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1.
J Hepatol ; 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transcription termination fine tunes gene expression and contributes to specify the function of RNAs in eukaryotic cells. Transcription termination of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is subjected to the recognition of the canonical polyadenylation signal (cPAS) common to all viral transcripts. The regulation of the usage of this cPAS and its impact on viral gene expression and replication is currently unknown. APPROACH & RESULTS: To unravel the regulation of HBV transcript termination, we implemented a 3' RACE-PCR assay coupled to single molecule sequencing both in in vitro infected hepatocytes and in chronically infected patients. The detection of a previously unidentified transcriptional readthrough indicated that the cPAS was not systematically recognized during HBV replication in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression downregulation experiments demonstrated a role for the RNA helicases DDX5 and DDX17 in promoting viral transcriptional readthrough, which was, in turn, associated to HBV RNA destabilization and decreased HBx protein expression. RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation, together with mutation of cPAS sequence, suggested a direct role of DDX5 and DDX17 in functionally linking cPAS recognition to transcriptional readthrough, HBV RNA stability and replication. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify DDX5 and DDX17 as crucial determinants for HBV transcriptional fidelity and as host restriction factors for HBV replication. IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular (ccc)DNA degradation or functional inactivation remains the holy grail to be attained to achieve HBV cure. Transcriptional fidelity is a cornerstone in gene expression regulation. Here, we demonstrate that two helicases, DDX5 and DDX17, inhibit the recognition of HBV polyadenylation signal and transcriptional termination, thus decreasing HBV RNA stability and acting as restriction factors for efficient cccDNA transcription and viral replication. The observation that DDX5 and DDX17 are downregulated in HBV chronically infected patients suggests a role for the helicases in HBV persistence in vivo. These results open new perspectives for researchers aiming at identifying new targets to neutralise cccDNA transcription.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated long-term trajectories of circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV)-RNA and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) in persons with and without hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss during tenofovir therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. METHODS: We included 29 persons with HIV (PWH) with HBsAg loss and 29 matched PWH without loss. We compared HBV-RNA and HBcrAg decline and assessed the cumulative proportions with undetectable HBV-RNA and HBcrAg levels during tenofovir therapy using Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS: HBsAg loss occurred after a median of 4 years (IQR 1 - 8). All participants with HBsAg loss achieved suppressed HBV-DNA and undetectable HBV-RNA preceding undetectable qHBsAg levels, whereas 79% achieved negative HBcrAg. In comparison, 79% of the participants without HBsAg loss achieved undetectable HBV-RNA and 48% negative HBcrAg. After two years on tenofovir, an HBV RNA decline ≥1 log10 copies/ml had 100% sensitivity and 36.4% specificity for HBsAg loss, whereas an HBcrAg decline ≥1 log10 U/ml had 91.0% sensitivity and 64.5% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: HBV-RNA suppression preceded undetectable qHBsAg levels, and had high sensitivity but low specificity for HBsAg loss during tenofovir therapy in PWH. HBcrAg remained detectable in approximately 20% of persons with, and 50% of persons without HBsAg loss.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(5): e2308776121, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252831

