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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(3)2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36732066

RESUMO

We conducted a genomic analysis of monkeypox virus sequences collected early in the 2022 outbreak, during July-August , in Washington, USA. Using 109 viral genomes, we found low overall genetic diversity, multiple introductions into the state, ongoing community transmission, and potential for co-infections by multiple strains.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e267874, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722679

RESUMO

Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a type of otitis media (OM) characterized by the presence of fluid behind intact tympanic membrane and is one of the most common diseases of early childhood. It is an infectious disease associated with the presence of many pathogenic bacteria in the middle ear of affected individuals. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria from the middle ear of OME patients in the population of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The incidence of OME under comprehensive healthcare setting was investigated in patients who consulted at the department of ear, throat and nose, Bahawal Victoria Hospital (BVH), Bahawalpur, from December, 2019 to May, 2021. Ear swabs were taken from affected and normal individuals. After culturing bacteria from the ear swabs, microscopic analysis and biochemical tests were performed to characterize the cultured Gram-positive bacteria. Out of 352 patients examined, 109 (30.9%) patients had OME. Age of the participants ranged from 14 to 50 years; individuals between the ages of 14 and 22 years had the highest infection rates, while individuals between 40 and 50 years had the lowest rate of infection. Tympanic membrane perforation, fever, cough, sore throat, ear pain and hearing problem showed association with symptoms of OME. Microscopic analysis and biochemical characterization showed the presence of streptococci and staphylococci in all the studied samples. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus with percentage of 53.3%, 20% and 13.3% respectively. Enterococcus faecalis (6.6%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.6%) were also identified in the studied samples. This study will help in the better medical administration of OME affected individuals.


Assuntos
Otite Média com Derrame , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otite Média com Derrame/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Povos Indígenas
3.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 33(1): 5-9, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare intravenous lidocaine infusion adjunct to NSAID and Acetaminophen with regular analgesics for postoperative mean pain score and mean ambulation time after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of General Surgery, Islamabad Medical Complex, (IMC), from March 2020 to December 2021. METHODOLOGY: Sixty (n=60) adult patients, both males and females between the ages of 18-60 years planned for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were selected and randomly allocated to two groups of treatment (Lidocaine and Ringer Lactate). The control group did not receive any other placebo other than Ringer Lactate infusion. Both groups received Intramuscular Diclofenac 12 hourly and intravenous acetaminophen infusion 8 hourly. Postoperative pain 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours (h) and mean ambulation time were compared in both groups. RESULTS: Mean VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) of group 1 versus group 2 at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h were 3.47 ± 0.82 vs. 6.27 ± 0.52 (p=<0.001), 2.7 ± 0.75 vs. 4.8 ± 0.8 (p<0.001), 2.0 ± 0.49 vs. 3.93 ± 0.94 (p<0.001), 0.73 ± 0.82 vs. 2.2 ± 0.61 (p<0.001). Time for spontaneous ambulation after surgery was 5.57 ± 1.55 hours for Group 1 versus 7.3 ± 1.9 hours for Group 2 (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Pain scores at all-time intervals were lower, and ambulation time was shorter in patients who received intravenous infusion of lidocaine as compared to patients who received only regular analgesics for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. KEY WORDS: Ambulation time, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Postoperative pain.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides , Colecistectomia , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Infusões Intravenosas , Lactatos , Lidocaína , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico
4.
5.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 10(1): 41-49, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening procedures for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) trials seek to efficiently identify participants who fulfill clinical and biomarker criteria for AD and enrich for those most likely to experience significant clinical progression during the study. Episodic memory performance is often assessed in screening, but the utility of different memory tests for optimizing screening efficiency and/or rates of clinical progression remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: Cross-study comparisons of the effects of inclusion criteria based on performance on the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) or the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) on screen-failure rates for episodic memory and ß-amyloid (Aß) positivity (by CSF or PET) and on subsequent rates of clinical disease progression in randomized participants across three clinical trials in early (prodromal-to-mild) AD. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical trial data. SETTING: Multi-center international clinical trials. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with prodromal-to-mild AD screened and/or randomized in clinical trials for crenezumab (CREAD, CREAD2) or semorinemab (Tauriel). Cross-sectional analyses of screening data for episodic memory impairment included participants from CREAD2 (n=2897) and Tauriel (n=887) and for Aß positivity included participants from CREAD (n=1138), CREAD2 (n=1119), and Tauriel (n=483). Longitudinal analyses of rates of clinical progression included participants from CREAD (n=779), CREAD2 (n=773), and Tauriel (n=331). MEASUREMENTS: Cross-sectional analyses examined eligibility rates per cutoffs defined for the FCSRT (CREAD, CREAD2) or RBANS (Tauriel) and per Aß positivity using CSF and/or PET biomarkers. Longitudinal analyses examined rates of clinical progression on the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), the 13-item version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog13), and Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL). RESULTS: Lower rates of study eligibility per episodic memory criteria were seen with the FCSRT (CREAD2) relative to the RBANS (Tauriel), but similar rates of eligibility per Aß positivity criteria were seen amongst participants with episodic memory impairment per the cutoffs used on either assessment. Similar rates of clinical decline over 18 months on the CDR-SB, ADAS-Cog13, and ADCS-ADL were observed in study populations enriched using the FCSRT (CREAD, CREAD2) or the RBANS (Tauriel). CONCLUSIONS: Cutoffs for episodic memory impairment on the FCSRT used in the CREAD and CREAD2 studies are more stringent than those on the RBANS used in the Tauriel study, resulting in lower rates of eligibility. However, given that study enrichment with either test yields similar rates of Aß positivity and clinical progression, considerations beyond these factors may drive the decision of which assessment to use for screening in early AD clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Memória Episódica , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Atividades Cotidianas , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Progressão da Doença , Biomarcadores
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251219, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345535

