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1.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X241237624, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452039

RESUMO

In addition to amyloid and tau pathology, elevated systemic vascular risk, white matter injury, and reduced cerebral blood flow contribute to late-life cognitive decline. Given the strong collinearity among these parameters, we proposed a framework to extract the independent latent features underlying cognitive decline using the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 166 cognitively unimpaired older adults at baseline). We used the following measures from the baseline visit: cortical amyloid, inferior temporal cortex tau, relative cerebral blood flow, white matter hyperintensities, peak width of skeletonized mean diffusivity, and Framingham Heart Study cardiovascular disease risk. We used exploratory factor analysis to extract orthogonal factors from these variables and their interactions. These factors were used in a regression model to explain longitudinal Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite-5 (PACC) decline (follow-up = 8.5 ±2.7 years). We next examined whether gray matter volume atrophy acts as a mediator of factors and PACC decline. Latent factors of systemic vascular risk, white matter injury, and relative cerebral blood flow independently explain cognitive decline beyond amyloid and tau. Gray matter volume atrophy mediates these associations with the strongest effect on white matter injury. These results suggest that systemic vascular risk contributes to cognitive decline beyond current markers of cerebrovascular injury, amyloid, and tau.

2.
Brain ; 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315899

RESUMO

Vascular dysfunction is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Alterations in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways have been implicated as potential mechanisms. However, the specific impact of VEGF proteins in preclinical Alzheimer's disease and their relationships with other Alzheimer's disease and vascular pathologies during this critical early period remain to be elucidated. We included 317 older adults from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, a cohort of individuals who were cognitively unimpaired at baseline and followed longitudinally for up to 12 years. Baseline VEGF family protein levels (VEGFA, VEGFC, VEGFD, PGF, and FLT1) were measured in fasting plasma using high-sensitivity immunoassays. Using linear mixed effects models, we examined the interactive effects of baseline plasma VEGF proteins and amyloid PET burden (Pittsburgh Compound-B) on longitudinal cognition (Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite-5). We further investigated if effects on cognition were mediated by early neocortical tau accumulation (Flortaucipir PET burden in the inferior temporal cortex) or hippocampal atrophy. Lastly, we examined the impact of adjusting for baseline cardiovascular risk score or white matter hyperintensity volume. Baseline plasma VEGFA and PGF each showed a significant interaction with amyloid burden on prospective cognitive decline. Specifically, low VEGFA and high PGF were associated with greater cognitive decline in individuals with elevated amyloid, i.e. those on the Alzheimer's disease continuum. Concordantly, low VEGFA and high PGF were associated with accelerated longitudinal tau accumulation in those with elevated amyloid. Moderated mediation analyses confirmed that accelerated tau accumulation fully mediated the effects of low VEGFA and partially mediated (31%) the effects of high PGF on faster amyloid-related cognitive decline. The effects of VEGFA and PGF on tau and cognition remained significant after adjusting for cardiovascular risk score or white matter hyperintensity volume. There were concordant but non-significant associations with longitudinal hippocampal atrophy. Together, our findings implicate low VEGFA and high PGF in accelerating early neocortical tau pathology and cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, our results underscore the potential of these minimally-invasive plasma biomarkers to inform the risk of Alzheimer's disease progression in the preclinical population. Importantly, VEGFA and PGF appear to capture distinct effects from vascular risks and cerebrovascular injury. This highlights their potential as new therapeutic targets, in combination with anti-amyloid and traditional vascular risk reduction therapies, to slow the trajectory of preclinical Alzheimer's disease and delay or prevent the onset of cognitive decline.

