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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3823, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360784

RESUMO

Zebrafish have been utilized for many years as a model animal for pharmacological studies on diabetes and obesity. High-fat diet (HFD), streptozotocin and alloxan injection, and glucose immersion have all been used to induce diabetes and obesity in zebrafish. Currently, studies commonly used both male and female zebrafish, which may influence the outcomes since male and female zebrafish are biologically different. This study was designed to investigate the difference between the metabolites of male and female diabetic zebrafish, using limonene - a natural product which has shown several promising results in vitro and in vivo in treating diabetes and obesity-and provide new insights into how endogenous metabolites change following limonene treatment. Using HFD-fed male and female zebrafish, we were able to develop an animal model of T2D and identify several endogenous metabolites that might be used as diagnostic biomarkers for diabetes. The endogenous metabolites in males and females were different, even though both genders had high blood glucose levels and a high BMI. Treatment with limonene prevented high blood glucose levels and improved in diabesity zebrafish by limonene, through reversal of the metabolic changes caused by HFD in both genders. In addition, limonene was able to reverse the elevated expression of AKT during HFD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Limoneno , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hiperglicemia/complicações
2.
Chem Sci ; 14(35): 9517-9525, 2023 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37712023

RESUMO

The chemistry of aptamers is largely limited to natural nucleotides, and although modifications of nucleic acids can enhance target aptamer affinity, there has not yet been a technology for selecting the right modifications in the right locations out of the vast number of possibilities, because enzymatic amplification does not transmit sequence-specific modification information. Here we show the first method for the selection of specific nucleoside modifications that increase aptamer binding efficacy, using the oncoprotein EGFR as a model target. Using fluorescence-activated bead sorting (FABS), we have successfully selected optimized aptamers from a library of >65 000 variations. Hits were identified by tandem mass spectrometry and validated by using an EGFR binding assay and computational docking studies. Our results provide proof of concept for this novel strategy for the selection of chemically optimised aptamers and offer a new method for rapidly synthesising and screening large aptamer libraries to accelerate diagnostic and drug discovery.

3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 379: 110503, 2023 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37084996

RESUMO

Hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones (HPMFs) have been shown to possess various anti-disease effects, including against obesity. This study investigates the anti-obesity effects of HPMFs in further detail, aiming to gain understanding of their mechanism of action in this context. The current study demonstrates that two HPMFs; 3'-hydroxy-5,7,4',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (3'OH-TetMF) and 4'-hydroxy-5,7,3',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (4'OH-TetMF) possess anti-obesity effects. They both significantly reduced pancreatic lipase activity in a competitive manner as demonstrated by molecular docking and kinetic studies. In cell studies, it was revealed that both of the HPMFs suppress differentiation of 3T3-L1 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells during the early stages of adipogenesis. They also reduced expression of key adipogenic and lipogenic marker genes, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and ß (C/EBP α and ß), adipocyte binding protein 2 (aP2), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBF 1). They also enhanced the expression of cell cycle genes, i.e., cyclin D1 (CCND1) and C-Myc, and reduced cyclin A2 expression. When further investigated, it was also observed that these HPMFs accelerate lipid breakdown (lipolysis) and enhance lipolytic genes expression. Moreover, they also reduced the secretion of proteins (adipokines), including pro-inflammatory cytokines, from mature adipocytes. Taken together, this study concludes that these HPMFs have anti-obesity effects, which are worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Lipólise , Animais , Camundongos , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipase/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo
4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 938: 175445, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36473593

RESUMO

In this study, the anti-obesity effects of 5,7,3',4',5-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) and 6,2',4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF) were evaluated through two distinct mechanisms of action: inhibition of crude porcine pancreatic lipase (PL), and inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Both flavones show dose dependent, competitive inhibition of PL activity. Molecular docking studies revealed binding of the flavones to the active site of PL. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, both flavones reduced the accumulation of lipids and triglycerides. PMF and TMF also lowered the expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes. They both reduced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and ß (C/EBP α and ß), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBF 1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), adipocyte binding protein 2 (aP2), and leptin gene. In addition, these flavones enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression, increased lipolysis and enhanced the expression of lipolytic genes: adipose triglycerides lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and monoglycerides lipase (MAGL) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, PMF was seen to be a more potent inhibitor of both PL activity and adipogenesis versus TMF. These results suggest that PMF and TMF possess anti-obesity activities and can be further evaluated for their anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Flavonas , Camundongos , Suínos , Animais , Lipase/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Células 3T3-L1 , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Flavonas/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Obesidade , Diferenciação Celular
5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(87): 12200-12203, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239130