RESUMO

We present a drug design strategy based on structural knowledge of protein-protein interfaces selected through virus-host coevolution and translated into highly potential small molecules. This approach is grounded on Vinland, the most comprehensive atlas of virus-human protein-protein interactions with annotation of interacting domains. From this inspiration, we identified small viral protein domains responsible for interaction with human proteins. These peptides form a library of new chemical entities used to screen for replication modulators of several pathogens. As a proof of concept, a peptide from a KSHV protein, identified as an inhibitor of influenza virus replication, was translated into a small molecule series with low nanomolar antiviral activity. By targeting the NEET proteins, these molecules turn out to be of therapeutic interest in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model with kidney lesions. This study provides a biomimetic framework to design original chemistries targeting cellular proteins, with indications going far beyond infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Vírus , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Proteoma , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas
4.
Gut ; 73(4): 659-667, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37879886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A convenient, reproducible biomarker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) transcriptional activity is lacking. We measured circulating HBV RNA (cirB-RNA) in untreated and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) treated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients to define its correlation with intrahepatic viral markers and HBV core-related antigen (HBcrAg). DESIGN: Paired liver biopsy and serum samples were collected from 122 untreated and 30 NUC-treated CHB patients. We measured cirB-RNA, HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HBcrAg and alanine aminotransferase levels. cirB-RNA was quantified using an investigational HBV RNA assay for use on the cobas 6800 system. The test detects a region spanning the HBV canonical polyadenylation site. cccDNA and 3.5 kb RNA in liver tissue were assessed by quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR. RESULTS: cirB-RNA was detectable in 100% of HBeAg(+) chronic hepatitis (CH), 57% and 14% of HBeAg(-) CH and chronic infection untreated patients and 47% of NUC-treated patients. cirB-RNA undetectability was associated with lower intrahepatic cccDNA transcriptional activity, as well as serum HBcrAg, but no significant differences in HBsAg, in both untreated and treated patients. In untreated HBeAg(-) patients, cirB-RNA correlated with intrahepatic 3.5 kb RNA and cccDNA transcriptional activity, serum HBV DNA and HBcrAg, but not with HBsAg or total cccDNA levels. Combined undetectability of both cirB-RNA and HBcrAg detection in untreated HBeAg(-) patients identified a subgroup with the lowest levels of intrahepatic transcriptionally active cccDNA. CONCLUSION: Our results support the usefulness of quantification of circulating HBV RNA expressed from cccDNA as an indicator of intrahepatic active viral reservoir in both untreated and NUC-treated CHB patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02602847.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Humanos , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , DNA Circular , DNA Viral , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Fígado/patologia , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B , RNA , Biomarcadores
5.
J Viral Hepat ; 30(10): 830-833, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37485610

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in people with mental disorders (PWMDs). However, in the international context of HCV elimination, no previous study has explored the features of seropositive PWMDs with vs. without a positive viral load (VL). We retrospectively retrieved all HCV serology results of patients hospitalized in 2019, 2020 and 2021 in the second-largest psychiatric hospital of France. Using the medical records of all patients found seropositive for HCV, the following data were collected: sex (male, female), age (in years), previous history of illicit drug use except cannabis (yes or no) and previous history of incarceration (yes or no). We conducted a case-control comparison of these variables between the PWMDs who had and did not have a positive VL, thus providing odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (ORs [95% CI]). In a total of 13,276 inpatients, 2540 (19.1%) underwent at least one HCV serology; 55 of them (2.16%) were found positive. A VL count was performed for 48 of them, finding 15 (31.3%) individuals with active HCV. Compared with those with a negative VL, these 15 individuals were less likely to have previous documented illicit drug use (OR = 0.18; 95% CI [0.05-0.68]) and to have been previously incarcerated (OR = 0.23; 95% CI [0.06-0.99]); age and sex did not statistically differ. In the context of HCV elimination, PWMDs yet to be treated for HCV are more likely to be those with no identified risk factor for HCV, which supports a strategy of systematic screening for HCV among PWMDs.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Drogas Ilícitas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Carga Viral , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus
6.
JHEP Rep ; 5(6): 100728, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37122357