3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232666, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351808

RESUMO

Wildlife is increasingly exposed to sublethal transient cancer risk factors, including mutagenic substances, which activates their anti-cancer defences, promotes tumourigenesis, and may negatively impact populations. Little is known about how exposure to cancer risk factors impacts the behaviour of wildlife. Here, we investigated the effects of a sublethal, short-term exposure to a carcinogen at environmentally relevant concentrations on the activity patterns of wild Girardia tigrina planaria during a two-phase experiment, consisting of a 7-day exposure to cadmium period followed by a 7-day recovery period. To comprehensively explore the effects of the exposure on activity patterns, we employed the double hierarchical generalized linear model framework which explicitly models residual intraindividual variability in addition to the mean and variance of the population. We found that exposed planaria were less active compared to unexposed individuals and were able to recover to pre-exposure activity levels albeit with a reduced variance in activity at the start of the recovery phase. Planaria showing high activity levels were less predictable with larger daily activity variations and higher residual variance. Thus, the shift in behavioural variability induced by an exposure to a cancer risk factor can be quantified using advanced tools from the field of behavioural ecology. This is required to understand how tumourous processes affect the ecology of species.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Animais Selvagens , Fatores de Risco
4.
Lab Chip ; 24(3): 505-516, 2024 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165774

RESUMO

Biological models with genetic similarities to humans are used for exploratory research to develop behavioral screening tools and understand sensory-motor interactions. Their small, often mm-sized appearance raises challenges in the straightforward quantification of their subtle behavioral responses and calls for new, customisable research tools. 3D printing provides an attractive approach for the manufacture of custom designs at low cost; however, challenges remain in the integration of functional materials like porous membranes. Nanoporous membranes have been integrated with resin exchange using purpose-designed resins by digital light projection 3D printing to yield functionally integrated devices using a simple, economical and semi-automated process. Here, the impact of the layer thickness and layer number on the porous properties - parameters unique for 3D printing - are investigated, showing decreases in mean pore diameter and porosity with increasing layer height and layer number. From the same resin formulation, materials with average pore size between 200 and 600 nm and porosity between 45% and 61% were printed. Membrane-integrated devices were used to study the chemoattractant induced behavioural response of zebrafish embryos and planarians, both demonstrating a predominant behavioral response towards the chemoattractant, spending >85% of experiment time in the attractant side of the observation chamber. The presented 3D printing method can be used for printing custom designed membrane-integrated devices using affordable 3D printers and enable fine-tuning of porous properties through adjustment of layer height and number. This accessible approach is expected to be adopted for applications including behavioural studies, early-stage pre-clinical drug discovery and (environmental) toxicology.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Peixe-Zebra , Humanos , Animais , Porosidade , Tecidos Suporte , Impressão Tridimensional
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 913: 169491, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154641

RESUMO

The presence of doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) in bivalves represents a unique mode of mitochondrial transmission, whereby paternal (male-transmitted M-type) and maternal (female-transmitted F-type) haplotypes are transmitted to offspring separately. Male embryos retain both haplotypes, but the M-type is selectively removed from females. Due to the presence of heteroplasmy in males, mtDNA can recombine resulting in a 'masculinized' haplotype referred to as Mf-type. While mtDNA recombination is usually rare, it has been recorded in multiple mussel species across the Northern Hemisphere. Given that mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell, different mtDNA haplotypes may have different selective advantages under diverse environmental conditions. This may be particularly important for sperm fitness and fertilization success. In this study we aimed to i) determine the presence, prevalence of the Mf-type in Australian blue mussels (Mytilus sp.) and ii) investigate the effect of Mf-mtDNA on sperm performance (a fitness correlate). We found a high prevalence of recombined mtDNA (≈35 %) located within the control region of the mitochondrial genome, which occurred only in specimens that contained Southern Hemisphere mtDNA. The presence of two female mitotypes were identified in the studied mussels, one likely originating from the Northern Hemisphere, and the other either representing the endemic M. planulatus species or introduced genotypes from the Southern Hemisphere. Despite having recombination events present in a third of the studied population, analysis of sperm performance indicated no difference in fertilization success related to mitotype.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Mytilus edulis , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Austrália , Sêmen , Mitocôndrias , DNA Mitocondrial , Bivalves/genética , Fertilização , Recombinação Genética
6.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 44(1): 131-141, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37728659

