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1.
Contraception ; : 110415, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate menstrual cup use and intrauterine device (IUD) expulsion. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a secondary analysis of a 3-year contraceptive efficacy trial comparing two copper 380 mm2 IUDs. Investigators randomized participants approximately 1:4 to the TCu380A or NTCu380-Mini IUD. Approximately 12 months after enrollment began, we advised participants against menstrual cup use due to observed IUD expulsions in cup users. We evaluated IUD expulsion (including spontaneous partial and complete expulsion and accidental self-removal) at 12 and 36 months. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate IUD expulsion by age, baseline menstrual volume, body mass index, IUD type, menstrual cup use, parity, and uterine length. RESULTS: This analysis included 1046 participants (203 TCu380A and 843 NTCu380-Mini), with 879 (84.0%) nulliparas. Through 12 and 36 months, expulsion occurred in 74 (7.1%, 95% CI 5.5-8.6%) and 133 (12.7%, 95% CI 10.7-14.7%) participants, respectively. Overall, 250 (23.9%) reported menstrual cup use. More menstrual cup users than non-users experienced expulsion through 12 months (32/203 [15.8%] vs. 42/843 [5.0%]) and 36 months (58/250 [23.2%] vs. 75/796 [9.4%]). Through 36 months, NTCu380-Mini menstrual cup users had higher expulsion odds, while TCu380A cup users did not. Menstrual cup users more frequently experienced accidental self-removal than non-users in participants using the TCu380A (3/53 [5.7%] vs. 0/150 [0.0%]) and the NTCu380-Mini (20/197 [10.2%] vs. 7/646 [1.1%]). In multivariable regression, we found increased odds of expulsion through 36 months in participants using menstrual cups with the NTCu380-Mini (aOR 3.13, 95% CI 1.16-8.46) and <25 years (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.07-2.34). CONCLUSIONS: We found higher odds of IUD expulsion with menstrual cup and concurrent NTCu380-Mini IUD use over 36 months of use, but not with concurrent TCu380A IUD use. Menstrual cup users experienced higher likelihood of accidental self-removal regardless of IUD type. IMPLICATIONS: Menstrual cup and NTCu380-Mini use may increase IUD expulsion risk and may increase accidental self-removal risk with TCu380A and NTCu380-Mini use. Clinicians should advise patients of these risks and consider warning patients using an IUD shaped like the NTCu380-Mini (Nova-T frames) of expulsion risk with menstrual cup use.

2.
Contraception ; : 110440, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate safety of Ovaprene, an investigational non-hormonal vaginal contraceptive designed for monthly use. STUDY DESIGN: Open-label, multicenter study enrolling heterosexually-active women with previous permanent contraception who underwent assessments during five menstrual cycles: baseline postcoital test cycle, diaphragm postcoital test cycle, Ovaprene safety cycle, and two Ovaprene postcoital test cycles. Safety outcomes included treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs), systemic laboratory findings, pelvic examinations, colposcopies, Nugent scores, determination of community state types of vaginal microbiota, and anti-Escherichia coli activity and inflammatory markers in cervicovaginal fluids. RESULTS: We enrolled 38 participants. Of these, 33 used Ovaprene and completed 77 Ovaprene cycles. The most common product-related urogenital TEAEs were bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginal odor. The frequency of transitioning from Lactobacillus-dominated community state type to community state type IV (not Lactobacillus-dominated) was similar before Ovaprene use and afterwards. Mean Nugent scores were <4 at each visit without a discernable upward trend. Inflammatory markers showed wide variation but no upward trend, and E. coli inhibitory activity of cervical secretions did not change. We found no Staphylococcus aureus, the causative agent in Toxic Shock Syndrome, on used Ovaprenes or in vaginal samples. No clinically important changes in systemic laboratory findings, pelvic examinations, or colposcopies occurred during Ovaprene use. CONCLUSION: Ovaprene use did not result in cervicovaginal irritation or adverse effects on resident vaginal microbiota, and did not impact transitions from a Lactobacillus-dominated community state type to community state type IV. IMPLICATIONS: The finding that use of Ovaprene, an investigational monthly user-controlled nonhormonal vaginal contraceptive, does not appear to result in adverse changes in vaginal health during short term use supports further evaluation of the contraceptive potential of the device.

