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1.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 54(1): 232-240, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519945

RESUMO

Family accommodation (FA) has been shown to relate to poorer treatment outcomes in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet few studies have examined the trajectory of change in FA throughout treatment and its relation to treatment outcomes. This study examined change in FA in relation to change in symptom severity and impairment in 63 youth receiving a family-based intervention for early-onset OCD. FA, symptom severity and functional impairment were assessed at baseline, week 5, week 9, and post-treatment (week 14). Results suggested that changes in FA in the beginning stages of treatment preceded global symptom improvement (but not OCD specific improvement) whereas changes in functional impairment preceded changes in FA. In the latter half of treatment, changes in FA preceded improvement in global and OCD specific symptom severity as well as functional impairment. These findings highlight the importance of reducing FA, especially in the later stages of treatment, in order to optimize treatment outcomes in early-onset OCD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Pais , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 61(4): 495-507, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A lack of universal definitions for response and remission in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has hampered the comparability of results across trials. To address this problem, we conducted an individual participant data diagnostic test accuracy meta-analysis to evaluate the discriminative ability of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) in determining response and remission. We also aimed to generate empirically derived cutoffs on the CY-BOCS for these outcomes. METHOD: A systematic review of PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and CENTRAL identified 5,401 references; 42 randomized controlled clinical trials were considered eligible, and 21 provided data for inclusion (N = 1,234). Scores of ≤2 in the Clinical Global Impressions Improvement and Severity scales were chosen to define response and remission, respectively. A 2-stage, random-effects meta-analysis model was established. The area under the curve (AUC) and the Youden Index were computed to indicate the discriminative ability of the CY-BOCS and to guide for the optimal cutoff, respectively. RESULTS: The CY-BOCS had sufficient discriminative ability to determine response (AUC = 0.89) and remission (AUC = 0.92). The optimal cutoff for response was a ≥35% reduction from baseline to posttreatment (sensitivity = 83.9, 95% CI = 83.7-84.1; specificity = 81.7, 95% CI = 81.5-81.9). The optimal cutoff for remission was a posttreatment raw score of ≤12 (sensitivity = 82.0, 95% CI = 81.8-82.2; specificity = 84.6, 95% CI = 84.4-84.8). CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis identified empirically optimal cutoffs on the CY-BOCS to determine response and remission in pediatric OCD randomized controlled clinical trials. Systematic adoption of standardized operational definitions for response and remission will improve comparability across trials for pediatric OCD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa
3.
Mil Psychol ; 34(3): 296-304, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536248

RESUMO

Introduction Changes in social interactions following psychiatric hospitalization, a period characterized by heightened suicide risk, are important to understand. OBJECTIVE: We qualitatively explored perceived changes in social interactions one month after inpatient psychiatric discharge following a suicidal crisis. METHODS: A total of 113 United States Service members, recruited in the context of a psychotherapy randomized controlled trial, described the extent to which social interactions with family members, peers, and military commanders had changed. RESULTS: Most participants (82.3%) reported at least some change in social interactions, conveying six common themes. Showing more care and checking in more were frequently reported for family (24.8%, 20.4%), commanders (23.0%, 16.8%), and by peers (12.4%, 10.6%). Showing more concern was most frequently reported for family (13.3%) followed by peers (6.2%) and commanders (6.2%). Participants reported showing more caution from peers (14.2%), commanders (13.3%) and family (6.2%). Acting more distant was reported from commanders (7.1%), peers (7.1%), and family (5.3%). Showing negative reaction(s) was reported from commanders (8.0%), family (3.5%) and rarely for peers (0.9%). CONCLUSION: Inpatient providers are encouraged to prepare patients for potential changes in social interactions following psychiatric discharge and how to best respond to these changes.