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Prophylaxis with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) has decreased the rate of HBV recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), but the duration of this prophylaxis remains debated. Our aim was to investigate the recurrence of both intrahepatic and serum HBV markers after OLT in patients receiving long-term NUC and HBIG prophylaxis. Methods: A total of 31 HBV-positive patients benefiting from OLT were prospectively enrolled in five French centres between 2012 and 2015. Tissue samples from the native liver, liver reperfusion biopsy, and 12-month post-OLT (M12) biopsy were collected. Intrahepatic HBV markers were quantified using Droplet Digital PCR. Serum hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) and HBsAg were quantified using the Lumipulse platform. Results: Among the 31 patients, 26 were HBeAg negative and 28 had undetectable serum HBV DNA at OLT. All patients received HBIG and NUC after OLT, and serum HBV DNA was undetectable at M12. Of the 27 available native livers, 26 had detectable total HBV DNA (median, 0.045 copies/cell), 21 were positive for cccDNA (0.001 copies/cell), and 19 were positive for 3.5-kb HBV RNA (0.0004 copies/cell). Among the 14 sequential reperfusion and M12 biopsies, seven were positive for HBV markers on the reperfusion sampling, and six of them were also positive at M12. Of the 27 patients with available serum samples at M12, eight were positive for HBcrAg and five were positive for HBsAg by ultrasensitive quantification, although they were negative by conventional techniques. Overall, among the 17 patients having a matched biopsy and serum sample at M12, only one had undetectable HBV markers in both the liver and serum. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a very early detection of viral genome in the graft and intrahepatic viral recurrence despite NUC and HBIG prophylaxis. Clinical Trials Registration: This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02602847). Impact and Implications: In this work, we show that, despite the recommended prophylaxis based on NUC and HBIG, HBV can infect the new liver very rapidly after transplantation. Twelve months after transplantation, the majority of patients had at least one HBV marker detected in either serum or the liver. Therefore, our results demonstrate early intrahepatic viral recurrence despite NUC and HBIG therapy and underline the importance of an optimal patient compliance to the antiviral prophylaxis to prevent viral rebound.

7.
J Med Virol ; 95(3): e28634, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36879535

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) coinfection confers a greater risk for accelerated liver disease progression. Full-length characterization of HDV genome is necessary to understand pathogenesis and treatment response. However, owing to its high variability and tight structure, sequencing approaches remain challenging. Herein, we present a workflow to amplify, sequence, and analyze the whole HDV genome in a single fragment. Sequencing was based on the Oxford Nanopore Technologies long-read sequencing followed by a turnkey analysis pipeline (VIRiONT, VIRal in-house ONT sequencing analysis pipeline) that we developed and make available online for free. For the first time, HDV genome was successfully amplified and full-length sequenced in a single fragment, allowing accurate subtyping from 30 clinical samples. High variability of edition, a crucial step in viral life cycle, was found among samples (from 0% to 59%). Additionally, a new subtype of HDV genotype 1 was identified. We provide a complete workflow for assessment of HDV genome at full-length quasispecies resolution overcoming genome assembly issues and helping to identify modifications throughout the whole genome. This will help a better understanding of the impact of genotype/subtype, viral dynamics, and structural variants on HDV pathogenesis and treatment response.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Hepatite B , Hepatite D , Humanos , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Genótipo
8.
J Hepatol ; 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931396

RESUMO

Bulevirtide has been recently conditionally approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of Chronic Hepatitis Delta, but the ideal duration of therapy is unknown. Here we describe the first case of cure of Hepatitis Delta following 3 years of Bulevirtide monotherapy in a patient with compensated cirrhosis and esophageal varices. During the 72-week off-Bulevirtide follow-up, virological and biochemical responses were maintained. In the off-therapy liver biopsy, intrahepatic HDV RNA and Hepatitis D antigen were undetectable, <1% hepatocytes were Hepatitis B surface antigen positive while hepatitis B core antigen was negative. Grading and staging improved compared to pre-treatment biopsy.