4.
medRxiv ; 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343867

RESUMO

Objectives: While it is well documented that abortion access is associated with improved health, pregnancy-related, and socioeconomic outcomes, the association between abortion access and other reproductive health outcomes is less well described. Abortion-providing clinics also offer preventative reproductive health services. We conducted a scoping review to ascertain the extent to which preventive reproductive healthcare services (contraception, sexually transmitted infection testing and treatment, cervical cancer screening) are affected by abortion access in the United States. Methods: Researchers screened articles and extracted data from PubMed, Embase, Scopus and CINAHL. We excluded articles that did not link abortion to contraception, sexually transmitted infection testing and treatment and cervical cancer screening; or took place outside the US. Results: 5,359 papers were screened, 74 were included for full text review. Sixty-five were about contraception, seven on STIs, one on cervical cancer screening, and one on other services. The association between policies that restrict or protect abortion access and preventative health services has not been studied on a national scale. Drivers of variation were: insurance and billing policies; regulatory requirements of abortion-providing facilities, lack of staff training in clinics that did not specialize in abortion care; and limited follow up after abortion. Conclusions: Abortion--providing clinics are a highly utilized access point for reproductive health services. More research is needed to determine the public health impact of constrained abortion access on contraceptive use, STI rates and cervical cancer in regions where many abortion-providing clinics have closed. Implications: Attention should be paid to changing trends in contraceptive use, STI rates and cervical cancer as abortion-providing clinics close, this may reduce access to reproductive health services broadly.

5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 143(3): 435-439, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38207328

