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1.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442015

RESUMO

A magnetic field modifies optical properties and provides valley splitting in a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer. Here we demonstrate a scalable approach to the epitaxial synthesis of MoS2 monolayer on a magnetic graphene/Co system. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we observe a magnetic proximity effect that causes a 20 meV spin-splitting at the Γ̅ point and canting of spins at the K̅ point in the valence band toward the in-plane direction of cobalt magnetization. Our density functional theory calculations reveal that the in-plane spin component at K̅ is localized on Co atoms in the valence band, while in the conduction band it is localized on the MoS2 layer. The calculations also predict a 16 meV spin-splitting at the Γ̅ point and 8 meV K̅-K'¯ valley asymmetry for an out-of-plane magnetization. These findings suggest control over optical transitions in MoS2 via Co magnetization. Our estimations show that the magnetic proximity effect is equivalent to the action of the magnetic field as large as 100 T.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2542, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953174

RESUMO

Lateral heterojunctions of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold promise for applications in nanotechnology, yet their charge transport and most of the spectroscopic properties have not been investigated. Here, we synthesize a monolayer of multiple aligned heterojunctions consisting of quasi-metallic and wide-bandgap GNRs, and report characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, Raman spectroscopy, and charge transport. Comprehensive transport measurements as a function of bias and gate voltages, channel length, and temperature reveal that charge transport is dictated by tunneling through the potential barriers formed by wide-bandgap GNR segments. The current-voltage characteristics are in agreement with calculations of tunneling conductance through asymmetric barriers. We fabricate a GNR heterojunctions based sensor and demonstrate greatly improved sensitivity to adsorbates compared to graphene based sensors. This is achieved via modulation of the GNR heterojunction tunneling barriers by adsorbates.

3.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 13629-13637, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910634

RESUMO

Cluster superlattice membranes consist of a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of similar-sized nanoclusters sandwiched between single-crystal graphene and an amorphous carbon matrix. The fabrication process involves three main steps, the templated self-organization of a metal cluster superlattice on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111), conformal embedding in an amorphous carbon matrix, and subsequent lift-off from the Ir(111) substrate. The mechanical stability provided by the carbon-graphene matrix makes the membrane stable as a free-standing material and enables transfer to other substrates. The fabrication procedure can be applied to a wide variety of cluster materials and cluster sizes from the single-atom limit to clusters of a few hundred atoms, as well as other two-dimensional layer/host matrix combinations. The versatility of the membrane composition, its mechanical stability, and the simplicity of the transfer procedure make cluster superlattice membranes a promising material in catalysis, magnetism, energy conversion, and optoelectronics.

4.
Nano Lett ; 20(7): 4761-4767, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510961

RESUMO

We present laser-induced photothermal synthesis of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The kinetics of photothermal bottom-up GNR growth are unravelled by in situ Raman spectroscopy carried out in ultrahigh vacuum. We photothermally drive the reaction steps by short periods of laser irradiation and subsequently analyze the Raman spectra of the reactants in the irradiated area. Growth kinetics of chevron GNRs (CGNRs) and seven atoms wide armchair GNRs (7-AGNRs) is investigated. The reaction rate constants for polymerization, cyclodehydrogenation, and interribbon fusion are experimentally determined. We find that the limiting rate constants for CGNR growth are several hundred times smaller than for 7-AGNR growth and that interribbon fusion is an important elementary reaction occurring during 7-AGNR growth. Our work highlights that photothermal synthesis and in situ Raman spectroscopy are a powerful tandem for the investigation of on-surface reactions.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1340, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165617

RESUMO

We show that Cs intercalated bilayer graphene acts as a substrate for the growth of a strained Cs film hosting quantum well states with high electronic quality. The Cs film grows in an fcc phase with a substantially reduced lattice constant of 4.9 Å corresponding to a compressive strain of 11% compared to bulk Cs. We investigate its electronic structure using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and show the coexistence of massless Dirac and massive Schrödinger charge carriers in two dimensions. Analysis of the electronic self-energy of the massive charge carriers reveals the crystallographic direction in which a two-dimensional Fermi gas is realized. Our work introduces the growth of strained metal quantum wells on intercalated Dirac matter.

6.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10210-10220, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442021

RESUMO

For quasi-freestanding 2H-TaS2 in monolayer thickness grown by in situ molecular beam epitaxy on graphene on Ir(111), we find unambiguous evidence for a charge density wave close to a 3 × 3 periodicity. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we determine the magnitude of the partial charge density wave gap. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, complemented by scanning tunneling spectroscopy for the unoccupied states, makes a tight-binding fit for the band structure of the TaS2 monolayer possible. As hybridization with substrate bands is absent, the fit yields a precise value for the doping of the TaS2 layer. Additional Li doping shifts the charge density wave to a 2 × 2 periodicity. Unexpectedly, the bilayer of TaS2 also displays a disordered 2 × 2 charge density wave. Calculations of the phonon dispersions based on a combination of density-functional theory, density-functional perturbation theory, and many-body perturbation theory enable us to provide phase diagrams for the TaS2 charge density wave as functions of doping, hybridization, and interlayer potentials, and offer insight into how they affect lattice dynamics and stability. Our theoretical considerations are consistent with the experimental work presented and shed light on previous experimental and theoretical investigations of related systems.