RESUMO

Abstract The most common form of psycho-social dysfunction is anxiety with depression being related closely without any age bar. They are present with combined state of sadness, confusion, stress, fear etc. Glyoxalase system contains enzyme named glyoxalase 1 (GLO1).It is a metabolic pathway which detoxifies alpha-oxo-aldehydes, particularly methylglyoxal (MG). Methylglyoxal is mainly made by the breakdown of the glycolytic intermediates, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Glyoxylase-1 expression is also related with anxiety behavior. A casual role or GLO-1 in anxiety behavior by using viral vectors for over expression in the anterior cingulate cortex was found and it was found that local GLO-1 over expression increased anxiety behavior. The present study deals with the molecular mechanism of protective activity of eugenol against anxiolytic disorder. A pre-clinical animal study was performed on 42 BALB/c mice. Animals were given stress through conventional restrain model. The mRNA expression of GLO-1 was analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Moreover, the GLO-1 protein expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry in whole brain and mean density was calculated. The mRNA and protein expressions were found to be increased in animals given anxiety as compared to the normal control. Whereas, the expressions were decreased in the animals treated with eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers in a dose dependent manner. However, the results were better in animals treated with nanocarriers as compared to the compound alone. It is concluded that the eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers exert anxiolytic activity by down-regulating GLO-1 protein expression in mice.


Resumo A forma mais comum de disfunção psicossocial é a ansiedade intimamente relacionada com a depressão, sem qualquer barreira de idade. Elas estão presentes em um estado combinado de tristeza, confusão, estresse, medo etc. O sistema de glioxalase contém uma enzima chamada glioxalase 1 (GLO1). É uma via metabólica que desintoxica alfa-oxo-aldeídos, particularmente metilglioxal (MG). O metilglioxal é produzido principalmente pela quebra dos intermediários glicolíticos, gliceraldeído-3-fosfatos e fosfato de diidroxiacetona. A expressão da glioxalase 1 também está relacionada ao comportamento de ansiedade. Um papel casual ou GLO1 no comportamento de ansiedade usando vetores virais para superexpressão no córtex cingulado anterior foi encontrado e descobriu-se que a superexpressão local de GLO1 aumentava o comportamento de ansiedade. O presente estudo trata do mecanismo molecular da atividade protetora do eugenol contra o transtorno ansiolítico. Um estudo pré-clínico em animais foi realizado em 42 camundongos BALB / c. Os animais foram submetidos ao estresse por meio do modelo de contenção convencional. A expressão de mRNA de GLO1 foi analisada por RT-PCR em tempo real. Além disso, a expressão da proteína GLO1 também foi examinada por imuno-histoquímica em todo o cérebro e a densidade média foi calculada. Verificou-se que as expressões de mRNA e proteínas estavam aumentadas em animais que receberam ansiedade em comparação com o controle normal. Considerando que as expressões foram diminuídas nos animais tratados com eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas de forma dependente da dose. No entanto, os resultados foram melhores em animais tratados com nanocarreadores em comparação com o composto sozinho. Conclui-se que o eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas exercem atividade ansiolítica por regulação negativa da expressão da proteína GLO1 em camundongos.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Eugenol/farmacologia , Lactoilglutationa Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Lipossomos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285621

