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1.
Clin Case Rep ; 12(3): e8686, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515996

RESUMO

Key Clinical Message: The presence of multiple pseudoaneurysms in a patient should prompt investigations for the underlying etiologies including autoimmune and immunosuppressive disease processes. Treatment options include open repair and endovascular stenting. Abstract: Pseudoaneurysms (also known as false aneurysms) are atypical dilatations or outpouchings from a vessel which are not always contained by the three layers of a normal vessel wall, namely the intima, media, and adventitia. These are distinct from a true aneurysm which has a wall comprising all three layers. The underlying etiology for both true aneurysms and pseudoaneurysm can vary. We present the rare case of bilateral superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysms, of unknown etiology and a concurrent posterior tibial artery saccular aneurysm in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and multiple comorbidities. This was managed using a combination of endovascular covered stent grafts and open surgical repair technique. The patient is doing well on follow-up a year later with no post-operative infections. A literature review of the existing reports of superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysms and posterior tibial artery aneurysms and their management is also reported.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1355674, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464721

RESUMO

Dysregulated lipid metabolism is implicated in the pathophysiology of a range of kidney diseases. The specific mechanisms through which lipotoxicity contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI) remain poorly understood. Herein we review the cardinal features of lipotoxic injury in ischemic kidney injury; lipid accumulation and mitochondrial lipotoxicity. We then explore a new mechanism of lipotoxicity, what we define as "immunometabolic" lipotoxicity, and discuss the potential therapeutic implications of targeting this lipotoxicity using lipid lowering medications.

4.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; : 101859, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment approach for patients with active venous leg ulcers (VLUs) and post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) associated with great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux remains unclear. To address this gap, we retrospectively compared the outcomes of patients with post-thrombotic VLU with an intact GSV vs those with a stripped or ablated GSV. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 48 patients with active VLUs and documented PTS, who were treated at a single center between January 2018 and December 2022. Clinical information, including ulcer photographs, was recorded in a prospectively maintained digital database at the initial and follow-up visits. Two patient groups-group A (with an intact GSV) and group B (with a stripped or ablated GSV)-were compared in terms of time to complete healing, proportion of ulcers achieving complete healing, and ulcer recurrence during the follow-up period. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, gender, initial ulcer size, or ulcer duration between the two groups. All included patients had femoropopliteal post-thrombotic changes. Group A had significantly more completely healed ulcers (33 of 34 ulcers, 97%) compared with group B (10 of 14 ulcers, 71%) (P = .008). Group A also exhibited a significantly shorter time to complete ulcer healing (median: 42.5 days, interquartile range [IQR]: 65) compared with group B (median: 161 days, IQR: 530.5) (P = .0177), with a greater probability of ulcer healing (P = .0084). Long-term follow-up data were available for 45 of 48 patients (93.7%), with a mean duration of 39.6 months (range: 5.7-67.4 months). The proportion of ulcers that failed to heal or recurred during the follow-up period was significantly lower in group A (9 of 32 ulcers, 27%) compared with group B (11 of 13 ulcers, 85%) (P = .0009). In addition, in a subgroup analysis, patients with an intact but refluxing GSV (12 of 34) had a significantly shorter time to heal (median: 34 days, IQR: 57.25) (P = .0242), with a greater probability of ulcer healing (P = .0091) and significantly fewer recurrences (2 of 12, 16%) (P = .006) compared with group B. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that removal of the GSV through stripping or ablation in patients with post-thrombotic deep venous systems affecting the femoropopliteal segment may result in delayed ulcer healing and increased ulcer recurrence. Patients with an intact GSV had better outcomes, even when the refluxing GSV was left untreated. These findings emphasize the potential impact of GSV treatment on the management of VLUs in individuals with PTS. Further investigation is needed to validate these results and explore alternative therapeutic strategies to optimize outcomes for this patient population.

5.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e083488, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endovenous therapy is the first choice management for symptomatic varicose veins in NICE guidelines, with 56-70 000 procedures performed annually in the UK. Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a known complication of endovenous therapy, occurring at a rate of up to 3.4%. Despite 73% of UK practitioners administering pharmacological thromboprophylaxis to reduce VTE, no high-quality evidence supporting this practice exists. Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis may have clinical and cost benefit in preventing VTE; however, further evidence is needed. This study aims to establish whether when endovenous therapy is undertaken: a single dose or course of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis alters the risk of VTE; pharmacological thromboprophylaxis is associated with an increased rate of bleeding events; pharmacological prophylaxis is cost effective. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multi-centre, assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial (RCT) will recruit 6660 participants from 40 NHS and private sites across the UK. Participants will be randomised to intervention (single dose or extended course of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis plus compression) or control (compression alone). Participants will undergo a lower limb venous duplex ultrasound scan at 21-28 days post-procedure to identify asymptomatic DVT. The duplex scan will be conducted locally by blinded assessors. Participants will be contacted remotely for follow-up at 7 days and 90 days post-procedure. The primary outcome is imaging-confirmed lower limb DVT with or without symptoms or PE with symptoms within 90 days of treatment. The main analysis will be according to the intention-to-treat principle and will compare the rates of VTE at 90 days, using a repeated measures analysis of variance, adjusting for any pre-specified strongly prognostic baseline covariates using a mixed effects logistic regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by Brent Research Ethics Committee (22/LO/0261). Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN18501431.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Estatal , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
6.
Injury ; 55(4): 111404, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354687