RESUMO

Clinically normal females exhibit higher 18F-flortaucipir (FTP)-PET signal than males across the cortex. However, these sex differences may be explained by neuroimaging idiosyncrasies such as off-target extracerebral tracer retention or partial volume effects (PVEs). 343 clinically normal participants (female = 58%; mean[SD]=73.8[8.5] years) and 55 patients with mild cognitive impairment (female = 38%; mean[SD] = 76.9[7.3] years) underwent cross-sectional FTP-PET. We parcellated extracerebral FreeSurfer areas based on proximity to cortical ROIs. Sex differences in cortical tau were then estimated after accounting for local extracerebral retention. We simulated PVE by convolving group-level standardized uptake value ratio means in each ROI with 6 mm Gaussian kernels and compared the sexes across ROIs post-smoothing. Widespread sex differences in extracerebral retention were observed. Although attenuating sex differences in cortical tau-PET signal, covarying for extracerebral retention did not impact the largest sex differences in tau-PET signal. Differences in PVE were observed in both female and male directions with no clear sex-specific bias. Our findings suggest that sex differences in FTP are not solely attributed to off-target extracerebral retention or PVE, consistent with the notion that sex differences in medial temporal and neocortical tau are biologically driven. Future work should investigate sex differences in regional cerebral blood flow kinetics and longitudinal tau-PET.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Carbolinas/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo
7.
Neurology ; 101(24): e2533-e2544, 2023 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37968130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal volume (HV) atrophy is a well-known biomarker of memory impairment. However, compared with ß-amyloid (Aß) and tau imaging, it is less specific for Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. This lack of specificity could provide indirect information about potential copathologies that cannot be observed in vivo. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to assess the associations among Aß, tau, HV, and cognition, measured over a 10-year follow-up period with a special focus on the contributions of HV atrophy to cognition after adjusting for Aß and tau. METHODS: We enrolled 283 older adults without dementia or overt cognitive impairment in the Harvard Aging Brain Study. In this report, we only analyzed data from individuals with available longitudinal imaging and cognition data. Serial MRI (follow-up duration 1.3-7.0 years), neocortical Aß imaging on Pittsburgh Compound B PET scans (1.9-8.5 years), entorhinal and inferior temporal tau on flortaucipir PET scans (0.8-6.0 years), and the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (3.0-9.8 years) were prospectively collected. We evaluated the longitudinal associations between Aß, tau, volume, and cognition data and investigated sequential models to test the contribution of each biomarker to cognitive decline. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 128 clinically normal older adults, including 72 (56%) women and 56 (44%) men; median age at inclusion was 73 years (range 63-87). Thirty-four participants (27%) exhibited an initial high-Aß burden on PET imaging. Faster HV atrophy was correlated with faster cognitive decline (R2 = 0.28, p < 0.0001). When comparing all biomarkers, HV slope was associated with cognitive decline independently of Aß and tau measures, uniquely accounting for 10% of the variance. Altogether, 45% of the variance in cognitive decline was explained by combining the change measures in the different imaging biomarkers. DISCUSSION: In older adults, longitudinal hippocampal atrophy is associated with cognitive decline, independently of Aß or tau, suggesting that non-AD pathologies (e.g., TDP-43, vascular) may contribute to hippocampal-mediated cognitive decline. Serial HV measures, in addition to AD-specific biomarkers, may help evaluate the contribution of non-AD pathologies that cannot be measured otherwise in vivo.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas tau , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores , Atrofia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 7659, 2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38036535

RESUMO

Many of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk genes are specifically expressed in microglia and astrocytes, but how and when the genetic risk localizing to these cell types contributes to AD pathophysiology remains unclear. Here, we derive cell-type-specific AD polygenic risk scores (ADPRS) from two extensively characterized datasets and uncover the impact of cell-type-specific genetic risk on AD endophenotypes. In an autopsy dataset spanning all stages of AD (n = 1457), the astrocytic ADPRS affected diffuse and neuritic plaques (amyloid-ß), while microglial ADPRS affected neuritic plaques, microglial activation, neurofibrillary tangles (tau), and cognitive decline. In an independent neuroimaging dataset of cognitively unimpaired elderly (n = 2921), astrocytic ADPRS was associated with amyloid-ß, and microglial ADPRS was associated with amyloid-ß and tau, connecting cell-type-specific genetic risk with AD pathology even before symptom onset. Together, our study provides human genetic evidence implicating multiple glial cell types in AD pathophysiology, starting from the preclinical stage.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/genética , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
9.
JAMA Neurol ; 80(12): 1353-1363, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37843849