4.
Behav Ther ; 52(3): 523-538, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990231

RESUMO

This study measured therapist behaviors in relation to subsequent habituation within exposure tasks, and also tested their direct and indirect relationships (via habituation) with clinical outcomes of exposure therapy. We observed 459 videotaped exposure tasks with 111 participants in three clinical trials for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (POTS trials). Within exposure tasks, therapist behaviors and patient fear were coded continuously. Outcomes were habituation and posttreatment change in symptom severity, global improvement, and treatment response. More therapist behaviors that encourage approach-and less use of accommodation, unrelated talk, and externalizing language-predicted greater subsequent habituation during individual exposure tasks (exposure-level), and also predicted improved patient clinical outcomes via higher "total dose" of habituation across treatment (patient-level indirect effect). For six of seven therapist behaviors analyzed, the relationship with subsequent habituation within exposure differed by patient fear (low, moderate, or high) at the time the behavior was used. Two therapist behaviors had direct effects in the opposite direction expected; more unrelated talk and less intensifying were associated with greater patient symptom reduction. Results shed light on the "black box" of in-session exposure activities and point to specific therapist behaviors that may be important for clinical outcomes. These behaviors might be best understood in the context of changing patient fear during exposure tasks. Future studies should test whether therapist behaviors can be experimentally manipulated to produce improvement in clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Terapia Implosiva , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Criança , Habituação Psicofisiológica , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692895

RESUMO

Depression, suicidal behaviors and substance use problems frequently co-occur, and treatment for youth with these co-occurring problems is often fragmented and challenging. An integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment approach that builds upon a relapse prevention framework and applies common core skills, language, and approach for treating these related problems may be clinically beneficial. Following a description of the integrated approach, we present results of a pilot trial (n = 13) to examine the acceptability and feasibility of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy - Relapse Prevention (CBT-RP) intervention plus enhanced treatment as usual (TAU) compared to enhanced TAU alone. The feasibility of the CBT-RP + TAU intervention was reflected by high rates of retention (86%). The acceptability was reflected in positive evaluations regarding the helpfulness of the intervention by adolescents and families. The majority of youth in both CBT-RP + TAU and TAU alone groups evidenced reductions in depression and suicide ideation from study entry to Week 20. Patterns of reduction were more consistent, however, for youth receiving CBT-RP + TAU, and reductions were slower to emerge for some youth receiving TAU alone. Reductions in alcohol and marijuana problems were similar, but half of the youth in TAU alone (and none in the CBT-RP + TAU group) had emergency department visits related to psychiatric crises or substance related problems. These findings, although based on a small sample, underscore the feasibility and acceptability of an integrated cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention approach for youth with depression, suicide attempt histories, and substance use problems.

6.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 46(3): 614-621, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040092

RESUMO

The ability to maximize rewards and minimize the costs of obtaining them is vital to making advantageous explore/exploit decisions. Exploratory decisions are theorized to be greater among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), potentially due to deficient catecholamine transmission. Here, we examined the effects of ADHD status and methylphenidate, a common ADHD medication, on explore/exploit decisions using a 6-armed bandit task. We hypothesized that ADHD participants would make more exploratory decisions than controls, and that MPH would reduce group differences. On separate study days, adults with (n = 26) and without (n = 23) ADHD completed the bandit task at baseline, and after methylphenidate or placebo in counter-balanced order. Explore/exploit decisions were modeled using reinforcement learning algorithms. ADHD participants made more exploratory decisions (i.e., chose options without the highest expected reward value) and earned fewer points than controls in all three study days, and methylphenidate did not affect these outcomes. Baseline exploratory choices were positively associated with hyperactive ADHD symptoms across all participants. These results support several theoretical models of increased exploratory choices in ADHD and suggest the unexplained variance in ADHD decisions may be due to less value tracking. The inability to suppress actions with little to no reward value may be a key feature of hyperactive ADHD symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Metilfenidato , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa
7.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 183: 14-21, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A reduced willingness to perform effort based on the magnitude and probability of potential rewards has been associated with diminished dopamine function and may be relevant to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we investigated the influence of ADHD status and methylphenidate on effort-based decisions. We hypothesized that ADHD participants would make fewer high-effort selections than non-ADHD subjects, and that methylphenidate would increase the number of high-effort selections. Furthermore, we hypothesized there would be associations among ADHD severity and methylphenidate-related changes in effort-based and attentional performance across all participants. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: ADHD (n = 23) and non-ADHD (n = 23) adults completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task in which participants select between low-effort and high-effort options to receive monetary rewards at varying levels of reward magnitude and probability. A test of attentional performance was also completed. RESULTS: Overall, participants made more high-effort selections as potential reward magnitude and probability increased. ADHD participants did not make fewer high-effort selections than non-ADHD participants, but ADHD participants showed greater methylphenidate-related increases in high-effort selections. ADHD participants had worse attentional performance than non-ADHD participants. ADHD severity was associated with methylphenidate-related changes in high-effort selections, but not changes in attentional performance. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that methylphenidate increases the willingness to perform effort in individuals with ADHD, possibly due to disorder-related motivational deficits. This provides support for theories of insufficient effort allocation among individuals with ADHD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier, NCT02630017.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Recompensa , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metilfenidato/administração & dosagem , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 86(7): 615-630, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study measured a variety of within-exposure fear changes and tested the relationship of each with treatment outcomes in exposure therapy. METHOD: We coded 459 videotaped exposure tasks from 111 participants in 3 clinical trials for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; POTS trials). Within exposures, fear level was observed continuously and alongside exposure process. Fear change metrics of interest were selected for relevance to mechanistic theory. Fear decreases were classified by function; nonhabituation decreases were associated with observed nonlearning processes (e.g., avoidance), whereas habituation decreases appeared to result from an internal and indirect process. Outcomes were posttreatment change in symptom severity, global improvement, and treatment response. RESULTS: Greater cumulative habituation across treatment was associated with larger reductions in symptom severity, greater global improvement, and increased odds of treatment response. Fear activation, fear variability, and nonhabituation fear decreases did not predict any outcomes. Exploratory analyses examined fear changes during habituation and nonhabituation exposures; higher peak fear during nonhabituation exposures was associated with attenuated global improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Habituation is conceptually consistent with multiple mechanistic theories and should continue to be investigated as a practical marker of initial extinction learning and possible moderator of the relationship between fear activation and outcome. Results support the importance of functional and frequent fear measurement during exposures, and discussion considers implications of these findings for future studies aiming to understand learning during exposure and improve exposure delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 49(5): 718-729, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29435695

