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2.
J Biochem ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591885

RESUMO

Single-chain Fv (scFv) is a recombinant small antibody in which a polypeptide linker connects the variable regions of the light chain (VL) and the heavy chain (VH). The practical use of scFv, however, has been prevented by its tendency to aggregate due to interchain VL-VH interactions. We recently developed a cyclic scFv whose N-terminus and C-terminus were connected by protein ligation techniques. Biophysical comparisons between cyclic and linear scFv have been conducted, but cell biological evaluations remain unexplored. Here we studied the properties of cyclic and linear scFv derived from nivolumab. Biophysical studies revealed that the thermal stability was not changed but that the antigen-binding activity was approximately 3-fold higher as a result of circularization. A cell-based PD-1/PD-L1 interaction inhibitory assay revealed that the biological activity of scFv was markedly higher in the circularized form. In addition, biophysical analysis of scFv proteins incubated in the presence of serum revealed that circularization suppressed the decrease in antigen-binding activity. It could be assumed that circularization of scFv improved stability in the presence of serum, which in turn would suggest the applicability of cyclic scFv as a biopharmaceutical format.

3.
Radiographics ; 44(5): e230153, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602868

RESUMO

RASopathies are a heterogeneous group of genetic syndromes caused by germline mutations in a group of genes that encode components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. RASopathies include neurofibromatosis type 1, Legius syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, central conducting lymphatic anomaly, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome. These disorders are grouped together as RASopathies based on our current understanding of the Ras/MAPK pathway. Abnormal activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway plays a major role in development of RASopathies. The individual disorders of RASopathies are rare, but collectively they are the most common genetic condition (one in 1000 newborns). Activation or dysregulation of the common Ras/MAPK pathway gives rise to overlapping clinical features of RASopathies, involving the cardiovascular, lymphatic, musculoskeletal, cutaneous, and central nervous systems. At the same time, there is much phenotypic variability in this group of disorders. Benign and malignant tumors are associated with certain disorders. Recently, many institutions have established multidisciplinary RASopathy clinics to address unique therapeutic challenges for patients with RASopathies. Medications developed for Ras/MAPK pathway-related cancer treatment may also control the clinical symptoms due to an abnormal Ras/MAPK pathway in RASopathies. Therefore, radiologists need to be aware of the concept of RASopathies to participate in multidisciplinary care. As with the clinical manifestations, imaging features of RASopathies are overlapping and at the same time diverse. As an introduction to the concept of RASopathies, the authors present major representative RASopathies, with emphasis on their imaging similarities and differences. ©RSNA, 2024 Test Your Knowledge questions for this article are available in the supplemental material.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Costello , Displasia Ectodérmica , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Síndrome de Noonan , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Síndrome de Noonan/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Radiologistas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504507

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which has medial pivot and mobile-bearing mechanisms, has been developed and clinically used. However, the in vivo dynamic kinematics of the mobile medial pivot-type TKA (MMPTKA) is unclear. This study analysed the in vivo kinematics of MMPTKA in weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing conditions. METHODS: The study included 10 knees that underwent primary TKA using MMPTKA. After TKA, lateral view radiographs of the knee in full extension, 90° of flexion and passive full flexion were taken under general anaesthesia in the nonweight-bearing condition. At least 6 months postoperatively, knee motion during squatting from a weight-bearing standing position was observed using a flat-panel detector and analysed using the three-dimensional-to-two-dimensional image registration technique. RESULTS: Under anaesthesia: in passive full flexion, the anteroposterior (AP) locations of the femoral component's medial and lateral distal points were 10.2 and 16.0 mm posterior, and the rotational angles of the femoral component's X-axis (FCX) and insert were 8.1° external rotation and 18.5° internal rotation to full extension, respectively. Squatting: the AP translations of the femoral component's medial and lateral most distal points were 2.2 and 6.4 mm, and the rotational angles of the FCX and insert were 5.7° and 1.6° external rotation, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the AP translation of the femoral component's medial and lateral most distal points and changes in the insert's rotational angle when comparing under anaesthesia and squatting. CONCLUSIONS: The kinematics of the insert in MMPTKA was significantly influenced by loading and muscle contraction. The femoral component exhibited substantial external rotation and posterior translation under anaesthesia, which may contribute to achieving an optimal range of motion. The insert remained relatively stable during squatting and minimal rotation was observed, indicating good stability. MMPTKA was expected to demonstrate rational kinematics by incorporating mobile and medial pivot mechanisms. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, prospective biomechanical case series study.