9.
J Hepatol ; 77(6): 1525-1531, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bulevirtide (BLV) has recently been conditionally approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis delta (CHD) in Europe, but its effectiveness and safety in patients with compensated cirrhosis and clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) are unknown. METHODS: Consecutive patients with HDV-related compensated cirrhosis and CSPH who started BLV 2 mg/day were enrolled in this single-center study. Clinical/virological characteristics were collected at baseline, weeks 4, 8 and every 8 weeks thereafter. HDV RNA was quantified by Robogene 2.0 (lower limit of detection 6 IU/ml). RESULTS: Eighteen Caucasian patients with compensated cirrhosis and CSPH under nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment were enrolled: median (IQR) age was 48 (29-77) years, and 67% were male. Median (IQR) platelet count was 70 (37-227) x103/µl, liver stiffness measurement (LSM) 16.4 (7.8-57.8) kPa, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 106 (32-222) U/L, HBsAg 3.7 (2.5-4.3) log IU/ml, HDV RNA 4.9 (3.3-6.6) log IU/ml. During 48 weeks of BLV monotherapy, HDV RNA declined by 3.1 (0.2-4.3) log IU/ml (p <0.001 vs. baseline), becoming undetectable in 5 patients (23%). A virological response was observed in 14 (78%) patients while a non-response was observed in 2 (11%). ALT decreased to 35 (15-86) U/L (p <0.001 vs. baseline), normalizing in 83% of patients. A combined response was observed in 67% of patients. Aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels significantly improved. Concerning liver function parameters, albumin values significantly increased and bilirubin remained stable. LSM significantly improved in patients with virological response, while platelet count was unchanged. None of the patients developed decompensating events or hepatocellular carcinoma. BLV was well tolerated, no patient discontinued treatment and the increase in bile acids was fully asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: A 48-week course of BLV 2 mg/day monotherapy is safe and effective even for difficult-to treat patients with HDV-related compensated cirrhosis and CSPH. LAY SUMMARY: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is associated with the most severe form of viral hepatitis. A new treatment for HDV called bulevirtide has recently received conditional approval for patients with chronic HDV infection. However, its safety and effectiveness in patients with more advanced liver disease is not known. Herein, we show that it is safe and effective in patients with HDV-related cirrhosis and clinically significant portal hypertension.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite D , Hipertensão Portal , Lipopeptídeos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite D/complicações , Hepatite D/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Portal/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Lipopeptídeos/uso terapêutico
10.
J Clin Virol ; 150-151: 105150, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The amount of HBV RNA in peripheral blood may reflect HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) transcriptional activity within infected hepatocytes. Quantification of circulating HBV RNA (cirB-RNA) is thus a promising biomarker for monitoring antiviral treatment. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the performance of an automated, prototype quantitative HBV RNA assay for use on the Roche cobas® 6800/8800 systems. STUDY DESIGN: The sensitivity, specificity, linearity, and potential interference by HBV DNA of the cobas® HBV RNA assay were assessed using synthetic HBV armored RNA and clinical specimens. RESULTS: cobas® HBV RNA results were linear between 10 and 107 copies/mL in clinical samples of several HBV genotypes, and up to 109 copies/mL with synthetic RNA. Precision and reproducibility were excellent, with standard deviation below 0.15 log10 copies/mL and coefficients of variation below 5% throughout the linear range. The presence of HBV DNA had minimal (<0.3 log10 copies/mL) impact on HBV RNA quantification at DNA:RNA ratios of up to approximately one million. In a panel of 36 untreated patient samples, cirB-RNA concentrations were approximately 200-fold lower than HBV DNA. cirB-RNA was detected in all 13 HBeAg-positive patients (mean 6.0 log10 copies/mL), and in 20 of 23 HBeAg-negative patients (mean of quantifiable samples 2.2 log10 copies/mL). Finally, cirB-RNA was detected in 12 of 20 nucleoside analog-treated patients (mean of quantifiable samples 3.4 log10 copies/mL). CONCLUSIONS: The cobas® 6800/8800 investigational HBV RNA assay is a high throughput, sensitive and inclusive assay to evaluate the clinical relevance of cirB-RNA quantification in patients with chronic hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Hepatite B Crônica , DNA Viral , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
J Hepatol ; 76(2): 464-469, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699951

