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1.
Hypertension ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder associated with an imbalance in circulating proangiogenic and antiangiogenic proteins. Preclinical evidence implicates microvascular dysfunction as a potential mediator of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Women with singleton pregnancies complicated by severe antepartum-onset preeclampsia and a comparator group with normotensive deliveries underwent cardiac positron emission tomography within 4 weeks of delivery. A control group of premenopausal, nonpostpartum women was also included. Myocardial flow reserve, myocardial blood flow, and coronary vascular resistance were compared across groups. sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1) and PlGF (placental growth factor) were measured at imaging. RESULTS: The primary cohort included 19 women with severe preeclampsia (imaged at a mean of 15.3 days postpartum), 5 with normotensive pregnancy (mean, 14.4 days postpartum), and 13 nonpostpartum female controls. Preeclampsia was associated with lower myocardial flow reserve (ß, -0.67 [95% CI, -1.21 to -0.13]; P=0.016), lower stress myocardial blood flow (ß, -0.68 [95% CI, -1.07 to -0.29] mL/min per g; P=0.001), and higher stress coronary vascular resistance (ß, +12.4 [95% CI, 6.0 to 18.7] mm Hg/mL per min/g; P=0.001) versus nonpostpartum controls. Myocardial flow reserve and coronary vascular resistance after normotensive pregnancy were intermediate between preeclamptic and nonpostpartum groups. Following preeclampsia, myocardial flow reserve was positively associated with time following delivery (P=0.008). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio strongly correlated with rest myocardial blood flow (r=0.71; P<0.001), independent of hemodynamics. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory cross-sectional study, we observed reduced coronary microvascular function in the early postpartum period following preeclampsia, suggesting that systemic microvascular dysfunction in preeclampsia involves coronary microcirculation. Further research is needed to establish interventions to mitigate the risk of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular disease.

2.
medRxiv ; 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496439

RESUMO

Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder associated with an imbalance in circulating pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins. Preclinical evidence implicates microvascular dysfunction as a potential mediator of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular risk. Methods: Women with singleton pregnancies complicated by severe antepartum-onset preeclampsia and a comparator group with normotensive deliveries underwent cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) within 4 weeks of delivery. A control group of pre-menopausal, non-postpartum women was also included. Myocardial flow reserve (MFR), myocardial blood flow (MBF), and coronary vascular resistance (CVR) were compared across groups. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured at imaging. Results: The primary cohort included 19 women with severe preeclampsia (imaged at a mean 16.0 days postpartum), 5 with normotensive pregnancy (mean 14.4 days postpartum), and 13 non-postpartum female controls. Preeclampsia was associated with lower MFR (ß=-0.67 [95% CI -1.21 to -0.13]; P=0.016), lower stress MBF (ß=-0.68 [95% CI, -1.07 to -0.29] mL/min/g; P=0.001), and higher stress CVR (ß=+12.4 [95% CI 6.0 to 18.7] mmHg/mL/min/g; P=0.001) vs. non-postpartum controls. MFR and CVR after normotensive pregnancy were intermediate between preeclamptic and non-postpartum groups. Following preeclampsia, MFR was positively associated with time following delivery (P=0.008). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio strongly correlated with rest MBF (r=0.71; P<0.001), independent of hemodynamics. Conclusions: In this exploratory study, we observed reduced coronary microvascular function in the early postpartum period following severe preeclampsia, suggesting that systemic microvascular dysfunction in preeclampsia involves the coronary microcirculation. Further research is needed to establish interventions to mitigate risk of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular disease.

