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1.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips20230028, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369884

RESUMO

Previous evaluations of interventions for borderline personality disorder have focused on psychotherapies. This study (N=42 patients), conducted in Liverpool, United Kingdom, reviewed the effect on out-of-area treatments (OATs) and hospital admissions of establishing a local case management team and a combined day treatment and crisis service for patients who are too dysregulated to access typical office-based psychotherapy. Data from 12, 24, and 36 months postintervention were compared with baseline data. All patients in OATs were repatriated to the local community. No new patients were sent to OATs. Admissions decreased (at 12 months, 49%; 24 months, 64%; 36 months, 74%), achieving savings in hospitalization costs. Moderate increases in the use and costs of some other services were observed.

2.
Subst Abuse ; 17: 11782218231193914, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38025908

RESUMO

Introduction: Young adulthood is a transitional period between adolescence and adulthood. Due to the unique pressures of taking on a new social role and associated uncertainties, young adults are at heightened risk for drug and alcohol use. Furthermore, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases the likelihood of using maladaptive coping strategies such as using substances to avoid or soothe negative emotions. The current review aimed to summarize the associations between exposure to ACEs before the age of 18 years and subsequent drug or alcohol use between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Methods: The review was performed in accordance with the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature search of the Web of Science, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases was conducted in February 2022. Results: The initial search yielded 7178 articles, with 777 duplicates. Consequently, 6401 titles were inspected for relevance. After reading the full text, 88 articles were included in the review. Conclusion: This review provides clear evidence that exposure to multiple ACEs is a robust risk factor for the use of alcohol, cannabis and other drugs by young adults. Poor self-regulation and maladaptive coping strategies were identified as mechanisms explaining this link; however, further detailed research is needed.

3.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; : 306624X231165416, 2023 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37157822

RESUMO

Evidence concerning specific paraphilia treatment effectiveness is limited. We present observation data of 127 men convicted of paraphilic sexual offenses who attended inpatient and outpatient follow-up treatment in Czechia. We collected participants' sociodemographic and treatment-related information, including STATIC-99R scores, and used proportional hazards models to analyze variables' effect on recidivism risk. Within the observation period, the general recidivism and sexual recidivism rates were 33.1% and 16.5%, respectively, and the sexual contact recidivism rate was 4.7%. The total STATIC-99 score for those who re-offended was 5.65 (SD = 2.11) and for those who did not was 3.98 (SD = 2.02). Recidivism risk was 7.52 times higher for those diagnosed with exhibitionism than with pedophilia, sadomasochism, or antisocial personality disorder. General recidivism is comparable to others' findings. We attribute the lower sexual contact recidivism rate to the combined effects of psychological and pharmacological treatment, and higher numbers of non-contact offenses to limited antidepressant use.

4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1099528, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37089507

RESUMO

Introduction: Burnout syndrome is a state of long-term work exhaustion that manifests on three levels: cognitive, physical and emotional. Research regarding burnout syndrome has spiked in recent years. Despite burnout syndrome not being a clinical diagnosis, it has been recognized as a significant reason for work absence or, in some cases, even work leave. This study examines trends in burnout in the Czech population. The main aim of this research was to fill in the burnout literature gap and document the burnout trend over the years. Our secondary aim was to see if there is awareness regarding burnout syndrome and whether, over the years, we will see an increasing or a decreasing trend in burnout prevalence. Methods: Data collection took place in three waves using the computer assisted web interviewing (CAWI) method. In 2014 n = 1,027, in 2017 n = 1,024, and in 2020 n = 1,000. Respondents were selected from the European National Panel. Because the target group was adults (18-65 years), an online survey was chosen. Internet penetration in this target population is sufficient, and it was not necessary to use a combination of methodologies. Results: The results suggest a decreasing tendency for burnout syndrome in the Czech Republic. Knowledge about burnout syndrome is increasing, suggesting that people are paying more attention to their mental health and the possible factors that might affect the severity of burnout syndrome. Conclusion: Overall, burnout threatens the general population, not only medical employees. It is a positive finding that over the years, there has been an increasing trend in awareness about burnout. It further shows that people have adopted certain precautions and steps to avoid burnout syndrome as the perceived threat from it gradually decreases.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Esgotamento Psicológico , Adulto , Humanos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emoções
5.
J Atten Disord ; 27(10): 1075-1080, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37057307