RESUMO

The entry inhibitor bulevirtide (BLV) received conditional approval from the EMA in July 2020 for the treatment of adult patients with compensated chronic hepatitis delta. However, the effectiveness and safety of BLV administered as monotherapy beyond 48 weeks in difficult-to-treat patients with HDV-related cirrhosis is presently unknown. Herein, we describe the first patients with HDV-related compensated cirrhosis who were treated with BLV (10 mg/day as a starting dose) for up to 3 years on a compassionate use program. Patients were also monitored for HBcrAg and HBV RNA levels, and HDV- and HBV-specific T-cell markers. In the patient who stopped BLV at week 48, after achieving a virological and biochemical response, the initial virological and biochemical rebound was followed by alanine aminotransferase normalization coupled with low HDV RNA and HBsAg levels. In the 2 patients treated continuously for 3 years, virological and biochemical responses were maintained throughout the treatment period even after dose reduction. In a patient with advanced compensated cirrhosis, liver function tests significantly improved, esophageal varices disappeared, and histological/laboratory features of autoimmune hepatitis resolved. Overall, no safety issues were recorded, as bile salt increase was asymptomatic. While serum HBV RNA levels remained undetectable in all patients, HBV core-related antigen levels showed a progressive, yet modest decline during long-term BLV treatment. No HDV-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells were detected, neither after HDV reactivation (after BLV withdrawn in Patient 1) nor during 3 years of BLV treatment. In conclusion, this report shows that continuous administration of BLV monotherapy for 3 years leads to excellent virological and clinical responses in patients with HDV-related cirrhosis who had contraindications to interferon-based therapies.


Assuntos
Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hepatite D/complicações , Hepatite D/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Testes de Função Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(9): 2400-2406, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful 2-drug regimens (2DRs) for HIV were made possible by the availability of drugs combining potency and tolerability with a high genetic barrier to resistance. How these deal with resistance development/re-emergence, compared with 3DRs, is thus of paramount importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national survey including patients who were either naive or experienced with any 2DR or 3DR but failing integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-containing regimens [two consecutive plasma viral load (VL) values >50 copies/mL] was conducted between 2014 and 2019. Genotypic resistance tests were interpreted with the v28 ANRS algorithm. RESULTS: Overall, 1104 patients failing any INSTI-containing regimen (2DRs, n = 207; 3DRs, n = 897) were analysed. Five hundred and seventy-seven (52.3%) patients were infected with a B subtype and 527 (47.3%) with non-B subtypes. Overall, 644 (58%) patients showed no known integrase resistance mutations at failure. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with the emergence of at least one integrase mutation were: high VL at failure (OR = 1.24 per 1 log10 copies/mL increase); non-B versus B subtype (OR = 1.75); low genotypic sensitivity score (GSS) (OR = 0.10 for GSS = 2 versus GSS = 0-0.5); and dolutegravir versus raltegravir (OR = 0.46). Although 3DRs versus 2DRs reached statistical significance in univariate analysis (OR = 0.59, P = 0.007), the variable is not retained in the final model. CONCLUSIONS: This study is one of the largest studies characterizing integrase resistance in patients failing any INSTI-containing 2DR or 3DR in routine clinical care and reveals factors associated with emergence of integrase resistance that should be taken into consideration in clinical management. No difference was evidenced between patients receiving a 2DR or a 3DR.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV , Integrase de HIV , HIV-1 , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Integrase de HIV/genética , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/farmacologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/genética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mutação , Piridonas , Raltegravir Potássico/uso terapêutico
13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 645020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936003