3.
NEJM Evid ; 3(2): EVIDra2300273, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320493

RESUMO

Maternal Cardiovascular Health Post-DobbsPregnancy is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in the United States. In the post-Dobbs era, many pregnant patients at highest risk no longer have access to abortion, which has been a crucial component of standard medical care.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Sistema Cardiovascular , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Saúde Materna
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 9(3): 209-220, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170504

RESUMO

Importance: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs), including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, are important contributors to maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, women with HDPs face an elevated long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: To identify proteins in the circulation associated with HDPs. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two-sample mendelian randomization (MR) tested the associations of genetic instruments for cardiovascular disease-related proteins with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. In downstream analyses, a systematic review of observational data was conducted to evaluate the identified proteins' dynamics across gestation in hypertensive vs normotensive pregnancies, and phenome-wide MR analyses were performed to identify potential non-HDP-related effects associated with the prioritized proteins. Genetic association data for cardiovascular disease-related proteins were obtained from the Systematic and Combined Analysis of Olink Proteins (SCALLOP) consortium. Genetic association data for the HDPs were obtained from recent European-ancestry genome-wide association study meta-analyses for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Study data were analyzed October 2022 to October 2023. Exposures: Genetic instruments for 90 candidate proteins implicated in cardiovascular diseases, constructed using cis-protein quantitative trait loci (cis-pQTLs). Main Outcomes and Measures: Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Results: Genetic association data for cardiovascular disease-related proteins were obtained from 21 758 participants from the SCALLOP consortium. Genetic association data for the HDPs were obtained from 393 238 female individuals (8636 cases and 384 602 controls) for gestational hypertension and 606 903 female individuals (16 032 cases and 590 871 controls) for preeclampsia. Seventy-five of 90 proteins (83.3%) had at least 1 valid cis-pQTL. Of those, 10 proteins (13.3%) were significantly associated with HDPs. Four were robust to sensitivity analyses for gestational hypertension (cluster of differentiation 40, eosinophil cationic protein [ECP], galectin 3, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), and 2 were robust for preeclampsia (cystatin B, heat shock protein 27 [HSP27]). Consistent with the MR findings, observational data revealed that lower NT-proBNP (0.76- to 0.88-fold difference vs no HDPs) and higher HSP27 (2.40-fold difference vs no HDPs) levels during the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with increased risk of HDPs, as were higher levels of ECP (1.60-fold difference vs no HDPs). Phenome-wide MR analyses identified 37 unique non-HDP-related protein-disease associations, suggesting potential on-target effects associated with interventions lowering HDP risk through the identified proteins. Conclusions and Relevance: Study findings suggest genetic associations of 4 cardiovascular disease-related proteins with gestational hypertension and 2 associated with preeclampsia. Future studies are required to test the efficacy of targeting the corresponding pathways to reduce HDP risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Medicina de Precisão/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27
6.
J Card Fail ; 29(7): 1032-1042, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Greater parity has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. We sought to find whether the effects on cardiac remodeling and heart failure risk are clear. METHODS: We examined the association of number of live births with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function in participants of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) using multivariable linear regression. We next examined the association of parity with incident heart failure with preserved (HFpEF) or reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction using a Fine-Gray subdistribution hazards model in a pooled analysis of n = 12,635 participants in the FHS, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease. Secondary analyses included major cardiovascular disease, myocardia infarction and stroke. RESULTS: Among n = 3931 FHS participants (mean age 48 ± 13 years), higher numbers of live births were associated with worse left ventricular fractional shortening (multivariable ß -1.11 (0.31); P = 0.0005 in ≥ 5 live births vs nulliparous women) and worse cardiac mechanics, including global circumferential strain and longitudinal and radial dyssynchrony (P < 0.01 for all comparing ≥ 5 live births vs nulliparity). When examining HF subtypes, women with ≥ 5 live births were at higher risk of developing future HFrEF compared with nulliparous women (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.19-3.12; P = 0.008); by contrast, a lower risk of HFpEF was observed (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.91; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Greater numbers of live births are associated with worse cardiac structure and function. There was no association with overall HF, but a higher number of live births was associated with greater risk for incident HFrEF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico , Remodelação Ventricular , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Prognóstico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
7.
Am J Perinatol ; 40(2): 137-140, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether biomarkers may enable early identification of women who develop peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) prior to disease onset remains a question of interest. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective nested case-control study was conducted to determine whether first trimester N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) or high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) differed among women who developed PPCM versus unaffected pregnancies. Cases were matched to unaffected women by age, race, parity, and gestational age of sample (control A) and then further by blood pressure and pregnancy weight gain (control B). RESULTS: First trimester NT-proBNP concentrations were numerically higher among women who subsequently developed PPCM (116 pg/mL [83-177]) as compared with women in control A (56.1 pg/mL [38.7-118.7], p = 0.3) or control B (37.6 [23.3 - 53.8], p <0.05). A higher proportion of women who subsequently developed PPCM (50%) had detectable levels of hs-cTnI as compared with control A (0%, p = 0.03) or control B (18.8%, p = 0.52). Among both cases and controls, hs-cTnI values were low and often below the limit of detection. CONCLUSION: There were differences in first trimester NT-proBNP and hs-cTnI concentrations between women who subsequently developed PPCM and those who did not, raising the possibility the early pregnancy subclinical myocardial dysfunction may be associated with this late-pregnancy disease. KEY POINTS: · First trimester NT-proBNP is numerically higher among women who subsequently develop PPCM.. · First trimester hs-cTnI was nominally higher among women who developed PPCM versus those who did not.. · A significant proportion of normal pregnant women have undetectable hs-cTnI..