5.
J Vasc Access ; : 11297298231226427, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is crucial for the patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Central venous stenosis (CVS) is a common, yet, overlooked complication of VA as its diagnosis is challenging. Moreover, its effect on the flow volume (FV) and the peripheral resistive index (RI) was not well discussed before. Despite the availability of doppler ultrasound (DUS) in most centers, direct visualization of central veins using DUS is quite difficult. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-center self-controlled cohort study that was conducted in a specialized vascular access management tertiary center in Japan and included all patients with CVS who underwent percutaneous transluminal angiography (PTA) with or without vascular stenting in the period from January 2014 to September 2022. The patients were divided according to their VA type into arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and arteriovenous graft (AVG) groups, then subdivided, according to the type of stenosis, into two subgroups: CVS, and mixed central and peripheral venous stenosis (MVS) groups. The FV and RI of the feeding artery were compared in the same procedure before and after PTA to assess the impact of the procedure itself. RESULTS: Data of 485 percutaneous transluminal angiography procedures (PTA), performed in 95 patients during the period from January 2014 to September 2022, were collected. FV and RI were significantly affected in the patients with MVS than patients with CVS. After PTA, both FV and RI were significantly improved. The improvement rate of FV and RI after PTA were significantly higher in patients with MVS than patients with CVS. However, it was difficult to determine the cut-off value to diagnose or to assess the improvement of CVS. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that FV and RI measurement by DUS are good tools, along with the clinical findings for assessment of CVS in certain situations.

6.
J Biochem ; 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471515

RESUMO

Schistosoma japonicum glutathione-S-transferase (SjGST), so-called GST-tag, is one of the most widely used protein tags for the purification of recombinant proteins by affinity chromatography. Attachment of SjGST enables the purification of a protein of interest (POI) using commercially available glutathione-immobilizing resins. Here we produced an SjGST mutant pair that forms heterodimers by adjusting the salt bridge pairs in the homodimer interface of SjGST. A molecular dynamics study confirmed that the SjGST mutant pair did not disrupt the heterodimer formation. The modified SjGST protein pair coexpressed in E. coli was purified by glutathione-immobilized resin. The stability of the heterodimeric form of the SjGST mutant pair was further confirmed by size exclusion chromatography. Surface plasmon resonance measurements unveiled the selective formation of heterodimers within the pair, accompanied by a significant suppression of homodimerization. The heterodimeric SjGST exhibited enzymatic activity in assays employing a commercially available fluorescent substrate. By fusing one member of the heterodimeric SjGST pair with a fluorescent protein and the other with the POI, we were able to conveniently and sensitively detect protein-protein interactions using fluorescence spectroscopy in the pull-down assays. Thus, utilization of the heterodimeric SjGST would be a useful tag for protein science.

7.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393396

RESUMO

Aberrant glycosylation is an important factor in facilitating tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. In this study, using Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), we examined the expression of WFA-binding glycans (WFAG) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The results showed that WFAG was highly detected in precancerous and cancerous lesions of human CCA tissues, although it was rarely detected in normal bile ducts. The positive signal of WFAG in the cancerous lesion accounted for 96.2% (50/52) of the cases. Overexpression of WFAG was significantly associated with lymph node and distant metastasis (P < 0.05). The study using the CCA hamster model showed that WFAG is elevated in preneoplastic and neoplastic bile ducts as early as 1 month after being infected with liver fluke and exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine. Functional analysis was performed to reveal the role of WFAG in CCA. The CCA cell lines KKU-213A and KKU-213B were treated with WFA, followed by migration assay. Our data suggested that WFAG facilitates the migration of CCA cells via the activation of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the association of WFAG with carcinogenesis and metastasis of CCA, suggesting its potential as a target for the treatment of the disease.