RESUMO

Early pregnancy loss (EPL) is common, but patients face barriers to the most effective medication (mifepristone followed by misoprostol) and procedural (uterine aspiration) management options. This cross-sectional geospatial analysis evaluated access in New Mexico to mifepristone and misoprostol and uterine aspiration in emergency departments (comprehensive) and to uterine aspiration anywhere in a hospital (aspiration) for EPL. Access was defined as a 60-minute car commute. We collected data from hospital key informants and public databases and performed logistical regression to evaluate associations between access and rurality, area deprivation, race, and ethnicity. Thirty-five of 42 (83.3%) hospitals responded between October 2020 and August 2021. Two hospitals (5.7%) provided comprehensive management; 24 (68.6%) provided aspiration. Rural and higher deprivation areas had statistically significantly lower adjusted odds ratios for comprehensive management (0.03-0.07 and 0.3-0.4, respectively) and aspiration (0.03-0.06 and 0.1-0.3, respectively) access. Mifepristone and uterine aspiration implementation would address disparate access to EPL treatment.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/terapia , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Aspiração Respiratória
6.
Contraception ; 132: 110373, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate reduction in progressively motile sperm per high power field (HPF) in midcycle cervical mucus after intercourse with Ovaprene: an investigational monthly non-hormonal vaginal contraceptive consisting of a vaginal ring and mechanical barrier, releasing spermiostatic ferrous gluconate. STUDY DESIGN: Open-label, multicenter study enrolling heterosexually-active women with previous permanent contraception. Participants underwent a baseline postcoital test cycle with no device to confirm the presence of sperm, followed by one diaphragm postcoital test cycle, one Ovaprene safety cycle, and two Ovaprene postcoital test cycles. In each postcoital test cycle, participants underwent a midcycle cervical mucus evaluation to confirm an Insler score ≥10 and absence of sperm, and then returned two to four hours after vaginal intercourse for repeat cervical mucus evaluation. We considered <5 progressively motile sperm/HPF indicative of preliminary contraceptive effectiveness. RESULTS: We enrolled 38 participants; 23 completed the study. All participants had ≥5 progressively motile sperm/HPF in the baseline cycle and <5 progressively motile sperm/HPF in all 49 Ovaprene cycles and all 35 diaphragm cycles, meeting the definition of a successful postcoital test. This was true regardless of examiner blinding, prior vaginal delivery or vaginal ring use, body mass index, or dislodgements noted by the participant or investigator. The mean of 27.2 (±17.9) progressively motile sperm/HPF in baseline postcoital test cycles was reduced to 0.5 (±1.1) and 0.5 (±1.3) progressively motile sperm/HPF in the first and second Ovaprene cycles, respectively. Ovaprene fit all participants and all could insert, position, and remove it. CONCLUSION: Use of Ovaprene resulted in meeting the prespecified criterion for contraceptive effect by all participants during all postcoital test cycles. IMPLICATIONS: The finding that use of Ovaprene, an investigational monthly non-hormonal vaginal contraceptive, resulted in postcoital testing of cervical mucus that met the pre-specified definition of success (<5 progressively motile sperm/HPF) supports further evaluation of contraceptive efficacy of the device in users at risk for pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Sêmen , Masculino , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Vagina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Anticoncepcionais
7.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 39: 100932, 2023 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38061314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether trust in the provider and sociodemographics are associated with individual-level abortion stigma. METHODS: We performed a cross sectional and exploratory study design using secondary analysis of a randomized trial that enrolled participants undergoing second trimester abortion. We collected baseline survey data from 70 trial participants to assess stigma (Individual Level of Abortion Stigma scale, ILAS; range 0-4), trust in provider (Trust in Physician scale; range 1-5), anxiety, depression, and sociodemographics. We performed multiple linear regression, for which ILAS score was the outcome of interest. Univariate associations were used to inform the regression model. RESULTS: The mean abortion stigma score was at the low end of the ILAS at 1.21 (range 0.2-2.8, SD 0.66). Age, race, income, BMI, parity, gestational age at time of abortion, and reasons for ending the pregnancy were not significantly associated with the ILAS score. Higher trust in provider scores were (m 4.0, SD 0.49) and inversely related to the ILAS score, even after adjustment for confounders (ß -0.02, CI -0.03 to -0.004, p = 0.013). Screening positive for anxiety or depression was associated with a higher ILAS score ((ß 0.48, CI 0.10, 0.90, p = 0.015); (ß = 0.27 CI -0.097, 0.643)), while cohabitation was associated with lower ILAS score (ß -0.44, CI -0.82 to -0.57, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Trust in an abortion provider, anxiety, depression, and cohabitation are associated with abortion stigma among people seeking second trimester abortion care. Interventions that improve trust in a provider may be an area of focus for addressing abortion stigma. Future research should confirm these findings in larger populations and across diverse locations and demographics and to conduct qualitative research to understand what patients perceive as trust-promoting behaviors and words during abortion encounters.