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Período Periparto , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico
8.
10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(3): 346-355, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705020

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: A growing body of evidence suggests that adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs), including hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes (GD), preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction, are associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Adverse pregnancy outcomes may therefore represent an opportunity to intervene to prevent or delay onset of CVD. The objective of this review was to summarize the current evidence for targeted postpartum interventions and strategies to reduce CVD risk in women with a history of APOs. OBSERVATIONS: A search of PubMed and Ovid for English-language randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, descriptive studies, and guidelines published from January 1, 2000, to April 30, 2021, was performed. Four broad categories of interventions were identified: transitional clinics, lifestyle interventions, pharmacotherapy, and patient and clinician education. Observational studies suggest that postpartum transitional clinics identify women who are at elevated risk for CVD and may aid in the transition to longitudinal primary care. Lifestyle interventions to increase physical activity and improve diet quality may help reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in women with prior GD; less is known about women with other prior APOs. Metformin hydrochloride may prevent development of type 2 diabetes in women with prior GD. Evidence is lacking in regard to specific pharmacotherapies after other APOs. Cardiovascular guidelines endorse using a history of APOs to refine CVD risk assessment and guide statin prescription for primary prevention in women with intermediate calculated 10-year CVD risk. Research suggests a low level of awareness of the link between APOs and CVD among both patients and clinicians. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that transitional clinics, lifestyle intervention, targeted pharmacotherapy, and clinician and patient education represent promising strategies for improving postpartum maternal cardiometabolic health in women with APOs; further research is needed to develop and rigorously evaluate these interventions. Future efforts should focus on strategies to increase maternal postpartum follow-up, improve accessibility to interventions across diverse racial and cultural groups, expand awareness of sex-specific CVD risk factors, and define evidence-based precision prevention strategies for this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nascimento Prematuro , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(7): 737-751, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384555

RESUMO

Although some progress has been made in the last 3 decades to increase the number of women in clinical cardiology trials, review of recent cardiovascular literature demonstrates that women and underrepresented minority women are still underrepresented in most clinical cardiology trials. This is especially notable in trials of patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and arrhythmia studies, especially those involving devices and procedures. Despite the call from National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, Institute of Medicine, and various professional societies, the gap remains. This paper seeks to identify the barriers for low enrollment and retention from patient, clinician, research team, study design, and system perspectives, and offers recommendations to improve recruitment and retention in the current era.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Participação do Paciente , Mulheres , Etarismo , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075291