9.
Radiographics ; 44(2): e230117, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206831

RESUMO

Perinatal venous infarcts are underrecognized clinically and at imaging. Neonates may be susceptible to venous infarcts because of hypercoagulable state, compressibility of the dural sinuses and superficial veins due to patent sutures, immature cerebral venous drainage pathways, and drastic physiologic changes of the brain circulation in the perinatal period. About 43% of cases of pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis occur in the neonatal period. Venous infarcts can be recognized by ischemia or hemorrhage that does not respect an arterial territory. Knowledge of venous drainage pathways and territories can help radiologists recognize characteristic venous infarct patterns. Intraventricular hemorrhage in a term neonate with thalamocaudate hemorrhage should raise concern for internal cerebral vein thrombosis. A striato-hippocampal pattern of hemorrhage indicates basal vein of Rosenthal thrombosis. Choroid plexus hemorrhage may be due to obstruction of choroidal veins that drain the internal cerebral vein or basal vein of Rosenthal. Fan-shaped deep medullary venous congestion or thrombosis is due to impaired venous drainage into the subependymal veins, most commonly caused by germinal matrix hemorrhage in the premature infant and impeded flow in the deep venous system in the term infant. Subpial hemorrhage, an underrecognized hemorrhage stroke type, is often observed in the superficial temporal region, and its cause is probably multifactorial. The treatment of cerebral sinovenous thrombosis is anticoagulation, which should be considered even in the presence of intracranial hemorrhage. ©RSNA, 2024 Test Your Knowledge questions in the supplemental material and the slide presentation from the RSNA Annual Meeting are available for this article.


Assuntos
Veias Cerebrais , Trombose Intracraniana , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Trombose , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Criança , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Veias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Infarto/complicações
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 30(4): 277-285, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242285

RESUMO

The Japanese surveillance committee conducted a third nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of acute uncomplicated cystitis at 55 facilities throughout Japan between April 2020 and September 2021. In this surveillance, we investigated the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus) for various antimicrobial agents by isolating and culturing bacteria from urine samples. In total, 823 strains were isolated from 848 patients and 569 strains of target bacteria, including E. coli (n = 529, 92.9 %), K. pneumoniae (n = 28, 4.9 %), and S. saprophyticus (n = 12, 2.2 %) were isolated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 18 antibacterial agents were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. In premenopausal patients, there were 31 (10.5 %) and 20 (6.8 %) fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli and extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli, respectively. On the other hand, in postmenopausal patients, there were 75 (32.1 %) and 36 (15.4 %) FQ-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing E. coli, respectively. The rate of FQ-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing E. coli in post-menopausal women was higher than that for our previous nationwide surveillance (20.7 % and 32.1 %: p = 0.0004, 10.0 % and 15.4 %; p = 0.0259). For pre-menopausal women, there was no significant difference in the rate of FQ-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing E. coli between this and previous reports, but the frequency of FQ-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing E. coli exhibited a gradual increase. For appropriate antimicrobial agent selection and usage, it is essential for clinicians to be aware of the high rate of these antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in acute uncomplicated cystitis in Japan.


Assuntos
Cistite , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Feminino , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Japão/epidemiologia , Bactérias , Fluoroquinolonas , Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/epidemiologia , Cistite/microbiologia
11.
Mol Biotechnol ; 66(1): 151-160, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37060514