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 3 and 4 are the major causes of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. Genotype 3 is mainly found in Europe and America, while genotype 4 is predominant in Asia. Several Japanese studies have suggested that genotype 4 is more virulent than genotype 3. We investigated this aspect by analyzing the clinical and biological data for 27 French and Belgian immunocompetent patients infected with HEV genotype 4. Their infections were probably acquired locally, since none of these patients reported traveling outside France or Belgium during the 2-8 weeks before symptoms onset. Each patient was matched for age (±5 years) and gender with two patients infected with HEV genotype 3. Bivariate analysis indicated that the HEV genotype 4-infected patients had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (2067 IU/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (1581 IU/L) activities and total bilirubin concentrations (92.4 µmol/L) than did those infected with HEV genotype 3 (1566 IU/L, p = 0.016; 657 IU/L, p = 0.003 and 47 µmol/L, p = 0.046) at diagnosis. In contrast, more patients infected with HEV genotype 3 reported dark urine (71% vs. 39%, p = 0.02) and experienced asthenia (89% vs. 58%, p < 0.01) than did those infected with HEV genotype 4. Two HEV genotype 4-infected patients died of multi-organ failure, while none of the genotype 3-infected patients died (p = 0.035). Finally, stepwise regression analysis retained only a greater increase in ALT (odds-ratio: 1.0005, 95% confidence interval: 1.00012-1.00084) and less frequent fever (odds-ratio = 0.1244; 95% confidence interval: 0.01887-0.82020) for patients infected with HEV genotype 4. We conclude that HEV-4 infections are likely to be associated with higher ALT activity than HEV-3 infections. Additional immunological and virological studies are required to confirm these findings and better understand the influence, if any, of genotype on HEV pathophysiology.

14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 53(6): 733-744, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate, single-point differential diagnosis between HBeAg-negative infection (ENI) and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is an unmet need. AIMS: To assess the diagnostic value of the new hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) assay. METHODS: A retrospective anonymised data analysis was performed in a multicentre European (nine centres and six countries) cohort of 1582 consecutive HBsAg-positive/HBeAg-negative subjects classified according to EASL guidelines as: 550-CHB, 710-ENI and 322-GZ (grey-zone, HBV-DNA <20 000 IU/mL). RESULTS: Mean age was 44 (±13.2 y), 59% were men; HBV genotypes were 15% A, 2% B, 2% C, 45% D, 9% E, 1% F and 26% unknown. Median HBV-DNA serum levels were 2.2 (1.5-2.7), 3.5 (3.2-3.8) and 5.6 (4.8-6.6) logIU/mL in ENI, GZ and CHB, P < 0.0001. HBsAg serum levels (HBsAgsl) were comparable in CHB and GZ, but lower in ENI (2.9 [2.1-3.6] logIU/mL), P < 0.0001. HBcrAg serum levels (HBcrAgsl) were <3 logU/mL in 90.7% (644/710) ENI, 75.2% (242/322) GZ and 4.7% (26/550) CHB (P < 0.0001). Median HBcrAgsl were 4.8 (3.9-5.7), 2.5 (2.0-2.9) and 2.0 (2.0-2.5) logU/mL in CHB, GZ and ENI, (P < 0.0001). ROC-AUCs for HBcrAg and HBsAg were 0.968 (95% CI, 0.958-0.977) and 0.732 (95% CI, 0.704-0.760) respectively. The optimal HBcrAgsl cut-off to distinguish CHB from ENI was 3.14 logU/mL (95% CI, 3.02-3.25, 91% SE, 93% SP and 92.4% DA). HBcrAgsl were associated with HBV genotypes (P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA) but using genotype-specific cut-offs, HBcrAg DA remained unchanged with overlapping 95% CI. CONCLUSION: The HBcrAg assay showed high diagnostic performance in the accurate single-point identification of patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, independently of HBV genotype. This should prompt future prospective studies to confirm its diagnostic role in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Adulto , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Virus Evol ; 6(2): veaa075, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318859

