was good with a Cronbach alpha value of 0.891. The CHIQ score showed a significant positive correlation with anxiety, depression, and stress scores, while showing a significant negative correlation with quality-of-life scale scores. CONCLUSION: Our data show the validity of the Italian version of the CHIQ, which represents a suitable tool for evaluating the social and psychological impact of CH in clinical practice and research.


Assuntos
Cefaleia Histamínica , Humanos , Cefaleia Histamínica/diagnóstico , Cefaleia Histamínica/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Itália , Psicometria
10.
J Clin Med ; 11(22)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: given the limited efficacy, tolerability, and accessibility of pharmacological treatments for chronic migraine (CM), new complementary strategies have gained increasing attention. Body ownership illusions have been proposed as a non-pharmacological strategy for pain relief. Here, we illustrate the protocol for evaluating the efficacy in decreasing pain perception of the enfacement illusion of a happy face observed through an immersive virtual reality (VR) system in CM. METHOD: the study is a double-blind randomized controlled trial with two arms, involving 100 female CM patients assigned to the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group will be exposed to the enfacement illusion, whereas the control group will be exposed to a pleasant immersive virtual environment. Both arms of the trial will consist in three VR sessions (20 min each). At the baseline and at the end of the intervention, the patients will fill in questionnaires based on behavioral measures related to their emotional and psychological state and their body satisfaction. Before and after each VR session, the level of pain, the body image perception, and the affective state will be assessed. DISCUSSION: this study will provide knowledge regarding the relationship between internal body representation and pain perception, supporting the effectiveness of the enfacement illusion as a cognitive behavioral intervention in CM.

11.
J Headache Pain ; 23(1): 123, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Italy, monoclonal antibodies targeting the CGRP pathway are subsidized for the preventive treatment of high frequency and chronic migraine (CM) in patients with a MIgraine Disability ASsessment (MIDAS) score ≥ 11. Eligibility to treatment continuation requires a ≥ 50% MIDAS score reduction at three months (T3). In this study, we evaluate whether a ≥ 50% MIDAS score reduction at T3 is a reliable predictor of response to one-year erenumab treatment. METHODS: In this prospective, open-label, real-world study, 77 CM patients were treated with erenumab 70-140 mg s.c. every 28 days for one year (T13). We collected the following variables: monthly migraine days (MMDs), monthly headache days (MHDs), days of acute medication intake, MIDAS, HIT-6, anxiety, depression, quality of life and allodynia. Response to erenumab was evaluated as: i) average reduction in MMDs during the 1-year treatment period; and ii) percentage of patients with ≥ 50% reduction in MMDs during the last 4 weeks after the 13th injection (RespondersT13). RESULTS: Erenumab induced a sustained reduction in MMDs, MHDs and intake of acute medications across the 12-month treatment period, with 64.9% of patients qualifying as RespondersT13. At T3, 55.8% of patients reported a ≥ 50% reduction in MIDAS score (MIDASRes) and 55.4% of patients reported a ≥ 50% reduction in MMDs (MMDRes). MIDASRes and MMDRes patients showed a more pronounced reduction in MMDs during the 1-year treatment as compared to NON-MIDASRes (MIDASRes: T0: 23.5 ± 4.9 vs. T13: 7.7 ± 6.2; NON- MIDASRes: T0: 21.6 ± 5.4 vs. T13: 11.3 ± 8.8, p = 0.045) and NON-MMDRes (MMDRes: T0: 23.0 ± 4.5 vs. T13: 6.6 ± 4.8; NON-MMDRes: T0: 22.3 ± 6.0 vs. T13: 12.7 ± 9.2, p < 0.001) groups. The percentage of RespondersT13 did not differ between MIDASRes (74.4%) and NON-MIDASRes (52.9%) patients (p = 0.058), while the percentage of RespondersT13 was higher in the MMDRes group (83.3%) when compared to NON-MMDRes (42.9%) (p = 0.001). MMDRes predicted the long-term outcome according to a multivariate analysis (Exp(B) = 7.128; p = 0.001), while MIDASRes did not. Treatment discontinuation based on MIDASRes would have early excluded 36.0% of RespondersT13. Discontinuation based on "either MIDASRes or MMDRes" would have excluded a lower percentage (16%) of RespondersT13. CONCLUSION: MIDASRes only partly reflects the 12-month outcome of erenumab treatment in CM, as it excludes more than one third of responders. A criterion based on the alternative consideration of ≥ 50% reduction in MIDAS score or MMDs in the first three months of treatment represents a more precise and inclusive option. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov (NCT05442008). CGRP: Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide. MIDAS: MIgraine Disability Assessment. MMDs: monthly migraine days. MIDASRes: Patients with a MIDAS score reduction of at least 50% at T3. MMDRes: Patients with a MMDs reduction of at least 50% at T3. ResponderT13: Patients with a MMDs reduction from baseline of at least 50% in the last 4 weeks of observation period (after 13 erenumab administrations). T0: First erenumab administration. T3, T6, T9, T12: Follow-up visits at three, six, nine, and twelve months after first erenumab administration. T13: Last visit of the protocol.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Neurol Sci ; 43(11): 6561-6564, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953579