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 enters cells via binding of the surface-exposed spike protein RBD to host cell ACE2 receptors. Therefore, in this study, we designed a scFv (single-chain fragment variable) based on the amino acid sequence of CC12.1, a neutralizing antibody found in the serum of patients with COVID-19. scFv is a low-molecular-weight antibody designed based on the antibody-antigen recognition site. Compared with the original antibody, scFv has the advantages of high tissue penetration and low production cost. In this study, we constructed gmLAB (genetically modified lactic acid bacteria) by incorporating the designed scFv into a gene expression vector and introducing it into lactic acid bacteria, aiming to develop microbial therapeutics against COVID-19. In addition, gmLAB were also constructed to produce GFP-fused scFv as a means of visualizing scFv. Expression of each scFv was confirmed by Western blotting, and the ability to bind to the RBD was investigated by ELISA. This study is the first to design a scFv against the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 using gmLAB and could be applied in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ligação Proteica , Anticorpos Antivirais
12.
J Surg Oncol ; 129(2): 381-391, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37916518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are an immune component of the cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) microenvironment and affect tumor growth. TAMs can polarize into different phenotypes, that is, proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. However, the role of the macrophage phenotype in CMM remains unclear. METHODS: We examined 88 patients with CMM. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and the density of M1 and M2 macrophages was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Immune cells coexpressing CD68 and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (pSTAT1) were considered M1 macrophages, whereas those coexpressing CD68 and c-macrophage activating factor (c-Maf) were defined as M2 macrophages. These TAMs were counted, and the relationships between the density of M1 and M2 macrophages and clinicopathological factors including prognosis were investigated. RESULTS: The CD68/c-Maf score ranged from 0 to 34 (median: 5.5). The patients were divided based on the median score into the CD68/c-Maf high (≥5.5) and low (<5.5) expression groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that CD68/c-Maf expression was an independent predictive factor for progression-free survival and an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. CD68/pSTAT1 expression was found in only two patients. CONCLUSION: We suggest that CD68/pSTAT1 coexpression is rarely observed in patients with CMM, and high CD68/c-Maf expression is a predictor of worse prognosis in these patients.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo
13.
Oncologist ; 29(1): e108-e117, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37590388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated efficacy over previous cytotoxic chemotherapies in clinical trials among various tumors. Despite their favorable outcomes, they are associated with a unique set of toxicities termed as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Among the toxicities, ICI-related pneumonitis has poor outcomes with little understanding of its risk factors. This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether pre-existing interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) is a potential risk factor for ICI-related pneumonitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer, malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and gastric cancer, who was administered either nivolumab, pembrolizumab, or atezolizumab between September 2014 and January 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Information on baseline characteristics, computed tomography findings before administration of ICIs, clinical outcomes, and irAEs were collected from their medical records. Pre-existing ILA was categorized based on previous studies. RESULTS: Two-hundred-nine patients with a median age of 68 years were included and 23 (11.0%) developed ICI-related pneumonitis. While smoking history and ICI agents were associated with ICI-related pneumonitis (P = .005 and .044, respectively), the categories of ILA were not associated with ICI-related pneumonitis (P = .428). None of the features of lung abnormalities were also associated with ICI-related pneumonitis. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that smoking history was the only significant predictor of ICI-related pneumonitis (P = .028). CONCLUSION: This retrospective study did not demonstrate statistically significant association between pre-existing ILA and ICI-related pneumonitis, nor an association between radiologic features of ILA and ICI-related pneumonitis. Smoking history was independently associated with ICI-related pneumonitis. Further research is warranted for further understanding of the risk factors of ICI-related pneumonitis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Renais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pneumonia , Humanos , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/patologia
14.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37662305

RESUMO

Midbrain dopamine neurons impact neural processing in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) through mesocortical projections. However, the signals conveyed by dopamine projections to the PFC remain unclear, particularly at the single-axon level. Here, we investigated dopaminergic axonal activity in the medial PFC (mPFC) during reward and aversive processing. By optimizing microprism-mediated two-photon calcium imaging of dopamine axon terminals, we found diverse activity in dopamine axons responsive to both reward and aversive stimuli. Some axons exhibited a preference for reward, while others favored aversive stimuli, and there was a strong bias for the latter at the population level. Long-term longitudinal imaging revealed that the preference was maintained in reward- and aversive-preferring axons throughout classical conditioning in which rewarding and aversive stimuli were paired with preceding auditory cues. However, as mice learned to discriminate reward or aversive cues, a cue activity preference gradually developed only in aversive-preferring axons. We inferred the trial-by-trial cue discrimination based on machine learning using anticipatory licking or facial expressions, and found that successful discrimination was accompanied by sharper selectivity for the aversive cue in aversive-preferring axons. Our findings indicate that a group of mesocortical dopamine axons encodes aversive-related signals, which are modulated by both classical conditioning across days and trial-by-trial discrimination within a day.

