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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2312131, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632702

RESUMO

Room temperature (RT) polariton condensate holds exceptional promise for revolutionizing various fields of science and technology, encompassing optoelectronics devices to quantum information processing. Using perovskite materials, like all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3) single crystal, provides additional advantages, such as ease of synthesis, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility with existing semiconductor technologies. In this work, the formation of whispering gallery modes (WGM) in CsPbBr3 single crystals with controlled geometry is shown, synthesized using a low-cost and efficient capillary bridge method. Through the implementation of microplatelets geometry, enhanced optical properties and performance are achieved due to the presence of sharp edges and a uniform surface, effectively avoiding non-radiative scattering losses caused by defects. This allows not only to observe strong light matter coupling and formation of whispering gallery polaritons, but also to demonstrate the onset of polariton condensation at RT. This investigation not only contributes to the advancement of the knowledge concerning the exceptional optical properties of perovskite-based polariton systems, but also unveils prospects for the exploration of WGM polariton condensation within the framework of a 3D perovskite-based platform, working at RT. The unique characteristics of polariton condensate, including low excitation thresholds and ultrafast dynamics, open up unique opportunities for advancements in photonics and optoelectronics devices.

2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1747, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409100

RESUMO

Energy transfer is a ubiquitous phenomenon that delivers energy from a blue-shifted emitter to a red-shifted absorber, facilitating wide photonic applications. Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors provide unique opportunities for exploring novel energy transfer mechanisms in the atomic-scale limit. Herein, we have designed a planar optical microcavity-confined MoS2/hBN/WS2 heterojunction, which realizes the strong coupling among donor exciton, acceptor exciton, and cavity photon mode. This configuration demonstrates an unconventional energy transfer via polariton relaxation, brightening MoS2 with a record-high enhancement factor of ~440, i.e., two-order-of-magnitude higher than the data reported to date. The polariton relaxation features a short characteristic time of ~1.3 ps, resulting from the significantly enhanced intra- and inter-branch exciton-exciton scattering. The polariton relaxation dynamics is associated with Rabi energies in a phase diagram by combining experimental and theoretical results. This study opens a new direction of microcavity 2D semiconductor heterojunctions for high-brightness polaritonic light sources and ultrafast polariton carrier dynamics.

3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3464, 2023 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37308474

RESUMO

Spectra of low-lying elementary excitations are critical to characterize properties of bosonic quantum fluids. Usually these spectra are difficult to observe, due to low occupation of non-condensate states compared to the ground state. Recently, low-threshold Bose-Einstein condensation was realised in a symmetry-protected bound state in the continuum, at a saddle point, thanks to coupling of this electromagnetic resonance to semiconductor excitons. While it has opened the door to long-living polariton condensates, their intrinsic collective properties are still unexplored. Here we unveil the peculiar features of the Bogoliubov spectrum of excitations in this system. Thanks to the dark nature of the bound-in-the-continuum state, collective excitations lying directly above the condensate become observable in enhanced detail. We reveal interesting aspects, such as energy-flat parts of the dispersion characterized by two parallel stripes in photoluminescence pattern, pronounced linearization at non-zero momenta in one of the directions, and a strongly anisotropic velocity of sound.

4.
Nat Mater ; 22(8): 964-969, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37217703

RESUMO

Exciton-polaritons derived from the strong light-matter interaction of an optical bound state in the continuum with an excitonic resonance can inherit an ultralong radiative lifetime and significant nonlinearities, but their realization in two-dimensional semiconductors remains challenging at room temperature. Here we show strong light-matter interaction enhancement and large exciton-polariton nonlinearities at room temperature by coupling monolayer tungsten disulfide excitons to a topologically protected bound state in the continuum moulded by a one-dimensional photonic crystal, and optimizing for the electric-field strength at the monolayer position through Bloch surface wave confinement. By a structured optimization approach, the coupling with the active material is maximized here in a fully open architecture, allowing to achieve a 100 meV photonic bandgap with the bound state in the continuum in a local energy minimum and a Rabi splitting of 70 meV, which results in very high cooperativity. Our architecture paves the way to a class of polariton devices based on topologically protected and highly interacting bound states in the continuum.