RESUMO

Vestibular symptoms accompanying headache are quite common in migraine patients. Based on the association of vertigo with migraine, vestibular migraine was included in the appendix of the 3rd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders as a possible migraine subtype worthy of further investigation. In this post hoc, exploratory analysis, we investigated the occurrence of oculo-vestibular signs (OVSs) during experimentally induced migraine attacks in 24 episodic migraine patients and 19 healthy controls exposed to sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG - 0.9 mg). A comprehensive clinical examination was performed at baseline, at the onset of the migraine-like attack, and immediately before hospital discharge (180 minutes after NTG administration). Three of the 13 migraine patients who developed a spontaneous-like migraine attack during the hospital observation period (23.1%) also developed OVSs during the induction test. Noteworthy, none of the patients with a negative induction test developed OVSs and no OVSs were reported in healthy subjects at any time point. The exploratory nature of our study does not allow to draw definite conclusions on the possible implications of a vestibular dysfunction in migraine pathophysiology. Our results however suggest that NTG administration may lend itself to investigate vestibular dysfunction in migraine, at least in a subset of patients. The present findings represent a starting point for designing future ad hoc and well-powered studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Humanos , Vertigem/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/complicações , Transtornos da Cefaleia/complicações
13.
Cephalalgia ; 42(10): 1058-1070, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel formulation of diclofenac, complexed with hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD) as a solubility enhancer, in a prefilled syringe for self-administered subcutaneous injection may overcome the limitations of acute migraine treatments administered by oral, rectal, intramuscular, or intravenous routes. METHODS: This multicentre, phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding pilot study evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of three different doses (25/50/75 mg/1 mL) of subcutaneous diclofenac sodium in the treatment of an acute migraine attack in 122 subjects. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients pain-free at 2 hours after the study drug injection. RESULTS: A significantly higher percentage of patients in the 50 mg diclofenac group 14 (46.7%) were pain-free at 2 hours when compared with placebo: 9 (29.0%) (p = 0.01). The 50 mg dose proved superior to placebo also in the majority of the secondary endpoints. The overall global impression favoured diclofenac vs placebo. There were no adverse events leading to study withdrawal. The majority of treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. CONCLUSIONS: The 50 mg dose of this novel formulation of diclofenac represents a valuable self-administered option for the acute treatment of migraine attacks.Trial registration: EudraCT Registration No. 2017-004828-29.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto
14.
Cephalalgia ; 42(8): 739-748, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166163

