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1.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(3): 035001, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078711

RESUMO

Technological applications involving 2D MoS2 require transfer of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown material from its original substrate and subsequent lithographic processes. Inevitably, those steps contaminate the surface of the 2D material with polymeric residues affecting the electronic and optical properties of the MoS2. Annealing in forming gas is considered an efficient treatment to partially remove such residues. However, hydrogen also interacts with MoS2 creating or saturating sulfur vacancies. Sulfur vacancies are known to be at the origin of n-doping evident in the majority of as-grown MoS2 samples. In this context, investigating the impact of thermal annealing in forming gas on the electronic and optical properties of MoS2 monolayer is technologically important. In order to address this topic, we have systematically studied the evolution of CVD grown MoS2 monolayer using Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transport measurements through a series of thermal annealing in forming gas at temperatures up to 500 °C. Efficient removal of the polymeric residues is demonstrated at temperatures as low as 200 °C. Above this value, carrier density modulation is identified by photoluminescence, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical characterization and is correlated to the creation of sulfur vacancies. Finally, the degradation of the MoS2 single layer is verified with annealing at or above 350 °C through Raman and photocurrent measurements.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(6): 067401, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141674

RESUMO

Exciton polaritons in high quality semiconductor microcavities can travel long macroscopic distances (>100 µm) due to their ultralight effective mass. The polaritons are repelled from optically pumped exciton reservoirs where they are formed; however, their spatial dynamics is not as expected for pointlike particles. Instead we show polaritons emitted into waveguides travel orthogonally to the repulsive potential gradient and can only be explained if they are emitted as macroscopic delocalized quantum particles, even before they form Bose condensates.

3.
Nat Mater ; 15(10): 1074-8, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27500807

RESUMO

Practical challenges to extrapolating Moore's law favour alternatives to electrons as information carriers. Two promising candidates are spin-based and all-optical architectures, the former offering lower energy consumption, the latter superior signal transfer down to the level of chip-interconnects. Polaritons-spinor quasi-particles composed of semiconductor excitons and microcavity photons-directly couple exciton spins and photon polarizations, combining the advantages of both approaches. However, their implementation for spintronics has been hindered because polariton spins can be manipulated only optically or by strong magnetic fields. Here we use an external electric field to directly control the spin of a polariton condensate, bias-tuning the emission polarization. The nonlinear spin dynamics offers an alternative route to switching, allowing us to realize an electrical spin-switch exhibiting ultralow switching energies below 0.5 fJ. Our results lay the foundation for development of devices based on the electro-optical control of coherent spin ensembles on a chip.

4.
Sci Rep ; 6: 20091, 2016 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26822483

RESUMO

Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(24): 8770-5, 2014 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24889642

RESUMO

Polariton condensates are macroscopic quantum states formed by half-matter half-light quasiparticles, thus connecting the phenomena of atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, and photon lasing. Here we report the spontaneous formation of such condensates in programmable potential landscapes generated by two concentric circles of light. The imposed geometry supports the emergence of annular states that extend up to 100 µm, yet are fully coherent and exhibit a spatial structure that remains stable for minutes at a time. These states exhibit a petal-like intensity distribution arising due to the interaction of two superfluids counterpropagating in the circular waveguide defined by the optical potential. In stark contrast to annular modes in conventional lasing systems, the resulting standing wave patterns exhibit only minimal overlap with the pump laser itself. We theoretically describe the system using a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which indicates why the condensate wants to rotate. Experimentally, we demonstrate the ability to precisely control the structure of the petal condensates both by carefully modifying the excitation geometry as well as perturbing the system on ultrafast timescales to reveal unexpected superfluid dynamics.

6.
Nat Mater ; 13(7): 712-9, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24793357

RESUMO

Strongly coupled optical microcavities containing different exciton states permit the creation of hybrid-polariton modes that can be described in terms of a linear admixture of cavity-photon and the constituent excitons. Such hybrid states have been predicted to have optical properties that are different from their constituent parts, making them a test bed for the exploration of light-matter coupling. Here, we use strong coupling in an optical microcavity to mix the electronic transitions of two J-aggregated molecular dyes and use both non-resonant photoluminescence emission and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy to show that hybrid-polariton states act as an efficient and ultrafast energy-transfer pathway between the two exciton states. We argue that this type of structure may act as a model system to study energy-transfer processes in biological light-harvesting complexes.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(11): 113602, 2014 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24702368

RESUMO

We report observation of oscillations in the dynamics of a microcavity polariton condensate formed under pulsed nonresonant excitation. While oscillations in a condensate have always been attributed to Josephson mechanisms due to a chemical potential unbalance, here we show that under some localization conditions of the condensate, they may arise from relaxation oscillations, a pervasive classical dynamics that repeatedly provokes the sudden decay of a reservoir, shutting off relaxation as the reservoir is replenished. Using nonresonant excitation, it is thus possible to obtain condensate injection pulses with a record frequency of 0.1 THz.

8.
Science ; 336(6082): 704-7, 2012 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22491095

RESUMO

Tunneling of electrons through a potential barrier is fundamental to chemical reactions, electronic transport in semiconductors and superconductors, magnetism, and devices such as terahertz oscillators. Whereas tunneling is typically controlled by electric fields, a completely different approach is to bind electrons into bosonic quasiparticles with a photonic component. Quasiparticles made of such light-matter microcavity polaritons have recently been demonstrated to Bose-condense into superfluids, whereas spatially separated Coulomb-bound electrons and holes possess strong dipole interactions. We use tunneling polaritons to connect these two realms, producing bosonic quasiparticles with static dipole moments. Our resulting three-state system yields dark polaritons analogous to those in atomic systems or optical waveguides, thereby offering new possibilities for electromagnetically induced transparency, room-temperature condensation, and adiabatic photon-to-electron transfer.

9.
Astrobiology ; 3(3): 489-504, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14678660

RESUMO

We propose a terahertz (far-infrared) circular dichroism-based life-detection technology that may provide a universal and unequivocal spectroscopic signature of living systems regardless of their genesis. We argue that, irrespective of the specifics of their chemistry, all life forms will employ well-structured, chiral, stereochemically pure macromolecules (>500 atoms) as the catalysts with which they perform their metabolic and replicative functions. We also argue that nearly all such macromolecules will absorb strongly at terahertz frequencies and exhibit significant circular dichroism, and that this circular dichroism unambiguously distinguishes biological from abiological materials. Lastly, we describe several approaches to the fabrication of a terahertz circular dichroism spectrometer and provide preliminary experimental indications of their feasibility. Because terahertz circular dichroism signals arise from the molecular machinery necessary to carry out life's metabolic and genetic processes, this life-detection method differs fundamentally from more well-established approaches based on the detection of isotopic fractionation, "signature" carbon compounds, disequilibria, or other by-products of metabolism. Moreover, terahertz circular dichroism spectroscopy detects this machinery in a manner that makes few, if any, assumptions as to its chemical nature or the processes that it performs.


Assuntos
Dicroísmo Circular/métodos , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Genética , Vida , Metabolismo
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