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Genótipo
8.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 92: 101921, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455310

RESUMO

The study aimed to detect Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis) in water samples and to investigate the seroreactivity of sheep to tularemia in endemic areas where human tularemia cases have been reported in Ankara, Turkey. For the isolation of F. tularensis, 50 water samples were collected from rural areas of 5 regions of Ankara (Turkey) and selectively cultured on Francis medium supplemented with 8-9 % sheep blood and antibiotics (100 IU/ml penicillin G, 100 mg/L cycloheximide, 80,000 U/L polymixin B). No F. tularensis isolate was cultivated from the water samples. To determine the seroreactivity of sheep to tularemia, 1006 sheep blood samples were collected from the regions, where human tularemia is endemic. A microagglutination test (MAT) identified significant antibody titers, ranging from 1/20-1/640 in 181 (17.99 %) of the investigated sheep sera. Further investigation is required in order to evaluate and confirm a possible epidemiologic relationship between human outbreaks and probable role of sheep or other sources.

9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18684, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333419

RESUMO

Aquatic environments serve as a sink for anthropogenic discharges. A significant part of the discharge is tire wear, which is increasingly being released into the environment, causing environmental disasters due to their longevity and the large number of pollutants they contain. Main components of tires are plastic and zinc, which therefore can be used as substitutes for tire abrasion to study the effect on microbial life. We investigate environmentally realistic concentrations of plastic and zinc on a freshwater microeukaryotic community using high-throughput sequencing of the 18S V9 region over a 14-day exposure period. Apart from a generally unchanged diversity upon exposure to zinc and nanoplastics, a change in community structure due to zinc is evident, but not due to nanoplastics. Evidently, nanoplastic particles hardly affect the community, but zinc exposure results in drastic functional abundance shifts concerning the trophic mode. Phototrophic microorganisms were almost completely diminished initially, but photosynthesis recovered. However, the dominant taxa performing photosynthesis changed from bacillariophytes to chlorophytes. While phototrophic organisms are decreasing in the presence of zinc, the mixotrophic fraction initially benefitted and the heterotrophic fraction were benefitting throughout the exposure period. In contrast to lasting changes in taxon composition, the functional community composition is initially strongly imbalanced after application of zinc but returns to the original state.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Plásticos , Microplásticos , Zinco/química , Água Doce
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(38): 43067-43084, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121444

RESUMO

Achieving fast ionic conductivity in the electrolyte at low operating temperatures while maintaining the stable and high electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is challenging. Herein, we propose a new type of electrolyte based on perovskite Sr0.5Pr0.5Fe0.4Ti0.6O3-δ for low-temperature SOFCs. The ionic conducting behavior of the electrolyte is modulated using Mg doping, and three different Sr0.5Pr0.5Fe0.4-xMgxTi0.6O3-δ (x = 0, 0.1, and 0.2) samples are prepared. The synthesized Sr0.5Pr0.5Fe0.2Mg0.2Ti0.6O3-δ (SPFMg0.2T) proved to be an optimal electrolyte material, exhibiting a high ionic conductivity of 0.133 S cm-1 along with an attractive fuel cell performance of 0.83 W cm-2 at 520 °C. We proved that a proper amount of Mg doping (20%) contributes to the creation of an adequate number of oxygen vacancies, which facilitates the fast transport of the oxide ions. Considering its rapid oxide ion transport, the prepared SPFMg0.2T presented heterostructure characteristics in the form of an insulating core and superionic conduction via surface layers. In addition, the effect of Mg doping is intensively investigated to tune the band structure for the transport of charged species. Meanwhile, the concept of energy band alignment is employed to interpret the working principle of the proposed electrolyte. Moreover, the density functional theory is utilized to determine the perovskite structures of SrTiO3-δ and Sr0.5Pr0.5Fe0.4-xMgxTi0.6O3-δ (x = 0, 0.1, and 0.2) and their electronic states. Further, the SPFMg0.2T with 20% Mg doping exhibited low dissociation energy, which ensures the fast and high ionic conduction in the electrolyte. Inclusively, Sr0.5Pr0.5Fe0.4Ti0.6O3-δ is a promising electrolyte for SOFCs, and its performance can be efficiently boosted via Mg doping to modulate the energy band structure.