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pregnancy is associated with significant hemodynamic changes, making it a potentially high-risk period for women with underlying cardiovascular disease. Echocardiography remains the preferred modality for diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women with cardiovascular disease as it is widely available and does not require radiation. This paper reviews the role of echocardiography along the continuum of pregnancy in at-risk patients, with a focus on key cardiac disease states in pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: In the preconception stage, risk stratification scores such as CARPREG II, ZAHARA and the modified WHO remain central to counseling and planning. As such, echocardiography serves an important role in assessing the severity of pre-existing structural disease. Among women with pre-existing cardiovascular disease who become pregnant-as well as those who develop cardiovascular symptoms during pregnancy-echocardiography is a key imaging tool for assessment of hemodynamic and structural changes and is recommended as the first-line imaging modality when appropriate by both the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, routine screening intervals during pregnancy for various cardiac lesions are not well defined, resulting in clinical heterogeneity in care. SUMMARY: Echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for defining, risk stratifying, and monitoring cardiovascular changes throughout pregnancy. Once identified, at-risk patients should receive careful individual counseling and follow-up with a multidisciplinary team. Echocardiography serves as a widely available tool for serial monitoring of pregnant women with cardiovascular disease throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period.

13.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 6(1): 12-21, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532663

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of galectin-3 (Gal-3) inhibition with modified citrus pectin on markers of collagen metabolism in a proof-of-concept randomized placebo-controlled trial of participants with elevated Gal-3 levels and hypertension. Although higher Gal-3 levels were associated with female sex, diabetes, and reduced glomerular filtration rate in cross-sectional analyses, treatment with modified citrus pectin did not change collagen markers. The effect of Gal-3 inhibition among individuals with heart failure warrants further investigation.

14.
Am Heart J ; 229: 138-143, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827459

RESUMO

The present study included 14,550 postmenopausal female participants in the UK Biobank who completed cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Earlier age at menopause was significantly and independently associated with smaller left ventricular end-diastolic volume and smaller stroke volume, a pattern suggesting acceleration of previously described age-related left ventricular remodeling. These findings may have implications for understanding mechanisms of heart failure, specifically heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, among women with early menopause.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração , Menopausa Precoce/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(24): 3013-3022, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains disputed whether women are at excess risk of adverse outcomes versus men after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) or whether differences are explained by discordant risk factors. OBJECTIVES: A sex-specific analysis of cardiovascular outcomes after NSTEACS across trials conducted by the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group was performed to determine the impact of sex on cardiovascular outcomes in this dataset. METHODS: Ten TIMI trials were identified that enrolled >2,500 patients with NSTEACS within 30 days of hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of sex with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) after adjusting for relevant risk factors in individual trials; point estimates were then combined by using random effects models. Individual components of the composite outcome and all-cause mortality were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among 68,730 patients with NSTEACS, 19,827 (29%) were women. Women were older and more frequently had hypertension, diabetes, prior heart failure, and renal impairment than men. Before considering relevant confounders, women were at similar risk of MACE compared with men (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99 to 1.09; p = 0.16) but at higher risk of all-cause death (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.24; p = 0.03). After adjustment for baseline differences, risks of MACE (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.98; p < 0.01) and all-cause death (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.90; p < 0.0001) were lower among women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for cardiovascular risk factors, women enrolled in clinical trials were at lower risk of MACE than men after NSTEACS. Women, however, remain undertreated with many evidence-based therapies.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Caracteres Sexuais , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 20(7): 54, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923132

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To educate clinicians on cardiovascular considerations and management strategies surrounding pregnancy in childhood cancer survivors. RECENT FINDINGS: With advances in oncologic treatment, growing numbers of childhood cancer survivors are now able to consider pregnancy. A significant proportion of survivors have received cardiotoxic therapy, particularly anthracyclines, and/or chest radiation. Cardiomyopathy is the most common cardiac complication of cancer-directed therapy; pericardial disease, valvular disease, premature coronary artery disease, and conduction abnormalities are other potential sequelae. In female survivors of childhood malignancy, cardiac evaluation should be performed prior to pregnancy as subclinical disease has the potential to be unmasked by the hemodynamic stress of pregnancy. However, limited data exist on pregnancy outcomes after cancer survivorship. With appropriate management, maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancy following childhood cancer are generally favorable. Further research is needed to understand the incidence of cardiac complications among childhood cancer survivors, strategies to prevent these complications, optimal cardiovascular management during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and on the impact of pregnancy itself on the natural history of treatment-related cardiotoxicity.

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