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been performed at unprecedented rate worldwide with the use of very diverse Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods. Herein, we compare the performance of four NGS-based approaches for SARS-CoV-2 WGS. Twenty-four clinical respiratory samples with a large scale of Ct values (from 10.7 to 33.9) were sequenced with four methods. Three used Illumina sequencing: an in-house metagenomic NGS (mNGS) protocol and two newly commercialised kits including a hybridisation capture method developed by Illumina (DNA Prep with Enrichment kit and Respiratory Virus Oligo Panel, RVOP), and an amplicon sequencing method developed by Paragon Genomics (CleanPlex SARS-CoV-2 kit). We also evaluated the widely used amplicon sequencing protocol developed by ARTIC Network and combined with Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing. All four methods yielded near-complete genomes (>99%) for high viral loads samples (n = 8), with mNGS and RVOP producing the most complete genomes. For mid viral loads (Ct 20-25), amplicon-based enrichment methods led to genome coverage >99 per cent for all samples while 1/8 sample sequenced with RVOP and 2/8 samples sequenced with mNGS had a genome coverage below 99 per cent. For low viral loads (Ct ≥25), amplicon-based enrichment methods were the most sensitive techniques. All methods were highly concordant in terms of identity in complete consensus sequence. Just one mismatch in three samples was observed in CleanPlex vs the other methods, due to the dedicated bioinformatics pipeline setting a high threshold to call SNP compared to reference sequence. Importantly, all methods correctly identified a newly observed 34nt-deletion in ORF6 but required specific bioinformatic validation for RVOP. Finally, as a major warning for targeted techniques, a loss of coverage in any given region of the genome should alert to a potential rearrangement or a SNP in primer-annealing or probe-hybridizing regions and would require further validation using unbiased metagenomic sequencing.

17.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977660

RESUMO

Evidence that Hepatitis D virus (HDV) genotype is involved in HDV infection pathogenesis is increasing. Indeed, HDV genotypes have been shown to be linked to different outcomes in terms of liver fibrosis and treatment response. Herein, we show that the promising HDVdb genotyping tool available online can lead to wrong genotyping results. The current HDVdb algorithm should be carefully considered as a "beta-version" and warrants algorithm core corrections, as soon as possible, for an optimal and beneficial use.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Genótipo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
J Hepatol ; 73(5): 1046-1062, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: HDV infection causes severe chronic liver disease in individuals infected with HBV. However, the factors associated with poor prognosis are largely unknown. Thus, we aimed to identify prognostic factors in patients with HDV infection. METHODS: The French National Reference Centre for HDV performed a nationwide retrospective study on 1,112 HDV-infected patients, collecting epidemiological, clinical, virological and histological data from the initial referral to the last recorded follow-up. RESULTS: The median age of our cohort was 36.5 (29.9-43.2) years and 68.6% of our cohort were male. Most patients whose birthplace was known were immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (52.5%), southern and eastern Europe (21.3%), northern Africa and the Middle East (6.2%), Asia (5.9%) and South America (0.3%). Only 150 patients (13.8%) were French native. HDV load was positive in 659 of 748 tested patients (88.1%). HDV-1 was predominant (75.9%), followed by sub-Saharan genotypes: HDV-5 (17.6%), HDV-7 (2.9%), HDV-6 (1.8%) and HDV-8 (1.6%). At referral, 312 patients (28.2%) had cirrhosis, half having experienced at least 1 episode of hepatic decompensation. Cirrhosis was significantly less frequent in African than in European patients regardless of HDV genotype. At the end of follow-up (median 3.0 [0.8-7.2] years), 48.8% of the patients had developed cirrhosis, 24.2% had ≥1 episode(s) of decompensation and 9.2% had hepatocellular carcinoma. European HDV-1 and African HDV-5 patients were more at risk of developing cirrhosis. Persistent replicative HDV infection was associated with decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. African patients displayed better response to interferon therapy than non-African patients (46.4% vs. 29.1%, p <0.001). HDV viral load at baseline was significantly lower in responders than in non-responders. CONCLUSION: Place of birth, HDV genotype and persistent viremia constitute the main determinants of liver involvement and response to treatment in chronic HDV-infected patients. LAY SUMMARY: Chronic liver infection by hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis. Despite the fact that at least 15-20 million people are chronically infected by HDV worldwide, factors determining the severity of liver involvement are largely unknown. By investigating a large cohort of 1,112 HDV-infected patients followed-up in France, but coming from different areas of the world, we were able to determine that HDV genotype, place of birth (reflecting both viral and host-related factors) and persistent viremia constitute the main determinants of liver involvement and response to treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite D Crônica , Vírus Delta da Hepatite , Cirrose Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Viremia , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etnologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hepatite D Crônica/complicações , Hepatite D Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite D Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite D Crônica/terapia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/patogenicidade , Humanos , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etnologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etnologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral/métodos , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/etnologia
19.
Antiviral Res ; 169: 104553, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288041