5.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1512, 2023 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36932078

RESUMO

Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have attracted a great attention because of their unique properties and promising applications in integrated optoelectronic devices. Being layered materials, they can be stacked vertically to fabricate artificial van der Waals lattices, which offer unique opportunities to tailor the electronic and optical properties. The integration of TMD heterostructures in planar microcavities working in strong coupling regime is particularly important to control the light-matter interactions and form robust polaritons, highly sought for room temperature applications. Here, we demonstrate the systematic control of the coupling-strength by embedding multiple WS2 monolayers in a planar microcavity. The vacuum Rabi splitting is enhanced from 36 meV for one monolayer up to 72 meV for the four-monolayer microcavity. In addition, carrying out time-resolved pump-probe experiments at room temperature we demonstrate the nature of polariton interactions which are dominated by phase space filling effects. Furthermore, we also observe the presence of long-living dark excitations in the multiple monolayer superlattices. Our results pave the way for the realization of polaritonic devices based on planar microcavities embedding multiple monolayers and could potentially lead the way for future devices towards the exploitation of interaction-driven phenomena at room temperature.

6.
Sci Adv ; 8(47): eadd8857, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417518

RESUMO

Rhenium disulfide belongs to group VII transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with attractive properties such as exceptionally high refractive index and remarkable oscillator strength, large in-plane birefringence, and good chemical stability. Unlike most other TMDs, the peculiar optical properties of rhenium disulfide persist from bulk to the monolayer, making this material potentially suitable for applications in optical devices. In this work, we demonstrate with unprecedented clarity the strong coupling between cavity modes and excited states, which results in a strong polariton interaction, showing the interest of these materials as a solid-state counterpart of Rydberg atomic systems. Moreover, we definitively clarify the nature of important spectral features, shedding light on some controversial aspects or incomplete interpretations and demonstrating that their origin is due to the interesting combination of the very high refractive index and the large oscillator strength expressed by these TMDs.

7.
Sci Adv ; 8(40): eabq7533, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197989

RESUMO

The field of spinoptronics is underpinned by good control over photonic spin-orbit coupling in devices that have strong optical nonlinearities. Such devices might hold the key to a new era of optoelectronics where momentum and polarization degrees of freedom of light are interwoven and interfaced with electronics. However, manipulating photons through electrical means is a daunting task given their charge neutrality. In this work, we present electrically tunable microcavity exciton-polariton resonances in a Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling field. We show that different spin-orbit coupling fields and the reduced cavity symmetry lead to tunable formation of the Berry curvature, the hallmark of quantum geometrical effects. For this, we have implemented an architecture of a photonic structure with a two-dimensional perovskite layer incorporated into a microcavity filled with nematic liquid crystal. Our work interfaces spinoptronic devices with electronics by combining electrical control over both the strong light-matter coupling conditions and artificial gauge fields.

8.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 396-402, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288672

RESUMO

Parametric nonlinear optical processes are at the heart of nonlinear optics underpinning the central role in the generation of entangled photons as well as the realization of coherent optical sources. Exciton-polaritons are capable to sustain parametric scattering at extremely low threshold, offering a readily accessible platform to study bosonic fluids. Recently, two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted great attention in strong light-matter interactions due to robust excitonic transitions and unique spin-valley degrees of freedom. However, further progress is hindered by the lack of realizations of strong nonlinear effects in TMD polaritons. Here, we demonstrate a realization of nonlinear optical parametric polaritons in a WS2 monolayer microcavity pumped at the inflection point and triggered in the ground state. We observed the formation of a phase-matched idler state and nonlinear amplification that preserves the valley population and survives up to room temperature. Our results open a new door towards the realization of the future for all-optical valley polariton nonlinear devices.

9.
Opt Express ; 29(23): 37262-37280, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808803

RESUMO

Quantum vortices are the analogue of classical vortices in optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids and superconductors, where they provide the elementary mode of rotation and orbital angular momentum. While they mediate important pair interactions and phase transitions in nonlinear fluids, their linear dynamics is useful for the shaping of complex light, as well as for topological entities in multi-component systems, such as full Bloch beams. Here, setting a quantum vortex into directional motion in an open-dissipative fluid of microcavity polaritons, we observe the self-splitting of the packet, leading to the trembling movement of its center of mass, whereas the vortex core undergoes ultrafast spiraling along diverging and converging circles, in a sub-picosecond precessing fashion. This singular dynamics is accompanied by vortex-antivortex pair creation and annihilation and a periodically changing topological charge. The spiraling and branching mechanics represent a direct manifestation of the underlying Bloch pseudospin space, whose mapping is shown to be rotating and splitting itself. Its reshaping is due to three simultaneous drives along the distinct directions of momentum and complex frequency, by means of the differential group velocities, Rabi frequency and dissipation rates, which are natural assets in coupled fields such as polaritons. This state, displaying linear momentum dressed with oscillating angular momentum, confirms the richness of multi-component and open quantum fluids and their innate potentiality to implement sophisticated and dynamical topological textures of light.