8.
JAMA ; 330(12): 1167-1174, 2023 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750879

RESUMO

Importance: While population-level data suggest Rh immunoglobulin is unnecessary before 12 weeks' gestation, clinical evidence is limited. Thus, guidelines vary, creating confusion surrounding risks and benefits of Rh testing and treatment. As abortion care in traditional clinical settings becomes harder to access, many people are choosing to self-manage and need to know if ancillary blood type testing is necessary. Objective: To determine how frequently maternal exposure to fetal red blood cells (fRBCs) exceeds the most conservative published threshold for Rh sensitization in induced first-trimester abortion. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study using high-throughput flow cytometry to detect circulating fRBCs in paired maternal blood samples before and after induced first-trimester abortion (medication or procedural). Individuals undergoing induced first-trimester abortion before 12 weeks 0 days' gestation were included. Paired blood samples were available from 506 participants who underwent either medical (n = 319 [63.0%]) or procedural (n = 187 [37.0%]) abortion. Exposure: Induced first-trimester abortion. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with fRBC counts above the sensitization threshold (125 fRBCs/5 million total RBCs) after induced first-trimester abortion. Results: Among the 506 participants, the mean (SD) age was 27.4 (5.5) years, 313 (61.9%) were Black, and 123 (24.3%) were White. Three of the 506 participants had elevated fRBC counts at baseline; 1 of these patients had an elevated fRBC count following the abortion (0.2% [95% CI, 0%-0.93%]). No other participants had elevated fRBC counts above the sensitization threshold after induced first-trimester abortion. The median change from baseline was 0 fRBCs, with upper 95th and 99th percentiles of 24 and 35.6 fRBCs, respectively. Although there was a strong association between the preabortion and postabortion fRBC counts, no other baseline characteristic was significantly associated with postabortion fRBC count. Conclusions and Relevance: Induced first-trimester abortion is not a risk factor for Rh sensitization, indicating that Rh testing and treatment are unnecessary before 12 weeks' gestation. This evidence may be used to inform international guidelines for Rh immunoglobulin administration following first-trimester induced abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Eritrócitos , Isoimunização Rh , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Isoimunização Rh/diagnóstico , Isoimunização Rh/imunologia , Isoimunização Rh/terapia , Risco , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/imunologia , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Brancos
9.
Contraception ; 126: 110114, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37467921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of virtual group contraceptive counseling in the abortion care setting. STUDY DESIGN: Patients seeking abortion care at an urban university hospital were invited to participate in this cohort study. Prior to their clinical appointments, groups of two to six patients participated in 45-minute virtual contraceptive counseling visits facilitated by study staff. Contraceptive method use, effectiveness, and side effects were reviewed according to group interest. Participant satisfaction scores were collected immediately following the sessions. After their appointments, providers estimated the time spent on contraceptive counseling during the clinical visit. RESULTS: Of 195 patients approached, 86 (44%) were enrolled. Fifty-seven (66%) enrolled patients completed a session. The most common reason for declining enrollment was concern about the time commitment. Most (93%) participants reported being "satisfied" or "very satisfied" overall, and 96% would recommend group contraceptive counseling to a friend. Providers reported that compared to typical counseling, participants required a shorter amount of time during the clinical visit than nonparticipants (time spent <5 minutes: 74% vs 54%). CONCLUSIONS: Virtual group contraceptive counseling for patients seeking abortion was feasible and acceptable in this study. Group virtual visits may reduce provider time burden, add value when virtual care delivery is desired or required, and deserve further study. IMPLICATIONS: Family planning clinics can consider incorporating virtual group counseling as a person-centered and efficient approach to contraceptive counseling at the time of abortion care.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Anticoncepcionais , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Anticoncepção/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar
11.
Contraception ; 125: 110077, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37270163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a decision aid on decisional conflict scale in patients choosing management for early pregnancy loss. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a pilot randomized control trial to assess the effect of the Healthwise patient decision aid on decisional conflict scale in patients with early pregnancy loss as compared with a control website. Patients 18years and older were eligible if they had an early pregnancy loss between 5 and 12 completed weeks of gestation. Participants completed surveys at baseline, poststudy intervention, after consultation, and 1week postconsultation. Surveys assessed participant scores on the decisional conflict scale (scale 0-100), knowledge, assessment of shared decision-making, satisfaction, and decision regret. Our primary outcome was the poststudy-intervention decisional conflict scale score. RESULTS: From July 2020 through March 2021 we randomized 60 participants. After the intervention, the median decisional conflict scale score for the control group was 10 [0-30] and 0 [0-20] for the intervention group (p = 0.17). When assessing the decisional conflict scale subscales postintervention, the informed subscale for the control group was 16.7 [0-33.3] as opposed to 0 [0] for the patient decision aid group (p = 0.003). Knowledge remained significantly higher in the experimental arm from the postintervention to the 1-week follow-up. We found no differences between groups when assessing our other metrics. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a validated decision aid did not result in statistically significant differences in the total decisional conflict scale scores as compared with the control. Participants allocated to the intervention were more informed postintervention and had consistently higher knowledge scores. IMPLICATIONS: Use of a validated decision aid prior to early pregnancy loss management consultation did not affect overall decisional conflict but resulted in improved knowledge.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Philadelphia , Emoções , Tomada de Decisões
12.
Contraception ; 124: 110057, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37146867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with modified World Health Organization (mWHO) class IV cardiovascular conditions are at high risk of severe maternal morbidity and mortality in pregnancy and are advised to avoid pregnancy or consider abortion if they become pregnant. We aimed to determine if state-level abortion policy is associated with receiving an abortion in this high-risk population. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study of abortion among people 15-44 years of age with mWHO class IV cardiovascular conditionsstate policy on abortion using US claims data from United health Group from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between restrictive abortion policy at that state level and lower number of pregnancies ending in abortions in this high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS: States with the most restrictive abortion policy have the lowest proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion among patients with mWHO class IV cardiovascular conditions. IMPLICATIONS: Variation in receiving abortion by state of residence among patients with mWHO class IV cardiovascular conditions may indicate an impending rise in severe maternal morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular disease in pregnancy, and the risk factor is where a person lives. This trend may be exacerbated by the Supreme Court Decision Dobbs v Jackson Women's Health.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aborto Legal
16.
JAMA Surg ; 158(3): 229-230, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318215