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health burden with over 250 million cases worldwide. This complex infection can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Complete recovery is seldom achieved due to the persistence in infected hepatocytes of covalently closed circular (ccc)DNA, which is not targeted by current antiviral therapies. Routine circulating biomarkers used for clinical monitoring of patients do not accurately reflect the cccDNA pool and transcriptional activity. New biomarkers, such as serum HB core-related Ag and circulating HBV RNAs, are under development. In this review, we discuss surrogate non-invasive biomarkers for evaluating intrahepatic cccDNA abundance and transcriptional activity. We also present their relevance for improving the classification of patients with regards to their natural history and for evaluating novel compounds to assess target engagement and to define new virological endpoints.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , DNA Circular/sangue , DNA Viral/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , DNA Viral/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , RNA Viral/sangue
20.
J Hepatol ; 70(4): 615-625, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been proposed that serum hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) reflects intrahepatic covalently closed circular (ccc)DNA levels. However, the correlation of HBcrAg with serum and intrahepatic viral markers and liver histology has not been comprehensively investigated in a large sample. We aimed to determine if HBcrAg could be a useful therapeutic marker in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: HBcrAg was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay in 130 (36 hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]+ and 94 HBeAg-) biopsy proven, untreated, patients with chronic hepatitis B. HBcrAg levels were correlated with: a) serum hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen and alanine aminotransferase levels; b) intrahepatic total (t)HBV-DNA, cccDNA, pregenomic (pg)RNA and cccDNA transcriptional activity (defined as pgRNA/cccDNA ratio); c) fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity scores. RESULTS: HBcrAg levels were significantly higher in HBeAg+ vs. HBeAg- patients and correlated with serum HBV-DNA, intrahepatic tHBV-DNA, pgRNA and cccDNA levels, and transcriptional activity. Patients who were negative for HBcrAg (<3 LogU/ml) had less liver cccDNA and lower cccDNA activity than the HBcrAg+ group. Principal component analysis coupled with unsupervised clustering identified that in a subgroup of HBeAg- patients, higher HBcrAg levels were associated with higher serum HBV-DNA, intrahepatic tHBV-DNA, pgRNA, cccDNA transcriptional activity and with higher fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that HBcrAg is a surrogate marker of both intrahepatic cccDNA and its transcriptional activity. HBcrAg could be useful in the evaluation of new antiviral therapies aiming at a functional cure of HBV infection either by directly or indirectly targeting the intrahepatic cccDNA pool. LAY SUMMARY: Hepatitis B virus causes a chronic infection which develops into severe liver disease and liver cancer. The viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is responsible for the persistence of the infection in hepatocytes. To better manage patient treatment and follow-up, and to develop new antiviral treatments directly targeting the intrahepatic pool of cccDNA, serum surrogate markers reflecting the viral activity in the liver are urgently needed. In this work, we demonstrate that quantification of hepatitis B core-related antigen in serum correlates with cccDNA amount and activity and could be used to monitor disease progression.


Assuntos
DNA Circular/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Ativação Transcricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Genótipo , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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