RESUMO

Importance: Increased white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume is a common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding in both autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) and late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), but it remains unclear whether increased WMH along the AD continuum is reflective of AD-intrinsic processes or secondary to elevated systemic vascular risk factors. Objective: To estimate the associations of neurodegeneration and parenchymal and vessel amyloidosis with WMH accumulation and investigate whether systemic vascular risk is associated with WMH beyond these AD-intrinsic processes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from 3 longitudinal cohort studies conducted in tertiary and community-based medical centers-the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN; February 2010 to March 2020), the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI; July 2007 to September 2021), and the Harvard Aging Brain Study (HABS; September 2010 to December 2019). Main Outcome and Measures: The main outcomes were the independent associations of neurodegeneration (decreases in gray matter volume), parenchymal amyloidosis (assessed by amyloid positron emission tomography), and vessel amyloidosis (evidenced by cerebral microbleeds [CMBs]) with cross-sectional and longitudinal WMH. Results: Data from 3960 MRI sessions among 1141 participants were included: 252 pathogenic variant carriers from DIAN (mean [SD] age, 38.4 [11.2] years; 137 [54%] female), 571 older adults from ADNI (mean [SD] age, 72.8 [7.3] years; 274 [48%] female), and 318 older adults from HABS (mean [SD] age, 72.4 [7.6] years; 194 [61%] female). Longitudinal increases in WMH volume were greater in individuals with CMBs compared with those without (DIAN: t = 3.2 [P = .001]; ADNI: t = 2.7 [P = .008]), associated with longitudinal decreases in gray matter volume (DIAN: t = -3.1 [P = .002]; ADNI: t = -5.6 [P < .001]; HABS: t = -2.2 [P = .03]), greater in older individuals (DIAN: t = 6.8 [P < .001]; ADNI: t = 9.1 [P < .001]; HABS: t = 5.4 [P < .001]), and not associated with systemic vascular risk (DIAN: t = 0.7 [P = .40]; ADNI: t = 0.6 [P = .50]; HABS: t = 1.8 [P = .06]) in individuals with ADAD and LOAD after accounting for age, gray matter volume, CMB presence, and amyloid burden. In older adults without CMBs at baseline, greater WMH volume was associated with CMB development during longitudinal follow-up (Cox proportional hazards regression model hazard ratio, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.72-4.03; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that increased WMH volume in AD is associated with neurodegeneration and parenchymal and vessel amyloidosis but not with elevated systemic vascular risk. Additionally, increased WMH volume may represent an early sign of vessel amyloidosis preceding the emergence of CMBs.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloidose , Substância Branca , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Adulto , Masculino , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Amiloidose/complicações , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas
10.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 3(1): 106, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37528163

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to assess brain microstructural changes via cortical mean diffusivity (cMD) has been shown to be cross-sectionally associated with tau in cognitively normal older adults, suggesting that it might be an early marker of neuronal injury. Here, we investigated how regional cortical microstructural changes measured by cMD are related to the longitudinal accumulation of regional tau as well as to episodic memory decline in cognitively normal individuals harboring amyloid pathology. METHODS: 122 cognitively normal participants from the Harvard Aging Brain Study underwent DWI, T1w-MRI, amyloid and tau PET imaging, and Logical Memory Delayed Recall (LMDR) assessments. We assessed whether the interaction of baseline amyloid status and cMD (in entorhinal and inferior-temporal cortices) was associated with longitudinal regional tau accumulation and with longitudinal LMDR using separate linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: We find a significant interaction effect of the amyloid status and baseline cMD in predicting longitudinal tau in the entorhinal cortex (p = 0.044) but not the inferior temporal lobe, such that greater baseline cMD values predicts the accumulation of entorhinal tau in amyloid-positive participants. Moreover, we find a significant interaction effect of the amyloid status and baseline cMD in the entorhinal cortex (but not inferior temporal cMD) in predicting longitudinal LMDR (p < 0.001), such that baseline entorhinal cMD predicts the episodic memory decline in amyloid-positive participants. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of amyloidosis and elevated cMD in the entorhinal cortex may help identify individuals at short-term risk of tau accumulation and Alzheimer's Disease-related episodic memory decline, suggesting utility in clinical trials.