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses potential consequences that the US Supreme Court ruling in Dobbs v Jackson Women's Health Organization may have for patient outcomes, public health, training and legal challenges for health care professionals, and the patient-practitioner relationship.

17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 51: 101554, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865736

RESUMO

Background: The most widely used copper intrauterine device (IUD) in the world (the TCu380A), and the only product available in many countries, causes side effects and early removals for many users. These problems are exacerbated in nulliparous women, who have smaller uterine cavities compared to parous women. We compared first-year continuation rates and reasons/probabilities for early removal of the TCu380A versus a smaller Belgian copper IUD among nulliparous users. Methods: This 12-month interim report is derived from a pre-planned interim analysis of a sub population and focused on key secondary comparative endpoints. In this participant-blinded trial at 16 centres in the USA, we randomised participants aged 17-40 in a 4:1 ratio to the NT380-Mini or the TCu380A. In the first year, participants had follow-up visits at 6-weeks and 3, 6, and 12-months, and a phone contact at 9 months; we documented continued use, expulsions, and reasons for removal. Among participants with successful IUD placement, we compared probabilities of IUD continuation and specific reasons for discontinuation using log-rank tests. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT03124160 and is closed to recruitment. Findings: Between June 1, 2017, and February 25, 2019, we assigned 927 nulliparous women to either the NT380-Mini (n = 744) or the TCu380A (n = 183); the analysis population was 732 (NT380-Mini) and 176 (TCu380A). Participants using the NT380-Mini, compared to the TCu380A, had higher 12-month continuation rates (78·7% [95% CI: 72·9-84·5%] vs. 70·2% [95% CI: 59·7-80·7], p = 0·014), lower rates of removal for bleeding and/or pain (8·1% vs. 16·2%, p = 0·003) and lower IUD expulsion rates (4·8% vs. 8·9%, p = 0·023), respectively. Interpretation: The NT380-Mini offers important benefits for a nulliparous population compared to the TCu380A in the first twelve months, when pivotal experiences typically occur. Higher continuation rates with the NT380-Mini may avert disruptions in contraceptive use and help users avoid unintended pregnancy. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and Mona Lisa, N.V. (Belgium).