RESUMO

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Czech translation of the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale (VADPRS), a tool used to assess ADHD symptoms. Data was collected online from parents of school-aged children and included questions related to their child's diagnosis or treatment. The results showed that while relying on professional judgment improved specificity and positive predictive value, it decreased negative predictive value. These findings indicate that the VADPRS scale is more accurate in identifying individuals with ADHD when professionals provide the diagnosis, but fewer true negatives are found. This is the first study attempting to describe the psychometric properties of this tool in the Czech Republic and assess its use as an additional tool for ADHD diagnosis. It is recommended that structured clinical interviews be used to increase the accuracy of ADHD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criança , Humanos , Psicometria/métodos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , República Tcheca , Pais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 85: 101842, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the presence of theoretical frameworks explaining aggression, they still require refinement in the form of a specification of mechanisms that facilitate such behaviour. METHOD: Study 1 recruited participants (N = 31) from the general population (N = 20) and from a forensic hospital (N = 11). It was expected that aggression supportive cognitions and stress would be positively associated with aggressive behaviour. An experimental paradigm was used to induce stress and participants were subsequently given the opportunity to aggress. Study 2 was based on self-report questionnaires in community sample (N = 462). It was expected that aggressive behaviour and traits would be associated with experienced stress, hostile attributions, coping styles, and attitudes to violence. Specifically, that criminal attitudes to violence will mediate the effect of hostile attribution on aggression, while coping styles will mediate the effect of perceived stress. RESULTS: An Implicit Theory "I am the law" was found to be associated with aggression. Furthermore, elevated skin conductance, but not changes in the heart rate, during the stress task was positively associated with aggression, and only among patients. Structural Equation Model confirmed the mediating role of criminal attitudes to violence and of maladaptive coping style for aggressive behaviour. CONCLUSION: Aggression-supportive cognitions and maladaptive coping style are specific mechanisms through which external demands or subjective perception of a situation can result in aggressive behaviour.


Assuntos
Agressão , Hostilidade , Humanos , Cognição , Violência , Adaptação Psicológica
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 825615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599778

RESUMO

Objectives: The length of forensic stay (LoS) is a subject to country-specific legal and service systems. Therefore, the identification of common factors targetable by treatment is at the forefront of forensic psychiatric research. In this study, we present the first reports of forensic characteristics of patients from the Czechia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 260 inpatients discharged from the Bohnice Hospital (Prague) and obtained a set of sociodemographic and clinical variables as well as the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) and HoNOS-secure scores. Results: The following variables were identified as significantly associated with a longer LoS: older age, length of previous psychiatric hospitalization, olanzapine equivalent, clozapine treatment, psychosocial dysfunction, psychotic or paraphilic disorder diagnosis, and sexual offense. A shorter LoS was associated with being in a relationship, being employed before hospitalization, receiving personal support, and committing an index offense under the influence of substance. While the HoNOS score and HoNOS symptom subscale predicted a longer LoS, the HoNOS-secure subscale predicted a shorter stay. Conclusion: In the European context, our hospital has a relatively low LoS. The results are consistent with findings linking psychotic disorders and paraphilia with a longer LoS in forensic treatment. Higher doses of antipsychotic medication or clozapine prescriptions were associated with a longer LoS. The results show a high level of unmet needs in this population, highlighting the importance of the availability of follow-up service.

8.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935784, 2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND There is a high prevalence of cognitive and socioemotional dysfunction in very low birth weight (VLBW <1500 g) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW <1000 g) children. This study from the Czech Republic aimed to compare the cognitive and socioemotional development at 5 and 9 years of age of children born with VLBW/ELBW with children born with normal birth weight (NBW ≥2500 g). MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical group consisted of 118 VLBW/ELBW children and the control group consisted of 101 children with NBW at ages 5 to 9 years. The research battery included selected subscales from the Intelligence and Development Scales (IDS), A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment - second edition (NEPSY-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Data were analyzed using STATA IC v. 15 software and G*Power (descriptive statistic, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlations, multivariate analysis of variance - MANOVA, post hoc power analysis). RESULTS We found a statistically significant difference in cognitive and socioemotional development between children with VLBW/ELBW and those with NBW. The average intelligence quotient (IQ) of VLBW/ELBW children was 96.38, while that of NBW children was 12.98 points higher (P<0.001). NBW children achieved better results on all subtests of the IDS (P<0.001) as well as in affect recognition (P<0.001). All results for both groups were within normal range. Parents of VLBW/ELBW children did not recognize impaired executive functioning (P=0.494). CONCLUSIONS This study has shown significant cognitive and socioemotional deficit in children born with VLBW and ELBW when evaluated at 5 and 9 years of age.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Análise de Variância , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
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