Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 5 de 5
Mais filtros

Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
Ambio ; 49(3): 693-703, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792797


We present a comprehensive list of non-native vascular plants known from the Arctic, explore their geographic distribution, analyze the extent of naturalization and invasion among 23 subregions of the Arctic, and examine pathways of introductions. The presence of 341 non-native taxa in the Arctic was confirmed, of which 188 are naturalized in at least one of the 23 regions. A small number of taxa (11) are considered invasive; these plants are known from just three regions. In several Arctic regions there are no naturalized non-native taxa recorded and the majority of Arctic regions have a low number of naturalized taxa. Analyses of the non-native vascular plant flora identified two main biogeographic clusters within the Arctic: American and Asiatic. Among all pathways, seed contamination and transport by vehicles have contributed the most to non-native plant introduction in the Arctic.

Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Regiões Árticas
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 35(2): 485-93, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26313564


High-latitude regions experience unique conditions that affect the degradation rate of agrochemicals in the environment. In the present study, data collected from 2 field sites in Alaska, USA (Palmer and Delta) were used to generate a kinetic model for aminopyralid and clopyralid degradation and to describe the microbial community response to herbicide exposure. Field plots were sprayed with herbicides and sampled over the summer of 2013. Quantification was performed via liquid chromatrography/tandem mass spectrometry, and microbial diversity was assessed via next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes. Both compounds degraded rapidly via pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics between 0 d and 28 d (t1/2 = 9.1-23.0 d), and then degradation slowed thereafter through 90 d. Aminopyralid concentration was 0.048 µg/g to 0.120 µg/g at 90 d post application, whereas clopyralid degraded rapidly at the Palmer site but was recovered in Delta soil at a concentraction of 0.046 µg/g. Microbial community diversity was moderately impacted by herbicide treatment, with the effect more pronounced at Delta. These data predict reductions in crop yield when sensitive plants (potatoes, tomatoes, marigolds, etc.) are rotated onto treated fields. Agricultural operations in high-latitude regions, both commercial and residential, rely heavily on cultivation of such crops and care must be taken when rotating.

Biodegradação Ambiental , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/toxicidade , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Ácidos Picolínicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Picolínicos/toxicidade , Piridinas/metabolismo , Piridinas/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Alaska , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Cinética , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
Environ Manage ; 39(3): 326-37, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17203339


Over the last fifty years, almost half of the steppe rangeland in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey (CAR) has been converted to cropland without an equivalent reduction in grazing animals. This shift has led to heavy grazing pressure on rangeland vegetation. A study was initiated in June 2003 using 6 multiscale Modified-Whittaker plots to determine differences in plant composition between areas that have not been grazed in 27 years with neighboring grazed plant communities. A total of 113 plant species were identified in the study area with the ungrazed plots containing 32 plants more than the grazed plots. The major species were Astragalus acicularis, Bromus tomentellus, Festuca valesiaca, Genista albida, Globularia orientalis, Poa bulbosa, and Thymus spyleus ssp rosulans. Grazing impacts on forbs were more pronounced than for grasses and shrubs. Based on Jaccard's index, there was only a 37% similarity of plant species between the two treatments. Our study led to four generalizations about the current grazing regime and long-term exclosures in the steppe rangeland around the study area: (1) exclosures will increase species richness, (2) heavy grazing may have removed some plant species, (3) complete protection from grazing for a prolonged period of time after a long history of grazing disturbance may not lead to an increase in desirable plant species with a concomitant improvement in range condition, and (4) research needs to be conducted to determine how these rangelands can be improved.

Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Plantas/classificação , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
Environ Manage ; 37(5): 703-11, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16485162


Methods that are more cost-effective and objective are needed to detect important vegetation change within acceptable error rates. The objective of this research was to compare visual estimation to three new methods for determining vegetation cover in the sagebrush steppe. Fourteen management units at the US Sheep Experiment Station were identified for study. In each unit, 20 data collection points were selected for measuring plant cover using visual estimation, laser-point frame (LPF), 2 m above-ground-level (AGL) digital imagery, and 100-m AGL digital imagery. In 11 of 14 management units, determinations of vegetation cover differed (P < 0.05). However, when combined, overall determinations of vegetation cover did not differ. Standard deviation, corrected sums of squares, coefficient of variation, and standard error for the 100 m AGL method were half as large as for the LPF and less than the 2-m AGL and visual estimate. For the purpose of measuring plant cover, all three new methods are as good as or better than visual estimation for speed, standard deviation, and cost. The acquisition of a permanent image of a location is an important advantage of the 2 and 100 m AGL methods because vegetation can be reanalyzed using improved software or to answer different questions, and changes in vegetation over time can be more accurately determined. The reduction in cost per sample, the increased speed of sampling, and the smaller standard deviation associated with the 100-m AGL digital imagery are compelling arguments for adopting this vegetation sampling method.

Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Plantas Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Geografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
Environ Manage ; 32(2): 234-45, 2003 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14753648


In July 2000, a 490-ha wildfire burned a portion of a long-term grazing study that had been established in 1924 at the US Sheep Experiment Station north of Dubois, Idaho, USA. Earlier vegetation measurements in this tall threetip sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita spp. tripartita) bunchgrass plant community documented significant changes in vegetation due to grazing and the timing of grazing by sheep. A study was initiated in May 2001 using 12 multiscale modified Whittaker plots to determine the consequences of previous grazing practices on postfire vegetation composition. Because there was only one wildfire and it did not burn all of the original plots, the treatments are not replicated in time or space. We reduce the potential effects of psuedoreplication by confining our discussion to the sample area only. There were a total of 84 species in the sampled areas with 69 in the spring-grazed area and 70 each in the fall- and ungrazed areas. Vegetation within plots was equally rich and even with similar numbers of abundant species. The spring-grazed plots, however, had half as much plant cover as the fall- and ungrazed plots and the spring-grazed plots had the largest proportion of plant cover composed of introduced (27%) and annual (34%) plants. The fall-grazed plots had the highest proportion of native perennial grasses (43%) and the lowest proportion of native annual forbs (1%). The ungrazed plots had the lowest proportion of introduced plants (4%) and the highest proportion of native perennial forbs (66%). The vegetation of spring-grazed plots is in a degraded condition for the environment and further degradation may continue, with or without continued grazing or some other disturbance. If ecosystem condition was based solely on plant diversity and only a count of species numbers was used to determine plant diversity, this research would have falsely concluded that grazing and timing of grazing did not impact the condition of the ecosystem.

Ecossistema , Incêndios , Plantas Comestíveis , Agricultura , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Comportamento Alimentar , Dinâmica Populacional , Ovinos