18.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 227(5): 737.e1-737.e11, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early pregnancy loss, also referred to as miscarriage, is common, affecting approximately 1 million people in the United States annually. Early pregnancy loss can be treated with expectant management, medications, or surgical procedures-strategies that differ in patient experience, effectiveness, and cost. One of the medications used for early pregnancy loss treatment, mifepristone, is uniquely regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness from the healthcare sector perspective of medical management of early pregnancy loss, using the standard of care medication regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol, with that of office uterine aspiration. STUDY DESIGN: We developed a decision analytical model to compare the cost-effectiveness of early pregnancy loss treatment with medical management with that of office uterine aspiration. Data on medical management came from the Pregnancy Failure Regimens randomized clinical trial, and data on uterine aspiration came from the published literature. The analysis was from the healthcare sector perspective with a 30-day time horizon. Costs were in 2018 US dollars. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjust life-years gained and the rate of complete gestational sac expulsion with no additional interventions. Our primary outcome was the incremental cost per quality-adjust life-year gained. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the key uncertainties. RESULTS: Mean per-person costs were higher for uterine aspiration than for medical management ($828 [95% confidence interval, $789-$868] vs $661 [95% confidence interval, $556-$766]; P=.004). Uterine aspiration more frequently led to complete gestational sac expulsion than medical management (97.3% vs 83.8%; P=.0001); however, estimated quality-adjust life-years were higher for medical management than for uterine aspiration (0.082 [95% confidence interval, 0.8148-0.08248] vs 0.079 [95% confidence interval, 0.0789-0.0791]; P<.0001). Medical management dominated uterine aspiration, with lower costs and higher confidence interval. The probability that medical management is cost-effective relative to uterine aspiration is 97.5% for all willingness-to-pay values of ≥$5600/quality-adjust life-year. Sensitivity analysis did not identify any thresholds that would substantially change outcomes. CONCLUSION: Although office-based uterine aspiration more often results in treatment completion without further intervention, medical management with mifepristone pretreatment costs less and yields similar quality-adjust life-years, making it an attractive alternative. Our findings provided evidence that increasing access to mifepristone and eliminating unnecessary restrictions will improve early pregnancy care.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Aborto Espontâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(6): 1149-1151, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675613

RESUMO

Early pregnancy loss can be treated medically with mifepristone followed by misoprostol, with ultrasonographic confirmation of pregnancy expulsion. Alternative strategies that ascertain treatment success remotely are needed. We compared percent decline in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level with treatment success or failure between patients who received mifepristone pretreatment followed by misoprostol or misoprostol alone for early pregnancy loss between 5 and 12 weeks of gestation to determine a threshold decline that might predict success. Early pregnancy loss treatment success was associated with a greater percent hCG level decline compared with treatment failure, but no threshold was able to predict success. Additional research is needed to understand hCG trends after medical management of early pregnancy loss to develop reliable protocols for remote follow-up.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Abortivos não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Gonadotropina Coriônica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez
20.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(10): 1467-1471, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675680

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) affects up to 25% of individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD), but risk factors are not well characterized. We sought to measure the prevalence of VTE among SCD patients in our health system and to describe the relationship between medical history, biological sex, and VTE. We performed a retrospective chart review of SCD patients who visited an outpatient hematology clinic within Penn Medicine between June 2014 and June 2019. Demographics and medical history were compared across those with and without a history of VTE. We developed a logistic regression model to describe factors independently associated with VTE. Of 597 patients with SCD who were identified, 147 (24.6%) had a history of VTE; 100 were female and 47 were male. In the regression model, female sex was independently associated with history of VTE (odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.91), as were pulmonary hypertension, hydroxyurea use, and history of stroke. Among females only, 49.7% were parous and 18.8% had used oral contraceptives, and these proportions did not differ by history of VTE. One-quarter of the SCD patients in our health system had a history of VTE, confirming significantly higher rates than in the general population. Females had twice the odds of VTE compared to males, highlighting an important sex disparity in SCD disease outcomes and raising questions regarding optimal pregnancy and contraceptive care for females with SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Tromboembolia Venosa , Gravidez , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia
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