RESUMO

We have created sequenced phosphoester-linked trimers of aromatic donor/acceptors which participate in charge-transfer interactions. Each sequence displays characteristic self-assembly, and complementary sequences interact with each other to produce new nanostructures and thermochromism. This paves the way towards new functional nanomaterials which make bio-analogous use of sequence to tune structure.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Nanoestruturas/química
6.
J Mol Biol ; 434(7): 167466, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077765

RESUMO

The presence of amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of more than 50 human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and systemic amyloidoses. A key unresolved challenge in understanding the involvement of amyloid in disease is to explain the relationship between individual structural polymorphs of amyloid fibrils, in potentially mixed populations, and the specific pathologies with which they are associated. Although cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy methods have been successfully employed in recent years to determine the structures of amyloid fibrils with high resolution detail, they rely on ensemble averaging of fibril structures in the entire sample or significant subpopulations. Here, we report a method for structural identification of individual fibril structures imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) by integration of high-resolution maps of amyloid fibrils determined by cryo-EM in comparative AFM image analysis. This approach was demonstrated using the hitherto structurally unresolved amyloid fibrils formed in vitro from a fragment of tau (297-391), termed 'dGAE'. Our approach established unequivocally that dGAE amyloid fibrils bear no structural relationship to heparin-induced tau fibrils formed in vitro. Furthermore, our comparative analysis resulted in the prediction that dGAE fibrils are structurally closely related to the paired helical filaments (PHFs) isolated from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue characterised by cryo-EM. These results show the utility of individual particle structural analysis using AFM, provide a workflow of how cryo-EM data can be incorporated into AFM image analysis and facilitate an integrated structural analysis of amyloid polymorphism.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloide , Amiloidose , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Amiloide/química , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/química , Amiloidose/patologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Humanos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
7.
Chem Sci ; 14(1): 196-202, 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36605750

RESUMO

DNA-peptide conjugates offer an opportunity to marry the benefits of both biomolecular classes, combining the high level of programmability found with DNA, with the chemical diversity of peptides. These hybrid systems offer potential in fields such as therapeutics, nanotechnology, and robotics. Using the first DNA-ß-turn peptide conjugate, we present three studies investigating the self-assembly of DNA-peptide conjugates over a period of 28 days. Time-course studies, such as these have not been previously conducted for DNA-peptide conjugates, although they are common in pure peptide assembly, for example in amyloid research. By using aging studies to assess the structures produced, we gain insights into the dynamic nature of these systems. The first study explores the influence varying amounts of DNA-peptide conjugates have on the self-assembly of our parent peptide. Study 2 explores how DNA and peptide can work together to change the structures observed during aging. Study 3 investigates the presence of orthogonality within our system by switching the DNA and peptide control on and off independently. These results show that two orthogonal self-assemblies can be combined and operated independently or in tandem within a single macromolecule, with both spatial and temporal effects upon the resultant nanostructures.

8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 915: 174611, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798121

RESUMO

Obesity is a major health crisis affecting over a third of the global population. This multifactorial disease is regulated via interoceptive neural circuits in the brain, whose alteration results in excessive body weight. Certain central neuronal populations in the brain are recognised as crucial nodes in energy homeostasis; in particular, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) region contains two peptide microcircuits that control energy balance with antagonistic functions: agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide-Y (AgRP/NPY) signals hunger and stimulates food intake; and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) signals satiety and reduces food intake. These neuronal peptides levels react to energy status and integrate signals from peripheral ghrelin, leptin, and insulin to regulate feeding and energy expenditure. To manage obesity comprehensively, it is crucial to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms of information processing in ARC neurons, since these regulate energy homeostasis. Importantly, a specific strategy focusing on ARC circuits needs to be devised to assist in treating obese patients and maintaining weight loss with minimal or no side effects. The aim of this review is to elucidate the recent developments in the study of AgRP-, NPY- and POMC-producing neurons, specific to their role in controlling metabolism. The impact of ghrelin, leptin, and insulin signalling via action of these neurons is also surveyed, since they also impact energy balance through this route. Lastly, we present key proteins, targeted genes, compounds, drugs, and therapies that actively work via these neurons and could potentially be used as therapeutic targets for treating obesity conditions.


Assuntos
Pró-Opiomelanocortina
9.
J Chem Educ ; 98(12): 4013-4016, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924600

RESUMO

The thermal equilibration of himic anhydride [IUPAC (2-endo,3-endo)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid anhydride] to (2-exo,3-exo)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid anhydride and subsequent recrystallization of the exo-product can be performed as a standard undergraduate laboratory experiment requiring minimal equipment. The interpretation of the 1H NMR spectra for these norbornene carboxylic anhydride molecules promotes an appreciation of constrained ring systems and factors that affect chemical shifts and coupling constants.