People with Alzheimer's disease have problems with their memory and ability to acquire and process knowledge. Understanding the earliest brain changes leading to these problems helps identify those likely to develop Alzheimer's disease early in the disease process. This study used a marker that measures the mobility of water in the brain to investigate how these changes can predict development of a protein named tau and changes in people's memory. The participants showed no signs of memory impairment at the beginning of the study, but some developed memory decline during follow-up. Greater mobility of water in certain brain areas predicted future increase in tau and decline in memory, indicating this measure could be used to identify people at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

11.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1212190, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37559725

RESUMO

Infection-induced T cell responses must be properly tempered and terminated to prevent immuno-pathology. Using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that T cell intrinsic STAT1 signaling is required to curb inflammation during acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Specifically, we report that mice lacking STAT1 selectively in T cells expel parasites but ultimately succumb to lethal immuno-pathology characterized by aberrant Th1-type responses with reduced IL-10 and increased IL-13 production. We also find that, unlike STAT1, STAT3 is not required for induction of IL-10 or suppression of IL-13 during acute toxoplasmosis. Each of these findings was confirmed in vitro and ChIP-seq data mining showed that STAT1 and STAT3 co-localize at the Il10 locus, as well as loci encoding other transcription factors that regulate IL-10 production, most notably Maf and Irf4. These data advance basic understanding of how infection-induced T cell responses are managed to prevent immuno-pathology and provide specific insights on the anti-inflammatory properties of STAT1, highlighting its role in shaping the character of Th1-type responses.