11.
RSC Adv ; 12(38): 24480-24490, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128392

RESUMO

Fast ionic conduction at low operating temperatures is a key factor for the high electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Here an A-site deficient semiconductor electrolyte Sr1-x Co x FeO3-δ is proposed for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). A fuel cell with a structure of Ni/NCAL-Sr0.7Co0.3FeO3-δ -NCAL/Ni reached a promising performance of 771 mW cm-2 at 550 °C. Moreover, appropriate doping of cobalt at the A-site resulted in enhanced charge carrier transportation yielding an ionic conductivity of >0.1 S cm-1 at 550 °C. A high OCV of 1.05 V confirmed that neither short-circuiting nor power loss occurred during the operation of the prepared SOFC device. A modified composition of Sr0.5Co0.5FeO3-δ and Sr0.3Co0.7FeO3-δ also reached good fuel cell performance of 542 and 345 mW cm-2, respectively. The energy bandgap analysis confirmed optimal cobalt doping into the A-site of the prepared perovskite structure improved the charge transportation effect. Moreover, XPS spectra showed how the Co-doping into the A-site enhanced O-vacancies, which improve the transport of oxide ions. The present work shows that Sr0.7Co0.3FeO3-δ is a promising electrolyte for LT-SOFCs. Its performance can be boosted with Co-doping to tune the energy band structure.

12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 105: 105363, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087684

RESUMO

Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, causative agent of the ongoing seventh cholera pandemic, is native to the aquatic environment of the Ganges Delta, Bay of Bengal (GDBB). Recent studies traced pandemic strains to the GDBB and proposed global spread of cholera had occurred via intercontinental transmission. In the research presented here, NotI-digested genomic DNA extracted from V. cholerae O1 clinical and environmental strains isolated in Bangladesh during 20042014 was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results of cluster analysis showed 94.67% of the V. cholerae strains belonged to clade A and included the majority of clinical strains of spatio-temporal origin and representing different cholera endemic foci. The rest of the strains were estuarine, all environmental strains from Mathbaria, Bangladesh, and occurred as singletons, clustered in clades B and C, or in the small clades D and E. Cluster analysis of the Bangladeshi strains and including 157 El Tor strains from thirteen countries in Asia, Africa, and the Americas revealed 85% of the total set of strains belonged to clade A, indicating all were related, yet did not form an homogeneous cluster. Overall, 15% of the global strains comprised multiple small clades or segregated as singletons. Three sub-clades could be discerned within the major clade A, reflecting distinct lineages of V. cholerae O1 El Tor associated with cholera in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The presence in Asia and the Americas of non-pandemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor populations differing by PFGE and from strains associated with cholera globally suggests different ecotypes are resident in distant geographies.

13.
Cureus ; 14(7): e26998, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35989735

RESUMO

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an autosomal-dominant condition mainly caused by defects in sodium channels causing ST-segment elevation in electrocardiograms (ECGs) in the V1 and V2 precordial leads, with ventricular tachyarrhythmias due to premature ventricular contractions, which increases the risk of sudden cardiac death. BrS usually presents in adulthood, with an average age of presentation of 41 years. In this article, we describe a case of BrS diagnosed in a 36-year-old male having sudden cardiac arrest with no comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, or any valvular disease history. We then explain the ECG-based diagnosis, signs and symptoms, presentation at the emergency department, and treatment options.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Representative data describing serious infections in over five-year-old children and adults in Africa are limited. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveillance for pneumonia, meningitis, and septicaemia in a demographic surveillance area in The Gambia between May 12, 2008 and December 31, 2015. We used standardised criteria to identify, diagnose, and investigate patients aged ≥5 years using conventional microbiology and radiology. RESULTS: We enrolled 1638/1657 eligible patients and investigated 1618. Suspected pneumonia, septicaemia, or meningitis was diagnosed in 1392, 135, and 111 patients respectively. Bacterial pathogens from sterile sites were isolated from 105 (7·5%) patients with suspected pneumonia, 11 (8·1%) with suspected septicaemia, and 28 (25·2%) with suspected meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 84), Neisseria meningitidis (n = 16) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 15) were the most common pathogens. Twenty-eight (1·7%) patients died in hospital and 40 (4·1%) died during the 4 months after discharge. Thirty post-discharge deaths occurred in patients aged ≥10 years with suspected pneumonia. The minimum annual incidence was 133 cases per 100,000 person-years for suspected pneumonia, 13 for meningitis, 11 for septicaemia, 14 for culture-positive disease, and 46 for radiological pneumonia. At least 2·7% of all deaths in the surveillance area were due to suspected pneumonia, meningitis or septicaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia in over five year-old children and adults in The Gambia are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Many deaths occur after hospital discharge and most cases are culture negative. Improvements in prevention, diagnosis, inpatient and follow up management are needed urgently.