10.
Biochimie ; 184: 26-39, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548390

RESUMO

Brown and beige adipose tissues are the primary sites for adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis. Although they have been known principally for their thermogenic effects, in recent years, it has emerged that, just like white adipose tissue (WAT), brown and beige adipose tissues also play an important role in the regulation of metabolic health through secretion of various brown adipokines (batokines) in response to various physiological cues. These secreted batokines target distant organs and tissues such as the liver, heart, skeletal muscles, brain, WAT, and perform various local and systemic functions in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine manner. Brown and beige adipose tissues are therefore now receiving increasing levels of attention with respect to their effects on various other organs and tissues. Identification of novel secreted factors by these tissues may help in the discovery of drug candidates for the treatment of various metabolic disorders such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, skeletal deformities, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia. In this review, we comprehensively describe the emerging secretory role of brown/beige adipose tissues and the metabolic effects of various brown/beige adipose tissues secreted factors on other organs and tissues in endocrine/paracrine manners, and as well as on brown/beige adipose tissue itself in an autocrine manner. This will provide insights into understanding the potential secretory role of brown/beige adipose tissues in improving metabolic health.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Termogênese , Tecido Adiposo Bege/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/patologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Obesidade/patologia
11.
Chem Sci ; 12(47): 15632-15636, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35003593

RESUMO

Nature's oligomeric macromolecules have been a long-standing source of inspiration for chemists producing foldamers. Natural systems are frequently conformationally stabilised by macrocyclisation, yet this approach has been rarely adopted in the field of foldamer chemistry. Here we present a new class of chiral cyclic trimers and tetramers formed by macrocyclisation of open-chain foldamer precursors. Symmetrical products are obtained via a [2 + 2] self-assembly approach, while full sequence control is demonstrated through linear synthesis and cyclisation of an unsymmetrical trimer. Structural characterisation is achieved through a combined X-ray and DFT approach, which indicates the tetramers adopt a near-planar conformation, while the trimers adopt a shallow bowl-like shape. Finally, a proof-of-concept experiment is conducted to demonstrate the macrocycles' capacity for cation binding.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(1): 101-104, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337451

RESUMO

The synthesis of a novel catenated system which is dense in cationic hydrogen bonding imidazolium units is described. The interlocked host system displays a preference for binding of bromide over other halides, overcoming basicity and Hofmeister trends, under aqueous conditions. This is the first example of an imidazolium-based catenane acting as an anion host through C-H hydrogen bonding.

13.
Phytochemistry ; 180: 112513, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010536

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly globally and has recently reached pandemic proportions. It is a multifactorial disorder linked to a number of non-communicable diseases such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are considered the most significant causes of obesity; a healthy lifestyle and behavioural interventions are the most powerful ways to achieve successful weight loss, but to maintain this in the long term can prove difficult for many individuals, without medical intervention. Various pharmacological anti-obesogenic drugs have been tested and marketed in the past and have been moderately successful in the management of obesity, but their adverse effects on human health often outweigh the benefits. Natural products from plants, either in the form of crude extracts or purified phytochemicals, have been shown to have anti-obesogenic properties and are generally considered as nontoxic and cost-effective compared to synthetic alternatives. These plant products combat obesity by targeting the various pathways and/or regulatory functions intricately linked to obesity. Their mechanisms of action include inhibition of pancreatic lipase activities, an increase in energy expenditure, appetite regulation, lipolytic effects, and inhibition of white adipose tissue development. In this review, we discuss the distinct anti-obesogenic properties of recently reported plant extracts and specific bioactive compounds, along with their molecular mechanisms of action. This review will provide a common platform for understanding the different causes of obesity and the possible approaches to using plant products in tackling this worldwide health issue.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
14.
Differentiation ; 115: 62-84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891960

RESUMO

Adipogenesis has been extensively studied using in vitro models of cellular differentiation, enabling long-term regulation of fat cell metabolism in human adipose tissue (AT) material. Many studies promote the idea that manipulation of this process could potentially reduce the prevalence of obesity and its related diseases. It has now become essential to understand the molecular basis of fat cell development to tackle this pandemic disease, by identifying therapeutic targets and new biomarkers. This review explores murine cell models and their applications for study of the adipogenic differentiation process in vitro. We focus on the benefits and limitations of different cell line models to aid in interpreting data and selecting a good cell line model for successful understanding of adipose biology.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Obesidade/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia
15.
ChemistryOpen ; 9(6): 683-690, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528790

RESUMO

Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have physicochemical properties which are distinct from both the bulk and molecular metal species, and provide opportunities in fields such as catalysis and sensing. NPs typically require protection of their surface to impede aggregation, but these coatings can also block access to the surface which would be required to take advantage of their unusual properties. Here, we show that alkyl imidazoles can stabilise Pd, Pt, Au, and Ag NPs, and delineate the limits of their synthesis. These ligands provide an intermediate level of surface protection, for which we demonstrate proof-of-principle in catalysis and anion binding.