7.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 7038-7044, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336056

RESUMO

By enhancing the photoluminescence from aligned seven-atom wide armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons using plasmonic nanoantennas, we are able to observe blinking of the emission. The on- and off-times of the blinking follow power law statistics. In time-resolved spectra, we observe spectral diffusion. These findings together are a strong indication of the emission originating from a single quantum emitter. The room temperature photoluminescence displays a narrow spectral width of less than 50 meV, which is significantly smaller than the previously observed ensemble line width of 0.8 eV. From spectral time traces, we identify three optical transitions, which are energetically situated below the lowest bulk excitonic state E11 of the nanoribbons. We attribute the emission to transitions involving Tamm states localized at the end of the nanoribbon. The photoluminescence from a single ribbon is strongly enhanced when its end is in the antenna hot spot resulting in the observed single molecule characteristics of the emission. Our findings illustrate the essential role of the end termination of graphene nanoribbons in light emission and allow us to construct a model for photoluminescence from nanoribbons.

8.
Nanoscale ; 10(37): 17975-17982, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226260

RESUMO

The opening of a band gap in graphene nanoribbons induces novel optical and electronic properties, strongly enhancing their application potential in nanoscale devices. Knowledge of the optical excitations and associated relaxation dynamics are essential for developing and optimizing device designs and functionality. Here we report on the optical excitations and associated relaxation dynamics in surface aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy. On the anti-Stokes side we observe an optically induced increase of the scattering intensity of the Raman active optical phonons which we assign to changes in the optical phonon populations. The optical phonon population decays with a lifetime of ∼2 ps, indicating an efficient optical-acoustic phonon cooling mechanism. On the Stokes side we observe a substantial decrease of the phonon peak intensities which we relate to the dynamics of the optically induced exciton population. The exciton population shows a multi-exponential relaxation on the hundreds of ps time scale and is independent of the excitation intensity, indicating that exciton-exciton annihilation processes are not important and the exsistence of dark and trapped exciton states. Our results shed light on the optically induced phonon and exciton dynamics in surface aligned armchair graphene nanoribbons and demonstrate that time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering spectroscopy is a powerful method for exploring quasi-particle dynamics in low dimensional materials.

9.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 6045-6056, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157652

RESUMO

We employ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) Raman spectroscopy in tandem with angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) to investigate the doping-dependent Raman spectrum of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111). The evolution of Raman spectra from pristine to heavily Cs doped graphene up to a carrier concentration of 4.4 × 1014 cm-2 is investigated. At this doping, graphene is at the onset of the Lifshitz transition and renormalization effects reduce the electronic bandwidth. The optical transition at the saddle point in the Brillouin zone then becomes experimentally accessible by ultraviolet (UV) light excitation, which achieves resonance Raman conditions in close vicinity to the van Hove singularity in the joint density of states. The position of the Raman G band of fully doped graphene/Ir(111) shifts down by ∼60 cm-1. The G band asymmetry of Cs doped epitaxial graphene assumes an unusual strong Fano asymmetry opposite to that of the G band of doped graphene on insulators. Our calculations can fully explain these observations by substrate dependent quantum interference effects in the scattering pathways for vibrational and electronic Raman scattering.

10.
ACS Nano ; 12(8): 7571-7582, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004663

RESUMO

We investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of bottom-up synthesized aligned armchair graphene nanoribbons of N = 7 carbon atoms width periodically doped by substitutional boron atoms (B-7AGNRs). Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we find that the dopant-derived valence and conduction band states are notably hybridized with electronic states of Au substrate and spread in energy. The interaction with the substrate leaves the bands with pure carbon character rather unperturbed. This results in an identical effective mass of ≈0.2 m0 for the next-highest valence band compared with pristine 7AGNRs. We probe the phonons of B-7AGNRs by ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) Raman spectroscopy and reveal the existence of characteristic splitting and red shifts in Raman modes due to the presence of substitutional boron atoms. Comparing the Raman spectra for three visible lasers (red, green, and blue), we find that interaction with gold suppresses the Raman signal from B-7AGNRs and the energy of the green laser (2.33 eV) is closer to the resonant E22 transition. The hybridized electronic structure of the B-7AGNR-Au interface is expected to improve electrical characteristics of contacts between graphene nanoribbon and Au. The Raman fingerprint allows the easy identification of B-7AGNRs, which is particularly useful for device fabrication.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(12): 9900-9903, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516716