15.
Gerontologist ; 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Episodes of lucidity (ELs), or a transient return of abilities believed to be lost in people living with dementia, are a growing area of interest. These events hold important implications for care, caregiving, and our understanding of underlying etiologies. Research on ELs is largely limited to retrospective reports. The perspectives of professional and family caregivers on ELs and research approaches can inform efforts to define and study lucidity. The present study examined family caregiver and hospice clinician experiences with and perspectives on ELs in people living with dementia and observational approaches to studying these events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This exploratory, descriptive qualitative study employed semi-structured interviews (N=20 caregivers, N=6 clinicians). Data were analyzed using Rapid Identification of Themes and subsequent duplicate review of interview data to enhance trustworthiness. RESULTS: Most participants readily recalled events they perceived as ELs, describing a transient return of abilities they felt was significant and/or meaningful. Defining features, interpretations, and the perceived impact of ELs varied, although ELs were commonly conceptualized as a manifestation of self. Caregivers described extensive efforts to detect patterns and supportive social conditions for ELs. Participants supported use of audiovisual observation to study ELs and provided recommendations for privacy, workflow, and caregiver engagement. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Interpretations of ELs are heterogeneous, and recognition of these events may necessitate close familiarity with the person living with dementia. Participants endorse observational approaches and integration of caregivers in this research.

16.
3 Biotech ; 12(8): 156, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791410

RESUMO

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) has immense nutritional and nutraceutical potential. All the plant parts of buckwheat possess various metabolites, such as rutin, quercetin, vitexin etc. The high content of rutin in this pseudo cereal crop strongly adapts it to grow under adverse environments. In the present study 50 germplasm lines of Fagopyrum tataricum were used for estimation of seed endosperm rutin content through HPLC. Furthermore, molecular analysis of PAL gene (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase), an upstream gene in rutin biosynthesis pathway was targeted for detection of SNPs to understand the variations in the concentrations of seed endosperm rutin content, among tartary buckwheat genotypes with highest and lowest seed endosperm rutin content. Three primer pairs were employed for amplification of PAL gene for F. tartaricum (covering whole gene) followed by sequencing. Rutin concentration in seed endosperm of F. tartaricum ranged from 194.86 to 1403.22 ppm with an average of 617.06 ppm. Highest rutin concentration was found in genotype BWZ90 and lowest in BWZ16. Significant variations were observed in the seed endosperm rutin content among the genotypes of tartary buckwheat. Furthermore, alignment of PAL gene sequences of genotypes with high seed endosperm rutin content and low seed endosperm rutin content revealed variations at 21 polymorphic sites. The amino acid sequences obtained from the nucleotide sequences were also aligned and the variations were detected at 19 positions. The putative protein structure showed conformational changes among predicted proteins from two contrasting genotypes for endosperm rutin content. We here established an inventory of seed endosperm rutin content of tartary buckwheat. This study also provided insights about role of these SNPs in rutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, this information can be used for breeding buckwheat for high metabolite contents. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-022-03218-y.

17.
Chemphyschem ; 23(11): e202200314, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657038

RESUMO

The front cover artwork is provided by Prof. Faze Wang's group at the Southeast University. The built-in electric field created by the semiconductor heterostructure confines the proton transport on the surface layer of the nanocomposite core-shell heterostructure imparting faster ion transport and lower activation energy. Read the full text of the Research Article at 10.1002/cphc.202200170.