12.
Water Res ; 244: 120427, 2023 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37567126

RESUMO

The performance of individual reverse osmosis (RO) systems varies significantly with different contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). As such, log reduction values (LRVs) of the concentration of these chemicals cannot be arbitrarily credited in water treatment and water recycling. This study looks to present an approach to the management of chemical risks by providing a systematic validation of RO barrier performance with respect to LRV credits for various classes of CECs. In this work, a one-off sampling campaign across five treatment barriers (strainer filtration, ultrafiltration, RO, ion exchange, chlorination) of a full-scale water recycling plant was conducted, followed by a systematic sampling campaign for a period of six weeks across just the RO barrier. The CECs screening methodology used GC-MS for quantification of 948 trace organic chemicals along with specific 44 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) screening using LC-MS/MS to demonstrate the removal credits of the RO barrier to a wide spectrum of CECs. The work was used to validate an LRV barrier credit framework so as to predict the performance of a polyamide RO membrane for removal of a range of chemical classes, under typical operational conditions. Conductivity was validated as an efficient surrogate for membrane integrity and RO performance, along with specified operational conditions associated with permeate flux and recovery rate. A bioassay method (photobacterium test) showed good potential to be used as a quick measure to indicate the general toxicity of a sample caused by chemical contamination, because of its high detection sensitivity and time and cost efficiency.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Purificação da Água , Cromatografia Líquida , Osmose , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Filtração , Purificação da Água/métodos
13.
Neurology ; 101(12): e1206-e1217, 2023 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37491329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The predictable Braak staging scheme suggests that cortical tau progression may be related to synaptically connected neurons. Animal and human neuroimaging studies demonstrated that changes in neuronal activity contribute to tau spreading. Whether similar mechanisms explain tau progression from the locus coeruleus (LC), a tiny noradrenergic brainstem nucleus involved in novelty, learning, and memory and among the earliest regions to accumulate tau, has not yet been established. We aimed to investigate whether novelty-related LC activity was associated with the accumulation of cortical tau and its implications for cognitive decline. METHODS: We combined functional MRI data of a novel vs repeated face-name learning paradigm, [18F]-FTP-PET, [11C]-PiB-PET, and longitudinal cognitive data from 92 well-characterized older individuals in the Harvard Aging Brain Study. We related novelty vs repetition LC activity to cortical tau deposition and to longitudinal decline in memory, executive function, and the Preclinical Alzheimer Disease Cognitive Composite (version 5; PACC5). Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether entorhinal cortical (EC) tau mediated the relationship between LC activity and cognitive decline and whether this depended on beta-amyloid deposition. RESULTS: The participants' average age at baseline was 69.67 ± 10.14 years. Fifty-one participants were female. Ninety-one participants were cognitively normal (CDR global = 0), and one participant had mild cognitive impairment (CDR global = 0.5) at baseline. Lower novelty-related LC activity was specifically related to greater tau deposition in the medial-lateral temporal cortex and steeper memory decline. LC activity during novelty vs repetition was not related to executive dysfunction or decline on the PACC5. The relationship between LC activity and memory decline was partially mediated by EC tau, particularly in individuals with elevated beta-amyloid deposition. DISCUSSION: Our results suggested that lower novelty-related LC activity is associated with the emergence of EC tau and that the downstream effects of this LC-EC pathway on memory decline also require the presence of elevated beta-amyloid. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate whether optimal LC activity has the potential to delay tau spread and memory decline, which may have implications for designing targeted interventions promoting resilience.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Locus Cerúleo/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos
14.
medRxiv ; 2023 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37333223

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) heritability is enriched in glial genes, but how and when cell-type-specific genetic risk contributes to AD remains unclear. Here, we derive cell-type-specific AD polygenic risk scores (ADPRS) from two extensively characterized datasets. In an autopsy dataset spanning all stages of AD (n=1,457), astrocytic (Ast) ADPRS was associated with both diffuse and neuritic Aß plaques, while microglial (Mic) ADPRS was associated with neuritic Aß plaques, microglial activation, tau, and cognitive decline. Causal modeling analyses further clarified these relationships. In an independent neuroimaging dataset of cognitively unimpaired elderly (n=2,921), Ast-ADPRS were associated with Aß, and Mic-ADPRS was associated with Aß and tau, showing a consistent pattern with the autopsy dataset. Oligodendrocytic and excitatory neuronal ADPRSs were associated with tau, but only in the autopsy dataset including symptomatic AD cases. Together, our study provides human genetic evidence implicating multiple glial cell types in AD pathophysiology, starting from the preclinical stage.

15.
Aging Cell ; 22(8): e13871, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37291760

RESUMO

Although pathogenic variants in PSEN1 leading to autosomal-dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) are highly penetrant, substantial interindividual variability in the rates of cognitive decline and biomarker change are observed in ADAD. We hypothesized that this interindividual variability may be associated with the location of the pathogenic variant within PSEN1. PSEN1 pathogenic variant carriers participating in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) observational study were grouped based on whether the underlying variant affects a transmembrane (TM) or cytoplasmic (CY) protein domain within PSEN1. CY and TM carriers and variant non-carriers (NC) who completed clinical evaluation, multimodal neuroimaging, and lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as part of their participation in DIAN were included in this study. Linear mixed effects models were used to determine differences in clinical, cognitive, and biomarker measures between the NC, TM, and CY groups. While both the CY and TM groups were found to have similarly elevated Aß compared to NC, TM carriers had greater cognitive impairment, smaller hippocampal volume, and elevated phosphorylated tau levels across the spectrum of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic phases of disease as compared to CY, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. As distinct portions of PSEN1 are differentially involved in APP processing by γ-secretase and the generation of toxic ß-amyloid species, these results have important implications for understanding the pathobiology of ADAD and accounting for a substantial portion of the interindividual heterogeneity in ongoing ADAD clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Presenilina-1 , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Presenilina-1/química , Presenilina-1/genética , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Mutação , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Cognição , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Transversais , Biomarcadores
16.
Nat Med ; 29(5): 1243-1252, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37188781