15.
J Orthop Sci ; 29(1): 101-108, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621375

RESUMO

OBEJECTIVE: To perform a magnetic resonance imaging T2-mapping of the ligamentum flavum in healthy individuals and patients with lumbar spinal stenosis scheduled for surgery and compare the T2 relaxation times. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The T2 relaxation time of the ligamentum flavum was compared among 3 groups, healthy young individuals (H group (age< 50)), healthy middle-aged and older individuals (H group (age≥50)), and patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (L group). Additionally, the thickness of the ligament was measured in the axial image plane, and the occupied area ratio of each fiber was measured by staining the surgically obtained ligament, and each was correlated with the T2 relaxation time. We also evaluated the adhesion of the ligamentum flavum with the dura mater during the surgery. RESULTS: The T2 relaxation times were significantly prolonged in H group (age ≥50) and L group (P < 0.001) compared to H group (age<50). The relationship between collagen fiber and T2 relaxation times was significantly positive (r = 0.720, P < 0.001). Moreover, the relaxation times were significantly prolonged in those with adhesion of the ligamentum flavum with the dura mater (P < 0.05). The cut-off for the relaxation time was 50 ms (sensitivity: 62.50%, false positive rate: 10.8%). CONCLUSION: Healthy middle-aged and older individuals and patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and adhesion of the ligamentum flavum with the dura mater have prolonged T2 relaxation times. Hence, the adhesion between the ligamentum flavum and dura mater should be considered in cases with a relaxation time ≥50 ms.


Assuntos
Ligamento Amarelo , Estenose Espinal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Idoso , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia , Estenose Espinal/patologia , Ligamento Amarelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamento Amarelo/cirurgia , Ligamento Amarelo/patologia , Região Lombossacral , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/patologia
16.
Anim Sci J ; 94(1): e13905, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38102883

RESUMO

Brevibacterium linens (B. linens) is a dairy microorganism used in the production of washed cheese. However, there has been little research on B. linens, especially regarding its effects in vivo. Herein, we report the morphological characteristics of B. linens, such as its two-phase growth and V- and Y-shaped bodies. We also report that oral administration of B. linens increased the diversity of the gut microbiota and promoted the growth of lactobacilli and short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, such as Lachnospiraceae and Muribaculaceae. These findings suggest that the ingestion of B. linens may have beneficial effects in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Queijo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillus , Bactérias , Administração Oral
17.
J Exp Orthop ; 10(1): 122, 2023 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38006419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to the external rotation of the femur during knee flexion. METHODS: Three-dimensional (3D) digital models of the femur and tibia were reconstructed from computed tomography images of 41 healthy Japanese subjects. Thirteen parameters related to femoral and tibial morphology and alignment of the lower extremities were evaluated, including the inclination angle of the posterior lateral and medial femoral condyles, the ratio of the medial and lateral posterior condyle radii approximated as spheres, the spherical condylar angle, the posterior condylar angle, the medial and lateral posterior tibial slope, the difference of medial and lateral posterior tibial slope, the tibiofemoral rotation angle, the 3D femorotibial angle, the 3D hip-knee-ankle angle, and the passing point of the weight-bearing line (medial-lateral and anterior-posterior). The rotation angle of the femur relative to the tibia during squatting was investigated using a 3D to 2D image matching technique and the relationships with the13 parameters were determined. RESULTS: The femur externally rotated substantially up to 20° of knee flexion (9.2° ± 3.7°) and gently rotated after 20° of knee flexion (12.8° ± 6.2°). The external rotation angle at 20°-120° of knee flexion correlated with the spherical condylar angle, the tibiofemoral rotation angle and the inclination angle of the posterior medial condyles (correlation coefficient; 0.506, 0.364, 0.337, respectively). CONCLUSION: The parameter that was most related to the external rotation of the femur during knee flexion was the spherical condylar angle. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