16.
Biomol Concepts ; 11(1): 102-115, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374275

RESUMO

Atomic force microscopy, AFM, is a powerful tool that can produce detailed topographical images of individual nano-structures with a high signal-to-noise ratio without the need for ensemble averaging. However, the application of AFM in structural biology has been hampered by the tip-sample convolution effect, which distorts images of nano-structures, particularly those that are of similar dimensions to the cantilever probe tips used in AFM. Here we show that the tip-sample convolution results in a feature-dependent and non-uniform distribution of image resolution on AFM topographs. We show how this effect can be utilised in structural studies of nano-sized upward convex objects such as spherical or filamentous molecular assemblies deposited on a flat surface, because it causes 'magnification' of such objects in AFM topographs. Subsequently, this enhancement effect is harnessed through contact-point based deconvolution of AFM topographs. Here, the application of this approach is demonstrated through the 3D reconstruction of the surface envelope of individual helical amyloid filaments without the need of cross-particle averaging using the contact-deconvoluted AFM topographs. Resolving the structural variations of individual macromolecular assemblies within inherently heterogeneous populations is paramount for mechanistic understanding of many biological phenomena such as amyloid toxicity and prion strains. The approach presented here will also facilitate the use of AFM for high-resolution structural studies and integrative structural biology analysis of single molecular assemblies.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Amiloide/síntese química , Nanofibras , Peptídeos/síntese química
17.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 76, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457917

RESUMO

Obesity is now a widespread disorder, and its prevalence has become a critical concern worldwide, due to its association with common co-morbidities like cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ and therefore plays a critical role in the survival of an individual, but its dysfunction or excess is directly linked to obesity. The journey from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells to the formation of mature adipocytes is a well-orchestrated program which requires the expression of several genes, their transcriptional factors, and signaling intermediates from numerous pathways. Understanding all the intricacies of adipogenesis is vital if we are to counter the current epidemic of obesity because the limited understanding of these intricacies is the main barrier to the development of potent therapeutic strategies against obesity. In particular, AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) plays a crucial role in regulating adipogenesis - it is arguably the central cellular energy regulation protein of the body. Since AMPK promotes the development of brown adipose tissue over that of white adipose tissue, special attention has been given to its role in adipose tissue development in recent years. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms involved in adipogenesis, the role of signaling pathways and the substantial role of activated AMPK in the inhibition of adiposity, concluding with observations which will support the development of novel chemotherapies against obesity epidemics.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(39): 5307-5310, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282000

RESUMO

We have adapted solid phase phosphoramidite synthesis commonly used to make DNA, to produce two sequence-isomeric non-biological polymers which display sequence-programmed folding and self-assembly, going beyond structures which would be trivially anticipated. These findings open up possibilities for more sophisticated sequence/structure relationships using the same synthetic platform.

19.
ChemMedChem ; 15(4): 349-353, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828886

RESUMO

Thiourea and guanidine units are found in nature, medicine, and materials. Their continued exploration in applications as diverse as cancer therapy, sensors, and electronics means that their toxicity is an important consideration. Iridium complexes present new opportunities for drug development and imaging in terms of structure and photoactivity. We have systematically synthesised a set of thiourea and guanidine compounds and iridium complexes thereof, and elucidated structure-activity relationships for cellular toxicity in three ovarian cancer cell lines and their cisplatin-resistant sub-lines. We have been able to use the intrinsic luminescence of iridium complexes to visualise the effect of both structure alteration and cellular resistance mechanisms. These findings provide starting points for the development of new drugs and consideration of safety issues for novel thiourea-, guanidine-, and iridium-based materials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Guanidina/farmacologia , Irídio/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tioureia/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Guanidina/química , Humanos , Irídio/química , Microscopia Confocal , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Óptica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tioureia/química
20.
Commun Chem ; 3(1): 125, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703355

RESUMO

Amyloid fibrils are highly polymorphic structures formed by many different proteins. They provide biological function but also abnormally accumulate in numerous human diseases. The physicochemical principles of amyloid polymorphism are not understood due to lack of structural insights at the single-fibril level. To identify and classify different fibril polymorphs and to quantify the level of heterogeneity is essential to decipher the precise links between amyloid structures and their functional and disease associated properties such as toxicity, strains, propagation and spreading. Employing gentle, force-distance curve-based AFM, we produce detailed images, from which the 3D reconstruction of individual filaments in heterogeneous amyloid samples is achieved. Distinctive fibril polymorphs are then classified by hierarchical clustering, and sample heterogeneity is objectively quantified. These data demonstrate the polymorphic nature of fibril populations, provide important information regarding the energy landscape of amyloid self-assembly, and offer quantitative insights into the structural basis of polymorphism in amyloid populations.

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