RESUMO

We characterized the world's second case with ascertained extreme resilience to autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). Side-by-side comparisons of this male case and the previously reported female case with ADAD homozygote for the APOE3 Christchurch (APOECh) variant allowed us to discern common features. The male remained cognitively intact until 67 years of age despite carrying a PSEN1-E280A mutation. Like the APOECh carrier, he had extremely elevated amyloid plaque burden and limited entorhinal Tau tangle burden. He did not carry the APOECh variant but was heterozygous for a rare variant in RELN (H3447R, termed COLBOS after the Colombia-Boston biomarker research study), a ligand that like apolipoprotein E binds to the VLDLr and APOEr2 receptors. RELN-COLBOS is a gain-of-function variant showing stronger ability to activate its canonical protein target Dab1 and reduce human Tau phosphorylation in a knockin mouse. A genetic variant in a case protected from ADAD suggests a role for RELN signaling in resilience to dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 94(1): 217-226, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37212093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detecting clinically meaningful changes in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) at the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critical. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between a performance-based IADL test, the Harvard Automated Phone Task (APT), and cerebral tau and amyloid burden in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. METHODS: Seventy-seven CN participants underwent flortaucipir tau and Pittsburgh Compound B amyloid PET. IADL were assessed using the three Harvard APT tasks: prescription refill (APT-Script), health insurance company call (APT-PCP), and bank transaction (APT-Bank). Linear regression models were used to determine associations between each APT task and entorhinal cortex, inferior temporal, or precuneus tau with or without an interaction with amyloid. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between APT-Bank task rate and interaction between amyloid and entorhinal cortex tau, and APT-PCP task and interactions between amyloid and inferior temporal and precuneus tau. No significant associations were found between the APT tasks and tau or amyloid alone. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings suggest an association between a simulated real-life IADL test and interactions of amyloid and several regions of early tau accumulation in CN older adults. However, some analyses were underpowered due to the small number of participants with elevated amyloid, and findings should be interpreted with caution. Future studies will further explore these associations cross-sectionally and longitudinally in order to determine whether the Harvard APT can serve as a reliable IADL outcome measure for preclinical AD prevention trials and ultimately in the clinic setting.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Atividades Cotidianas , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Córtex Entorrinal/patologia , Amiloide/metabolismo , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo
18.
JAMA Neurol ; 80(5): 462-473, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37010830