18.
Exp Ther Med ; 26(5): 512, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37840567

RESUMO

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derivative that can be found in the majority of mammalian tissues. Taurine is also present in the skin and is involved in maintaining skin homeostasis by exerting osmoregulatory and antioxidant effects. Previous studies have indicated that taurine treatment is effective against age-, ultraviolet- or detergent-induced skin dysfunction. To determine the mechanism responsible for the beneficial actions of taurine in the skin, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of taurine on epidermal components (ceramides and filaggrin) and on the dermal extracellular matrix, in three-dimensionally (3D) cultured epidermis and dermal fibroblasts, respectively. These cells were cultured in the presence of 3-50 mM taurine, and cells or culture medium were collected for analysis. The effects of taurine on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in the skin and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1ß and IL-1 receptor antagonist, were investigated in acetone-treated 3D-cultured epidermis using a Tewameter and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), respectively. The mRNA expression levels of MMP-1 and hyaluronic acid (HA) production were measured in skin dermal fibroblasts using RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Taurine was found to suppress acetone-induced elevation in TEWL in 3D-cultured epidermis. Taurine also stimulated the mRNA expression of ceramide synthase 4 and filaggrin, a major structural protein in the stratum corneum, in 3D-cultured epidermis. In skin dermal fibroblasts, taurine inhibited the IL-1α-stimulated mRNA and protein expression of MMP-1. In addition, taurine treatment increased HA synthase-2 mRNA expression and in turn HA production. Results from the present study suggest that the protective effect of taurine on the skin is associated with the enhancement of epidermal barrier component expression and modulation of dermal extracellular matrix metabolism.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(37): 44404-44412, 2023 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37695862

RESUMO

Liquid metals (LMs) are used as stretchable conductors in various stretchable electronic devices. Moreover, such devices using Ga-based LMs have attracted considerable attention. Herein, we propose a method for accurately determining the contact resistance (Rc) between galinstan and Cu electrodes by considering the current-density distribution in transfer length method (TLM) measurement. Conventional TLM measurements assume that the sheet resistance of the metal electrode (Rshe) is negligible compared with that of the object (Rsho), such as Si. However, this assumption may be problematic because the Rsho of Ga-based liquid metals (LMs) is close to the Rshe. Therefore, we developed a method of applying current to each measuring electrode and compared it with the conventional method of applying current to the outer electrodes. Simulation results indicated that Rshe cannot be ignored for galinstan, and the measured resistance in the contact area (RcTotal) included <10% of the Rc component when current was applied to the outer electrodes. In contrast, RcTotal included the entire Rc component when current was applied to each electrode. Furthermore, we found that the volume resistances of the object and electrode included in RcTotal cannot be ignored. Therefore, for accurate measurement, current must be applied to each electrode, and Rc must be determined from the intersections of the measured and simulated RcTotal. The obtained contact resistivity (ρc), i.e., the contact resistance per unit contact area, was 0.115 mΩ·mm2. The maximum error was 0.085 mΩ·mm2, which was lower than the ρc of the solders (≥10-1 mΩ·mm2) with the lowest ρc among the electrical interface materials between the electronic components and wiring. This study provides valuable insight into the Rc measurement of LMs, along with new opportunities for the development of stretchable electronics using LMs.

20.
Sports (Basel) ; 11(8)2023 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37624136

RESUMO

Understanding the physical fitness elements that influence high-intensity running ability during rugby matches is crucial for optimizing player performance and developing effective training strategies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between various physical fitness components and high-intensity running ability in rugby. For this purpose, 60 Japanese university rugby players were randomized into four groups and two matches were played. The participants were monitored in two matches, and their running abilities were assessed using GPS sensors. The running time was divided into three running velocity categories: distance run at ≤5.4 km/h (low-intensity running); distance run at 5.5~17.9 km/h (medium-intensity running), and distance run at ≥18.0 km/h ≤(high-intensity running) and backs and forwards were evaluated separately. To determine which physical fitness test is more predictive of performance, we decided to correlate several physical test performances with the running time intensities during the matches. Independently of the position, the high-intensity running time correlated with the repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the 40 m sprint speed. The results suggest that RSA measured in the field is the most important high-intensity running ability predictor during a match for both positions.

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