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children under 8 years of age, referred to as early-onset OCD, has similar features to OCD in older children, including moderate to severe symptoms, impairment, and significant comorbidity. Family-based cognitive behavioral therapy (FB-CBT) has been found efficacious in reducing OCD symptoms and functional impairment in children ages 5-8 years with OCD; however, its effectiveness on reducing comorbid psychiatric symptoms in this same population has yet to be demonstrated. This study examined the acute effects of FB-CBT vs. family-based relaxation treatment over 14 weeks on measures of secondary treatment outcomes (non-OCD) in children with early-onset OCD. Children in the FB-CBT condition showed significant improvements from pre- to post-treatment on secondary outcomes, with a decrease in overall behavioral and emotional problems, internalizing symptoms, as well as overall anxiety symptom severity. Neither condition yielded significant change in externalizing symptoms. Clinical implications of these findings are considered.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 49(2): 308-316, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756555

RESUMO

The present study explored the concept of tolerance for child distress in 46 children (ages 5-8), along with their mothers and fathers, who received family-based CBT for OCD. The study sought to describe baseline tolerance, changes in tolerance with treatment, and the predictive impact of tolerance on symptom improvement. Tolerance was rated by clinicians on a single item and the CY-BOCS was used to measure OCD severity. Descriptive results suggested that all participants had some difficulty tolerating the child's distress at baseline while paired t tests indicated large improvements were made over treatment (d = 1.2-2.0). Fathers' initial tolerance was significantly related to symptom improvement in a multivariate regression as were fathers' and children's changes in distress tolerance over the course of treatment. Overall, results provide support for examining tolerance of child distress including its predictive impact and potential as a supplemental intervention target.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 92: 94-100, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412602

RESUMO

The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II) investigated the benefit of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) augmentation with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Primary outcomes focused on OCD symptom change and indicated benefit associated with a full course of CBT. Given that the majority of youth with OCD suffer from significant comorbid symptoms and impaired quality of life, the current study examined POTS II data for effects on secondary outcomes. Participants were 124 youth ages 7-17 years with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were partial responders to an adequate SRI trial. Participants were randomized to medication management, medication management plus instructions in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication management plus full CBT. Acute effects on non-OCD anxiety, depression, inattention, hyperactivity, and quality of life were examined across treatment conditions. Improvement across treatment was observed for non-OCD anxiety, inattention, hyperactivity, and quality of life. Changes were generally significantly greater in the group receiving full CBT. Child-rated depression was not found to change. OCD-focused treatment lead to improvement in other areas of psychopathology and functioning. For youth who are partial responders to SRI monotherapy, augmentation with full CBT may yield the greatest benefit on these secondary outcomes. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Treatment of Pediatric OCD for SRI Partial Responders, Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00074815, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00074815.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/reabilitação , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 46(8): 2797-2805, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27177893