RESUMO

Importance: Postmenopausal females represent around 70% of all individuals with Alzheimer disease. Previous literature shows elevated levels of tau in cognitively unimpaired postmenopausal females compared with age-matched males, particularly in the setting of high ß-amyloid (Aß). The biological mechanisms associated with higher tau deposition in female individuals remain elusive. Objective: To examine the extent to which sex, age at menopause, and hormone therapy (HT) use are associated with regional tau at a given level of Aß, both measured with positron emission tomography (PET). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included participants enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer Prevention. Cognitively unimpaired males and females with at least 1 18F-MK-6240 and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B PET scan were analyzed. Data were collected between November 2006 and May 2021. Exposures: Premature menopause (menopause at younger than 40 years), early menopause (menopause at age 40-45 years), and regular menopause (menopause at older than 45 years) and HT user (current/past use) and HT nonuser (no current/past use). Exposures were self-reported. Main Outcomes and Measures: Seven tau PET regions that show sex differences across temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Primary analyses examined the interaction of sex, age at menopause or HT, and Aß PET on regional tau PET in a series of linear regressions. Secondary analyses investigated the influence of HT timing in association with age at menopause on regional tau PET. Results: Of 292 cognitively unimpaired individuals, there were 193 females (66.1%) and 99 males (33.9%). The mean (range) age at tau scan was 67 (49-80) years, 52 (19%) had abnormal Aß, and 106 (36.3%) were APOEε4 carriers. There were 98 female HT users (52.2%) (past/current). Female sex (standardized ß = -0.41; 95% CI, -0.97 to -0.32; P < .001), earlier age at menopause (standardized ß = -0.38; 95% CI, -0.14 to -0.09; P < .001), and HT use (standardized ß = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.40-1.20; P = .008) were associated with higher regional tau PET in individuals with elevated Aß compared with male sex, later age at menopause, and HT nonuse. Affected regions included medial and lateral regions of the temporal and occipital lobes. Late initiation of HT (>5 years following age at menopause) was associated with higher tau PET compared with early initiation (ß = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.43; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, females exhibited higher tau compared with age-matched males, particularly in the setting of elevated Aß. In females, earlier age at menopause and late initiation of HT were associated with increased tau vulnerability especially when neocortical Aß elevated. These observational findings suggest that subgroups of female individuals may be at higher risk of pathological burden.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Menopausa , Hormônios
19.
Neuropsychology ; 37(4): 436-449, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies are increasingly examining research questions across multiple cohorts using data from the preclinical Alzheimer cognitive composite (PACC). Our objective was to use modern psychometric approaches to develop a harmonized PACC. METHOD: We used longitudinal data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), Harvard Aging Brain Study (HABS), and Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) cohorts (n = 2,712). We further demonstrated our method with the Anti-Amyloid Treatment of Asymptomatic Alzheimer's Disease (A4) Study prerandomized data (n = 4,492). For the harmonization method, we used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the final visit of the longitudinal cohorts to determine parameters to generate latent PACC (lPACC) scores. Overlapping tests across studies were set as "anchors" that tied cohorts together, while parameters from unique tests were freely estimated. We performed validation analyses to assess the performance of lPACC versus the common standardized PACC (zPACC). RESULTS: Baseline (BL) scores for the zPACC were centered on zero, by definition. The harmonized lPACC did not define a common mean of zero and demonstrated differences in baseline ability levels across the cohorts. Baseline lPACC slightly outperformed zPACC in the prediction of progression to dementia. Longitudinal change in the lPACC was more constrained and less variable relative to the zPACC. In combined-cohort analyses, longitudinal lPACC slightly outperformed longitudinal zPACC in its association with baseline ß-amyloid status. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes procedures for harmonizing the PACC that make fewer strong assumptions than the zPACC, facilitating robust multicohort analyses. This implementation of item response theory lends itself to adapting across future cohorts with similar composites. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Austrália , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Biomarcadores , Cognição , Estudos Longitudinais
20.
Heliyon ; 8(3): e09144, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846461

RESUMO

Nanoformulations of Phosphorous (P) have recently been proposed as alternatives to P fertilizers. In this study, the fertilizing efficacies of P-based nanomaterials (NMs), nanohydroxyapatite (nHAP) and nanophosphorus (nP), were examined on Solanum lycopersicum (Pusa Rohini, Indian tomato) in growth room pot experiments. These NMs differed in their mode of synthesis, chemical composition, size and shape. Rock-phosphate (RP), phosphoric acid (PA) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) were included as bulk materials for comparison. Three varieties of artificial soils were included in the study, neutral (pH 7.2), acidic (pH 4.3) and basic (pH 9.8). The effects of the NMs on germination, plant growth, and P content were assessed at the 15th and 30th days after treatment. The results showed that P-based NMs enhance the overall germination and plant growth by increasing P levels in all types of soils for the tomato plants in comparison to the bulk P sources. Analysis using X-ray fluorescence revealed enhanced P content in the plants indicating the uptake of P-based NMs. Evaluation of H2O2, total phenolics and total flavonoids contents after NM treatment suggest that there is no stress caused due to the application of NMs to the plant. The results of this study indicate the beneficial role of P-based NMs as fertilizers at the early stages of plant development, which opens a scope for further investigation of underlying metabolic and molecular pathways and field trials.

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