RESUMO

AIM: First, we investigated whether the exposure to different visual feedback conditions may modulate pain perception by means of visual induced analgesia in patients with chronic migraine. Second, to comprehend the way emotional face expressions could induce visual analgesia, we evaluated the degree of identification with the four experimental conditions. METHODS: In a 1 × 4 within-subject study design, 38 female chronic migraine patients were exposed to different visual stimuli - positive face, neutral face, negative face, and control (white screen) - during a migraine attack. Visual stimuli were presented 3 times in a randomized order (each condition lasted 40 seconds). Migraine pain ratings and identification scores were assessed immediately after the observation of each visual condition. RESULTS: We observed a significant difference in pain ratings between the positive (median: 30, 95% CI 26.69 to 38.20) and the negative (median: 30, 95% CI 33.09 to 44.13) (z = -4.46, p < 0.0001) facial expressions or the neutral facial expression (median: 30, 95% CI 31.89 to 42.41) (z = 3.41, p < 0.001). Participants identified more with the neutral face condition than with the other conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Observation of a positive emotional face resulted sufficient to modulate pain perception possibly via the mediation of emotion regulation for positive emotions. This study paves the way for the integration of new cognitive behavioural interventions based on the adoption of visual induced analgesia to further control pain perception in chronic migraine patients.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dor/psicologia , Percepção da Dor
15.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 22(3): 237-243, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196206

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary headaches represent a huge cost in terms of decreased productivity and migraine occupies the first position among disabilities in working population. Migraine has a high incidence, disproportionate to the available primary care centers. In most cases, migraine can be managed through the simple and accurate collection of clinical history, which makes it an ideal candidate for tele-healthcare. AREAS COVERED: In this narrative review, we retrace the most important scientific evidence regarding use of tele-healthcare in headache medicine. Over the last few years, it has proved to be a valid and useful tool for the management of migraine. Furthermore, current pandemic has imposed a drastic change in the way of thinking and setting up medicine, forcing clinicians and patients to a huge expansion of telemedicine. EXPERT OPINION: We should permanently insert the culture of telemedicine in the headache care not only in academies and scientific societies, but extend it to specialized hospitals for the treatment of headaches. Only by broadening the old book-based strategy, we will be able to open the door to the multidimensional culture of headache medicine. Experts of excellence centers should set an example and pave the way for the rest of the clinicians.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Telemedicina , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Pandemias , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Cephalalgia ; 42(2): 170-175, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this open label, single-arm trial we evaluated the efficacy of onabotulinum toxin-A in the prevention of high-frequency episodic migraine (8-14 migraine days/month). METHODS: We enrolled 32 high-frequency episodic migraine subjects (age 44.8 ± 11.9 years, 11.0 ± 2.2 migraine days, 11.5 ± 2.1 headache days, 7 females). After a 28-day baseline period, subjects underwent 4 subsequent onabotulinum toxin-A treatments according to the phase III research evaluating migraine prophylaxis therapy (PREEMPT) paradigm, 12-weeks apart. The primary outcome was the reduction of monthly migraine days from baseline in the 12-week period following the last onabotulinum toxin-A treatment. RESULTS: Onabotulinum toxin-A reduced monthly migraine days by 3.68 days (-33.1%, p < 0.01). Thirty-nine percent of the patients experienced a ≥50% reduction in monthly migraine days. Onabotulinum toxin-A also reduced the number of headache days (-33.9%, p < 0.01) and the intake of acute medications (-22.9%, p = 0.03). Disability and quality of life (QoL) scores improved markedly (migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) -41.7%; migraine specific questionnaire (MSQ) -31.7%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that, when administered according to the PREEMPT paradigm, onabotulinum toxin-A is effective in the prevention of high-frequency episodic migraine.Trial Registration: NCT04578782.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Adulto , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Compostos Orgânicos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cephalalgia ; 42(3): 209-217, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541932