RESUMO

We report on the experimental demonstration and electrical characterization of N = 7 armchair graphene nanoribbon (7-AGNR) field effect transistors. The back-gated transistors are fabricated from atomically precise and highly aligned 7-AGNRs, synthesized with a bottom-up approach. The large area transfer process holds the promise of scalable device fabrication with atomically precise nanoribbons. The channels of the FETs are approximately 30 times longer than the average nanoribbon length of 30 nm to 40 nm. The density of the GNRs is high, so that transport can be assumed well-above the percolation threshold. The long channel transistors exhibit a maximum ION/ IOFF current ratio of 87.5.

12.
ACS Nano ; 11(9): 8643-8649, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783303

RESUMO

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) possessing a confined inner space protected by chemically resistant shells are promising for delivery, storage, and desorption of various compounds, as well as carrying out specific reactions. Here, we show that SWCNTs interact with molten mercury dichloride (HgCl2) and guide its transformation into dimercury dichloride (Hg2Cl2) in the cavity. The chemical state of host SWCNTs remains almost unchanged except for a small p-doping from the guest Hg2Cl2 nanocrystals. The density functional theory calculations reveal that the encapsulated HgCl2 molecules become negatively charged and start interacting via chlorine bridges when local concentration increases. This reduces the bonding strength in HgCl2, which facilitates removal of chlorine, finally leading to formation of Hg2Cl2 species. The present work demonstrates that SWCNTs not only serve as a template for growing nanocrystals but also behave as an electron-transfer catalyst in the spatially confined redox reaction by donation of electron density for temporary use by the guests.

13.
ACS Nano ; 11(6): 6336-6345, 2017 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494148

RESUMO

Regardless of the widely accepted opinion that there is no Raman signal from single-layer graphene when it is strongly bonded to a metal surface, we present Raman spectra of a graphene monolayer on Ni(111) and Co(0001) substrates. The high binding energy of carbon to these surfaces allows formation of lattice-matched (1 × 1) structures where graphene is significantly stretched. This is reflected in a record-breaking shift of the Raman G band by more than 100 cm-1 relative to the case of freestanding graphene. Using electron diffraction and photoemission spectroscopy, we explore the aforementioned systems together with polycrystalline graphene on Co and analyze possible intercalation of oxygen at ambient conditions. The results obtained are fully supported by Raman spectroscopy. Performing a theoretical investigation of the phonon dispersions of freestanding graphene and stretched graphene on the strongly interacting Co surface, we explain the main features of the Raman spectra. Our results create a reliable platform for application of Raman spectroscopy in diagnostics of chemisorbed graphene and related materials.

14.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 8: 2669-2679, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354339

RESUMO

Novel nitrogen-doped carbon hybrid materials consisting of multiwalled nanotubes and porous graphitic layers have been produced by chemical vapor deposition over magnesium-oxide-supported metal catalysts. CN x nanotubes were grown on Co/Mo, Ni/Mo, or Fe/Mo alloy nanoparticles, and MgO grains served as a template for the porous carbon. The simultaneous formation of morphologically different carbon structures was due to the slow activation of catalysts for the nanotube growth in a carbon-containing gas environment. An analysis of the obtained products by means of transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy methods revealed that the catalyst's composition influences the nanotube/porous carbon ratio and concentration of incorporated nitrogen. The hybrid materials were tested as electrodes in a 1M H2SO4 electrolyte and the best performance was found for a nitrogen-enriched material produced using the Fe/Mo catalyst. From the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data, it was concluded that the nitrogen doping reduces the resistance at the carbon surface/electrolyte interface and the nanotubes permeating the porous carbon provide fast charge transport in the cell.

15.
ACS Nano ; 9(7): 7314-22, 2015 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26121999

RESUMO

Embedding foreign atoms or molecules in graphene has become the key approach in its functionalization and is intensively used for tuning its structural and electronic properties. Here, we present an efficient method based on chemical vapor deposition for large scale growth of boron-doped graphene (B-graphene) on Ni(111) and Co(0001) substrates using carborane molecules as the precursor. It is shown that up to 19 at. % of boron can be embedded in the graphene matrix and that a planar C-B sp(2) network is formed. It is resistant to air exposure and widely retains the electronic structure of graphene on metals. The large-scale and local structure of this material has been explored depending on boron content and substrate. By resolving individual impurities with scanning tunneling microscopy we have demonstrated the possibility for preferential substitution of carbon with boron in one of the graphene sublattices (unbalanced sublattice doping) at low doping level on the Ni(111) substrate. At high boron content the honeycomb lattice of B-graphene is strongly distorted, and therefore, it demonstrates no unballanced sublattice doping.

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