RESUMO

Prosaccade and antisaccade errors in the context of social and nonsocial stimuli were investigated in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 19) a matched control sample (n = 19), and a small sample of youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 9). Groups did not differ in error rates in the prosaccade condition for any stimulus category. In the antisaccade condition, the ASD group demonstrated more errors than the control group for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests, but not for other nonsocial stimuli or for social stimuli. Additionally, antisaccade error rates were predictive of core ASD symptom severity. Results indicate that the cognitive control of visual attention in ASD is impaired specifically in the context of nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
13.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 47(6): 993-1001, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26858231

RESUMO

Studies have shown a high prevalence of autistic spectrum traits in both children and adults with psychiatric disorders; however the prevalence rate has not yet been investigated in young children with OCD. The aim of the current study was to (1) determine whether ASD traits indicated by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were elevated in young children with OCD who do not have a specific ASD diagnosis and (2) determine if ASD traits were associated with OCD severity. Participants (N = 127) were children ages 5-8 years enrolled in the pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment study for young children (POTS Jr.). Results indicated that the SRS showed elevated autistic traits in the sample and was associated with OCD severity whereas the SCQ did not indicate heightened ASD symptoms. Implications of these results are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatística como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 24(3): 535-55, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26092738

RESUMO

Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be effectively treated with family-based intervention by expanding and enhancing family members' behavioral repertoire to more effectively manage OCD symptoms and affected family interactions. This article provides an overview and practical understanding of the implementation of family-based treatment of pediatric OCD. Special attention is given to relevant contextual family processes that influence symptom presentation, current empirical support for family-based treatment, and the clinical application of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy. Case vignettes illustrate important clinical considerations for providers.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Família/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos
15.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 83(2): 253-64, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25622200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to examine escalation in repeat suicide attempts from adolescence through adulthood, as predicted by sensitization models (and reflected in increasing intent and lethality with repeat attempts, decreasing amount of time between attempts, and decreasing stress to trigger attempts). METHOD: In a prospective study of 180 adolescents followed through adulthood after a psychiatric hospitalization, suicide attempts, and antecedent life events were repeatedly assessed (M = 12.6 assessments, SD = 5.1) over an average of 13 years 6 months (SD = 4 years 5 months). Multivariate logistic, multiple linear, and negative binomial regression models were used to examine patterns over time. RESULTS: After age 17-18, the majority of suicide attempts were repeat attempts (i.e., made by individuals with prior suicidal behavior). Intent increased both with increasing age, and with number of prior attempts. Medical lethality increased as a function of age but not recurrent attempts. The time between successive suicide attempts decreased as a function of number of attempts. The amount of precipitating life stress was not related to attempts. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents and young adults show evidence of escalation of recurrent suicidal behavior, with increasing suicidal intent and decreasing time between successive attempts. However, evidence that sensitization processes account for this escalation was inconclusive. Effective prevention programs that reduce the likelihood of individuals attempting suicide for the first time (and entering this cycle of escalation), and relapse prevention interventions that interrupt the cycle of escalating suicidal behavior among individuals who already have made attempts are critically needed. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Intenção , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 53(12): 1308-16, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25457929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior research has shown that youth with co-occurring tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of clinical characteristics and treatment responsiveness. A broad definition of "tic-related" was used to examine whether children with tics in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II differed from those without tics in terms of demographic and phenomenological characteristics and acute treatment outcomes. METHOD: Participants were 124 youth aged 7 to 17 years, inclusive, with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were partial responders to an adequate serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) trial. Participants were randomized to medication management, medication management plus instructions in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication management plus full CBT. Tic status was based on the presence of motor and/or vocal tics on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. RESULTS: Tics were identified in 53% of the sample. Those with tic-related OCD did not differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of age, family history of tics, OCD severity, OCD-related impairment, or comorbidity. Those with tics responded equally in all treatment conditions. CONCLUSION: Tic-related OCD was very prevalent using a broad definition of tic status. Results suggest that youth with this broad definition of tic-related OCD do not have increased OCD severity or inference, higher comorbidity rates or severity, or worsened functioning, and support the use of CBT in this population. This highlights the importance of not making broad assumptions about OCD symptoms most likely to occur in an individual with comorbid tics. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Pediatric OCD for SRI Partial Responders; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00074815.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Tique/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Tique/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Tique/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 71(6): 689-98, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24759852