11.
Sci Adv ; 7(46): eabj6627, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757800

RESUMO

Ultrafast all-optical switches and integrated circuits call for giant optical nonlinearity to minimize energy consumption and footprint. Exciton polaritons underpin intrinsic strong nonlinear interactions and high-speed propagation in solids, thus affording an intriguing platform for all-optical devices. However, semiconductors sustaining stable exciton polaritons at room temperature usually exhibit restricted nonlinearity and/or propagation properties. Delocalized and strongly interacting Wannier-Mott excitons in metal halide perovskites highlight their advantages in integrated nonlinear optical devices. Here, we report all-optical switching by using propagating and strongly interacting exciton-polariton fluids in self-assembled CsPbBr3 microwires. Strong polariton-polariton interactions and extended polariton fluids with a propagation length of around 25 µm have been reached. All-optical switching on/off of polariton propagation can be realized in picosecond time scale by locally blue-shifting the dispersion with interacting polaritons. The all-optical switching, together with the scalable self-assembly method, highlights promising applications of solution-processed perovskites toward integrated photonics operating in strong coupling regime.

12.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(12): 1349-1354, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675412

RESUMO

The engineering of the energy dispersion of polaritons in microcavities through nanofabrication or through the exploitation of intrinsic material and cavity anisotropies has demonstrated many intriguing effects related to topology and emergent gauge fields such as the anomalous quantum Hall and Rashba effects. Here we show how we can obtain different Berry curvature distributions of polariton bands in a strongly coupled organic-inorganic two-dimensional perovskite single-crystal microcavity. The spatial anisotropy of the perovskite crystal combined with photonic spin-orbit coupling produce two Hamilton diabolical points in the dispersion. An external magnetic field breaks time-reversal symmetry owing to the exciton Zeeman splitting and lifts the degeneracy of the diabolical points. As a result, the bands possess non-zero integral Berry curvatures, which we directly measure by state tomography. In addition to the determination of the different Berry curvatures of the multimode microcavity dispersions, we can also modify the Berry curvature distribution, the so-called band geometry, within each band by tuning external parameters, such as temperature, magnetic field and sample thickness.

13.
Adv Mater ; 33(48): e2102326, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623706

RESUMO

Hybrid perovskites are among the most promising materials for optoelectronic applications. Their 2D crystalline form is even more interesting since the alternating inorganic and organic layers naturally forge a multiple quantum-well structure, leading to the formation of stable excitonic resonances. Nevertheless, a controlled modulation of the quantum well width, which is defined by the number of inorganic layers (n) between two organic ones, is not trivial and represents the main synthetic challenge in the field. Here, a conceptually innovative approach to easily tune n in lead iodide perovskite single-crystalline flakes is presented. The judicious use of potassium iodide is found to modulate the supersaturation levels of the precursors solution without being part of the final products. This allows to obtain a fine tuning of the n value. The excellent optical quality of the as synthesized flakes guarantees an in-depth analysis by Fourier-space microscopy, revealing that the excitons orientation can be manipulated by modifying the number of inorganic layers. Excitonic out-of-plane component, indeed, is enhanced when "n" is increased. The combined advances in the synthesis and optical characterization fill in the picture of the exciton behavior in low-dimensional perovskite, paving the way to the design of materials with improved optoelectronic characteristics.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(4): 047401, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355971

RESUMO

If a quantum fluid is driven with enough angular momentum, at equilibrium the ground state of the system is given by a lattice of quantized vortices whose density is prescribed by the quantization of circulation. We report on the first experimental study of the Feynman-Onsager relation in a nonequilibrium polariton fluid, free to expand and rotate. Upon initially imprinting a lattice of vortices in the quantum fluid, we track the vortex core positions on picosecond timescales. We observe an accelerated stretching of the lattice and an outward bending of the linear trajectories of the vortices, due to the repulsive polariton interactions. Access to the full density and phase fields allows us to detect a small deviation from the Feynman-Onsager rule in terms of a transverse velocity component, due to the density gradient of the fluid envelope acting on the vortex lattice.