RESUMO

AIMS: In this study, we tested the validity of the Severity of Dependence Scale in detecting dependence behaviours in patients with chronic migraine and medication overuse (CM + MO) using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire as gold standard measures. METHODS: Four hundred and fifty-four patients with CM + MO filled in the Severity of Dependence Scale and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire and underwent a psychological evaluation for the diagnosis of substance dependence according to the DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: Sixty-nine percent of subjects (n = 313) presented substance dependence according to the DSM-IV criteria. These patients scored significantly higher than those without substance dependence in Severity of Dependence Scale total score (Z = -3.29, p = 0.001), and in items 1 (Z = -2.44, p = 0.015), 2 (Z = -2.50, p = 0.012), 4 (Z = -2.05, p = 0.04), and 5 (Z = -3.39, p = 0.001). Severity of Dependence Scale total score (ß = 0.13, SE = 0.04, z = 3.49, p < 0.001) was a significant predictor for substance dependence. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves showed that Severity of Dependence Scale discriminated patients with or without substance dependence. CONCLUSION: Severity of Dependence Scale could represent an interesting screening tool for dependency-like behaviors in CM + MO patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
19.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 114, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway represent the first disease-specific preventive migraine therapy. Growing evidence suggests that they are effective in the preventive treatment of difficult-to-treat patients. In this study, we evaluated the psychological predictors of the outcome of treatment with the anti-CGRP monoclonal antibody erenumab in patients with chronic migraine (CM). METHODS: Seventy-five patients with CM who had already failed at least 3 preventive therapies received erenumab every 28 days for a period of 12 months. Before the first administration, patients received a full psychological evaluation using The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 Clinician Version (SCID-5-CV) to assess personality disturbances (primary outcome), mood and anxiety disorders, and as well specific questionnaires to evaluate alexithymia traits, childhood traumas, and current stressors (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: After 12 months of treatment, 53 patients reported a reduction of at least 50% in headache days/per month (Responders), whereas 22 did not (Non Responders). When compared to Responders, Non Responders were characterized by a higher prevalence of personality disorders belonging to Cluster C (avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive) (77% vs 37%, p = .001). Non Responders were also characterized by a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders (90% vs 60%, p = 0.007), showed more alexithymic traits (51.7 ± 13.7 vs 42.9 ± 14.3, p = 0.017), and reported a higher number of 'at least serious' current stressors (3.2 ± 4.0 vs 0.8 ± 1.4, p < .0001) than Responders. At the multivariate analysis, higher prevalence of Cluster C personality disorders (OR 3.697; p = 0.05) and higher number of 'at least serious' life events (OR 1.382; p = 0.017) arose as prognostic factors of erenumab failure. CONCLUSIONS: Erenumab confirmed its effectiveness in a population of difficult-to-treat migraine. The presence of "anxious-fearful" personality together with current stressors and anxiety represent negative predictors of treatment outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04361721 ).


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cephalalgia ; 41(14): 1437-1446, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial variables are key factors influencing psycho-physical equilibrium in migraine patients. Social isolation and vulnerability to stressors may prevent efficient psychological adjustment negatively affecting adaptation to life changes, as that imposed during Covid-19 lockdown. Here, we explored psychosocial dimensions and changes in clinical condition during Covid-19 lockdown in migraine patients, with regard to migraine type and headache impact. METHODS: Sixty-four migraine patients (32 episodic and 32 chronic) and 64 healthy control subjects were included in a case-control cross-sectional study. A two-step clustering procedure split patients into two clusters, based on the Headache Impact Test. Perceived global distress, loneliness, empathy, and coping levels were compared in groups, as well as changes in clinical condition. RESULTS: Migraine patients reported higher general loneliness and lower social support compared to healthy control subjects. Emotional loneliness was more marked in patients with higher headache impact. This subgroup of patients more frequently reported changes in the therapeutic and care paths as the perceived cause of the occurrence of motor or extra-motor symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: Migraine patients, especially those more severely affected, proved more vulnerable than healthy control subjects to Covid-19 lockdown. Long-lasting interruption of social interactions may be detrimental in fragile patients that are in need of structured support interventions to maintain psycho-physical wellbeing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/psicologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/etiologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
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