18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260515, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584461

RESUMO

The current research work aims to provide knowledge about the diversity of spiders' fauna and their occurrence throughout the year from District Charsadda Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Research data were collected from March-2015 to January-2017 from seven different localities of Charsadda District by using the camera, bottle, plastic bags, paraffin films, field book and 70% of ethylene alcohol and 20% of glycerine were used as chemicals. By using special identification keys, spiders were differentiated into families, genera and species. During the study time, a total of 2734 specimens of spiders were collected belonging from 35 genera, 15 families and 44 species were identified. Salticidae was the dominant family according to genera studied plus spiders samples numbers collected with 10 genera and 616 species specimens count. The high occurrence of spiders was studied during July. The result of the current study also shows a reduction of spider's species in December due to lowering the temperature. The current study shows that Salticidae were the dominant family as capered to other species. The occurrence of spiders species greatly depends on changing the weather condition. The present study also shows great fluctuation in spider's occurrence with changing of hot climate to colder during the study duration. Moreover, the wet season plays a great role in spiders' population increase and growth.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6742, 2022 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468936

RESUMO

The less phytopathogen susceptibility in Himalayan Brassica rapa L. has made it an exceptional crop eluding synthetic pesticide inputs, thereby guarantying economically well-founded and ecologically sustainable agriculture. The relevance of niche microflora of this crop has not been deliberated in this context, as endosymbiosiome is more stable than their rhizosphere counterparts on account of their restricted acquaintance with altering environment; therefore, the present investigation was carried out to study the endophytic microfloral dynamics across the B. rapa germplasm in context to their ability to produce chitinase and to characterize the screened microflora for functional and biochemical comportments in relevance to plant growth stimulation. A total of 200 colonies of bacterial endophytes were isolated from the roots of B. rapa across the J&K UT, comprising 66 locations. After morphological, ARDRA, and sequence analysis, eighty-one isolates were selected for the study, among the isolated microflora Pseudomonas sp. Bacillus sp. dominated. Likewise, class γ-proteobacteria dominated, followed by Firmicutes. The diversity studies have exposed changing fallouts on all the critical diversity indices, and while screening the isolated microflora for chitinase production, twenty-two strains pertaining to different genera produced chitinase. After carbon source supplementation to the chitinase production media, the average chitinase activity was significantly highest in glycerol supplementation. These 22 strains were further studied, and upon screening them for their fungistatic behavior against six fungal species, wide diversity was observed in this context. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolated strains against chloramphenicol, rifampicin, amikacin, erythromycin, and polymyxin-B showed that the strains were primarily sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. Among all the strains, only eleven produced indole acetic acid, ten were able to solubilize tricalcium phosphate and eight produced siderophores. The hydrocyanic acid and ammonia production was observed in seven strains each. Thus, the present investigation revealed that these strains could be used as potential plant growth promoters in sustainable agriculture systems besides putative biocontrol agents.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Quitinases , Bactérias , Cloranfenicol , Eritromicina , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
20.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 428-430, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383762

RESUMO

Low bone mineral density represents as a major cause of morbidity in thalassemic patient. The mechanism depends upon several factors. Transfusion dependent iron over load cause decrease secretion of growth hormone, insulin, thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone, sex hormone and vitamin D from different endocrine organs which ultimately causes impairment of adequate bone mass achievement. Other causes of low bone mass are iron chelating agent and bony expansion due to increase erythropoiesis. To find out the frequency of low bone mineral density in thalassemia patients who are transfusion dependent. This study was designed as a cross sectional observational study, which was analyzed in the Department of Haematology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka and National Institution of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (NINMAS), Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) from September 2017 to August 2018. It had been performed over total 72 (Age ≥06 years to ≤40 years) thalassaemic patients who are transfusion dependent. Presence of bone diseases was detected by Bone mineral density (BMD). Seventy-two (72) patients with transfusion dependent thalassaemia, aged 6 to 39 years were enrolled. Mean age of patients was 20.9±7.2 years. Among them, 57(79.2%) patients were detected as a normal bone mineral density and fifteen (20.8%) patients were detected as a low bone mineral density in the left femoral neck. In transfusion dependent thalassaemic patient, Low bone mass was significantly associated with low BMI, total number of blood transfusion and serum ferritin level remarkably. This survey has established a new path for early detection of low bone mass and helped in prevention of bone loss and its sequel by starting early treatment in these groups of patients.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Talassemia beta , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Transfusão de Sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
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