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been established as efficacious for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among older children and adolescents, yet its effect on young children has not been evaluated sufficiently. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative efficacy of family-based CBT (FB-CBT) involving exposure plus response prevention vs an FB relaxation treatment (FB-RT) control condition for children 5 to 8 years of age. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 14-week randomized clinical trial (Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study for Young Children [POTS Jr]) conducted at 3 academic medical centers between 2006 and 2011, involving 127 pediatric outpatients 5 to 8 years of age who received a primary diagnosis of OCD and a Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total score of 16 or higher. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of (1) FB-CBT, including exposure plus response prevention, or (2) FB-RT. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Responder status defined as an independent evaluator-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) and change in independent evaluator-rated continuous Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total score. RESULTS Family-based CBT was superior to FB-RT on both primary outcome measures. The percentages of children who were rated as 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale at 14 weeks were 72% for FB-CBT and 41% for FB-RT. The effect size difference between FB-CBT and FB-RT on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.17-0.45). The number needed to treat (NNT) with FB-CBT vs FB-RT was estimated as 3.2 (95% CI, 2.2-5.8). The effect size difference between FB-CBT and FB-RT on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale at week 14 was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62-1.06). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A comprehensive FB-CBT program was superior to a relaxation program with a similar format in reducing OCD symptoms and functional impairment in young children (5-8 years of age) with OCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00533806.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Terapia Familiar , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
J Anxiety Disord ; 27(8): 745-53, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24128870

RESUMO

Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with substantial morbidity, comorbidity, family difficulties, and functional impairment. Fortunately, OCD in youth has also been found responsive to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) both alone and in combination with medication. This paper highlights key areas a treatment provider must be highly knowledgeable in to be considered an expert in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We describe the areas of knowledge that must be mastered to gain expertise, as well as the more difficult to quantify personal qualities that may allow a clinician to convey this knowledge in an expert manner. We provide detailed discussions of CBT theory, assessment strategies, implications of the treatment outcome literature for clinical decision-making, and how best to navigate CBT. We also discuss what the expert needs to accomplish by engaging youth and families throughout the evaluation and treatment process.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Obsessive Compuls Relat Disord ; 1(4): 294-300, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23181244

RESUMO

This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Treatment Study for young children (POTS Jr). The study is a multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) of family-based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) vs. family-based Relaxation Therapy (RT) for young children (ages 5-8) with OCD, which examines the effect of treatment on symptom reduction, functional impairment, and quality of life. Secondary aims evaluate: potential moderators and mediators of treatment response, differences in time course of response, retention rates, and maintenance of treatment gains over one year post-treatment. The sample included 127 children (53% female) and their parents. With regard to ethnicity, 89% of the sample described themselves as non-Hispanic, 5% Hispanic/Latino, and 6% did not endorse a category. In terms of race, the sample was predominantly (91%) White. Because the rationale and methods of the multi-site RCT have been well established, we emphasize here the methodological aspects of the study that were tailored to meet the developmental needs of young children with OCD. Aspects that are highlighted include: choice of control group, inclusion/exclusion criteria, assessment/measurement issues, treatment adaptations, training, and recruitment.

20.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 80(2): 222-31, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22250854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether suicidal intent and medical lethality of past suicide attempts are predictive of future attempts, the association between intent and lethality, and the consistency of these characteristics across repeated attempts among youth. METHOD: Suicide attempts in a 15-year prospective study of 180 formerly psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (M(age at hospitalization) = 14.83; 51% female; 80% Caucasian) were characterized with the Subjective Intent Rating Scale and Lethality of Attempt Rating Scale. Anderson-Gill recurrent events survival models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess predictive validity. Generalized linear models were used to examine stability of characteristics across attempts. RESULTS: Neither intent nor lethality from the most recent attempt predicted future attempts. The highest level of intent and most severe lethality of attempts during the follow-up predicted subsequent attempts, but the degree to which highest intent and most severe lethality contributed to prediction after considering methods of suicide attempts, past number of attempts, or psychiatric diagnoses was mixed. Across successive attempts, there was little consistency in reported characteristics. Intent and lethality were related to each other only for attempts occurring in early adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Highest intent and lethality were better predictors of future attempts than intent and lethality of the most recent attempt. However, these characteristics should be considered as predictors only within the context of other factors. For youth, clinicians should not infer true intent from the lethality of attempts, nor assume that characteristics of future suicide attempts will be similar to those of previous attempts.


Assuntos
Intenção , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
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