15.
Nat Mater ; 20(10): 1315-1324, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211156

RESUMO

Lead-halide perovskites are generally excellent light emitters and can have larger exciton binding energies than thermal energy at room temperature, exhibiting great promise for room-temperature exciton-polaritonics. Rapid progress has been made recently, although challenges and mysteries remain in lead-halide perovskite semiconductors to push polaritons to room-temperature operation. In this Perspective, we discuss fundamental aspects of perovskite semiconductors for exciton-polaritons and review the recent rapid experimental advances using lead-halide perovskites for room-temperature polaritonics, including the experimental realization of strong light-matter interaction using various types of microcavities as well as reaching the polariton condensation regime in planar microcavities and lattices.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(17): 173901, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988433

RESUMO

In ultrafast multimode lasers, mode locking is implemented by means of saturable absorbers or modulators, allowing for very short pulses. This occurs because of nonlinear interactions of modes with well equispaced frequencies. Though theory predicts that, in the absence of any device, mode locking would occur in random lasers, this has never been demonstrated so far. Through the analysis of multimode correlations we provide clear evidence for nonlinear mode coupling in random lasers. The behavior of multiresonance intensity correlations is tested against the nonlinear frequency matching condition equivalent to the one underlying phase locking in ordered ultrafast lasers. Nontrivially large correlations are clearly observed for spatially overlapping resonances that sensitively depend on the frequency matching condition to be satisfied, eventually demonstrating the occurrence of nonlinear mode-locked mode coupling. This is the first example, to our knowledge, of an experimental realization of self-starting mode locking in random lasers, allowing for many new developments in the design and use of nanostructured devices.

17.
Nano Lett ; 21(7): 3331-3339, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797259

RESUMO

Exciton-polaritons, hybrid light-matter bosonic quasiparticles, can condense into a single quantum state, i.e., forming a polariton Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), which represents a crucial step for the development of nanophotonic technology. Recently, atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) emerged as promising candidates for novel polaritonic devices. Although the formation of robust valley-polaritons has been realized up to room temperature, the demonstration of polariton lasing remains elusive. Herein, we report for the first time the realization of this important milestone in a TMD microcavity at room temperature. Continuous wave pumped polariton lasing is evidenced by the macroscopic occupation of the ground state, which undergoes a nonlinear increase of the emission along with the emergence of temporal coherence, the presence of an exciton fraction-controlled threshold and the buildup of linear polarization. Our work presents a critically important step toward exploiting nonlinear polariton-polariton interactions, as well as offering a new platform for thresholdless lasing.

18.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670330

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites are very promising semiconductors for many optoelectronic applications, although their extensive use is limited by their poor stability under environmental conditions. In this work, we synthesize two-dimensional perovskite single crystals and investigate their optical and structural evolution under continuous light irradiation. We found that the hydrophobic nature of the fluorinated component, together with the absence of grain boundary defects, lead to improved material stability thanks to the creation of a robust barrier that preserve the crystalline structure, hindering photo-degradation processes usually promoted by oxygen and moisture.

19.
Nano Lett ; 21(9): 3715-3720, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635656

RESUMO

The rapid development of artificial neural networks and applied artificial intelligence has led to many applications. However, current software implementation of neural networks is severely limited in terms of performance and energy efficiency. It is believed that further progress requires the development of neuromorphic systems, in which hardware directly mimics the neuronal network structure of a human brain. Here, we propose theoretically and realize experimentally an optical network of nodes performing binary operations. The nonlinearity required for efficient computation is provided by semiconductor microcavities in the strong quantum light-matter coupling regime, which exhibit exciton-polariton interactions. We demonstrate the system performance against a pattern recognition task, obtaining accuracy on a par with state-of-the-art hardware implementations. Our work opens the way to ultrafast and energy-efficient neuromorphic systems taking advantage of ultrastrong optical nonlinearity of polaritons.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Redes Neurais de Computação , Encéfalo , Humanos , Neurônios , Semicondutores
20.
ACS Nano ; 15(1): 650-664, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350811

RESUMO

Excitonic coupling, electronic coupling, and cooperative interactions in self-assembled lead halide perovskite nanocrystals were reported to give rise to a red-shifted collective emission peak with accelerated dynamics. Here we report that similar spectroscopic features could appear as a result of the nanocrystal reactivity within the self-assembled superlattices. This is demonstrated by studying CsPbBr3 nanocrystal superlattices over time with room-temperature and cryogenic micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. It is shown that a gradual contraction of the superlattices and subsequent coalescence of the nanocrystals occurs over several days of keeping such structures under vacuum. As a result, a narrow, low-energy emission peak is observed at 4 K with a concomitant shortening of the photoluminescence lifetime due to the energy transfer between nanocrystals. When exposed to air, self-assembled CsPbBr3 nanocrystals develop bulk-like CsPbBr3 particles on top of the superlattices. At 4 K, these particles produce a distribution of narrow, low-energy emission peaks with short lifetimes and excitation fluence-dependent, oscillatory decays. Overall, the aging of CsPbBr3 nanocrystal assemblies dramatically alters their emission properties and that should not be overlooked when studying collective optoelectronic phenomena nor confused with superfluorescence effects.

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