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the ribs and sternum are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Characterization of the injury burden across England is necessary to inform and evaluate developments in trauma care and infrastructure, however is yet to be comprehensively undertaken. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe trends in the incidence of sternal and rib fractures across England between 1990 and 2019. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age-standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) for rib and sternal fractures in males and females were extracted from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study by all causes, falls and road traffic collisions for 9 sub-regions of England. Temporal trends within the study period were analysed using Joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall ASIRs in England in 2019 were 30.34/100,000 and 46.02/100,000 for females and males, respectively. Between 1990 and 2019, the estimated overall percentage change across England was +0.20 % among females and -7.05 % among males. A statistically significant increase in ASIR was observed in all 9 sub-regions of England among females from 2014-2019 (p<0.001). Among males, a statistically significant increase in ASIR was observed in 7 of the 9 regions from 2014-2019 (p<0.001) and in the remaining 2 regions from 2015-2019 (p<0.001). DISCUSSION: Increasing ASIRs of rib and sternal fractures were observed among females and decreasing ASIRs among males, with overall ASIRs higher among males. Developments in trauma infrastructure and associated variations in diagnostic and management strategies over the observation period likely contribute to changes in the national injury burden. The findings are suggestive of the importance of ongoing financial investment in trauma infrastructure and of clear clinical guidelines to manage an increasing national injury burden.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Fraturas das Costelas , Traumatismos Torácicos , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Carga Global da Doença , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Costelas , Fraturas das Costelas/epidemiologia
8.
Liver Int ; 44(2): 411-421, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The importance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching between liver transplant donors and recipients on graft survival remains unclear and is not a clinical consideration in liver transplantation. This study aimed to determine the relationship between HLA matching and liver graft survival using a large-scale multi-centre database (UNOS/OPTN) and multivariate logistic analysis. The secondary aim was to determine whether this relationship was influenced by transplant indication and donor status. METHODS: This retrospective observational analysis was performed using 22 702 liver transplant recipients from the UNOS/OPTN database. Patients were divided into two groups based on number of HLA mismatches (0-3 mismatches vs. 4-6 mismatches) and then subcategorized by indication and donor status. Risk-adjusted outcomes were assessed by multivariate Cox analysis adjusting for donor and recipient characteristics and visualized using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Allograft survival and risk of acute rejection were associated with degree of HLA mismatch. This association between HLA mismatch and graft survival persisted in individuals who underwent transplant for hepatitis, metabolic, drug toxicity, and congenital indications. Donor status also influenced the relationship between HLA mismatch and graft survival. Graft survival in DBD recipients was longer than in DCD in the 4-6 HLA mismatch group, whereas no significant difference was found in the 0-3 HLA mismatch group. CONCLUSION: HLA mismatch significantly reduced graft survival and increased risk of acute rejection. This association was noted only in specific indications. These findings are of potential clinical relevance to organ allocation, allograft matching algorithms, immunosuppression protocols, and transplant surveillance.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Doadores de Tecidos , Antígenos HLA
9.
Ann Surg ; 279(1): 29-36, 2024 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37753655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in surgical inpatients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis and additional graduated compression stockings (GCSs) versus pharmacological thromboprophylaxis alone. BACKGROUND: Surgical inpatients have elevated VTE risk; recent studies cast doubt on whether GCS confers additional protection against VTE, compared with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis alone. METHODS: The review followed "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses" guidelines using a registered protocol (CRD42017062655). The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched up to November 2022. Randomized trials reporting VTE rate after surgical procedures, utilizing pharmacological thromboprophylaxis, with or without GCS, were included. The rates of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and VTE-related mortality were pooled through fixed and random effects. RESULTS: In a head-to-head meta-analysis, the risk of DVT for GCS and pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.54-1.36) versus for pharmacological thromboprophylaxis alone (2 studies, 70 events, 2653 participants). The risk of DVT in pooled trial arms for GCS and pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.23-1.25) versus pharmacological thromboprophylaxis alone (33 trial arms, 1228 events, 14,108 participants). The risk of pulmonary embolism for GCS and pharmacological prophylaxis versus pharmacological prophylaxis alone was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.0-30.0) (27 trial arms, 32 events, 11,472 participants). There were no between-group differences in VTE-related mortality (27 trial arms, 3 events, 12,982 participants). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from head-to-head meta-analysis and pooled trial arms demonstrates no additional benefit for GCS in preventing VTE and VTE-related mortality. GCS confer a risk of skin complications and an economic burden; current evidence does not support their use for surgical inpatients.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Meias de Compressão/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Internados , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle
11.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 20(6): 14791641231221763, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This observational study assesses trends in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) disease burden across the 19 countries of the European Union (EU) 15+ between 1990 and 2019. METHODS: The Global Burden of Disease Study database was used to gather T1DM age-standardised incidence (ASIR), prevalence (ASPR), mortality (ASMR), and disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) rates per 100,000 for each EU15+ country (1990 - 2019). Joinpoint regression analysis was used to describe the trends. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2019, T1DM ASIRs and ASPRs increased globally except for females in Finland (-2.9% and -9.4%), the largest increase in ASPR for males and females was observed in France (+144.4% and +137.5% respectively). All had reductions in ASMRs for males and females, with the largest observed in Spain (-56.7% and -79.0% respectively). Trends in DALYs were variable across countries, with increases in DALYs noted in 14/19 for males, and 9/19 for females. Denmark, Finland, Norway, Netherlands, and Sweden had a reduction in DALYs for both males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality from T1DM is reducing across EU15+ countries, despite concomitant increases in incidence and prevalence rates. Trends in DALYs are variable across countries, reflecting differential trends in the disease burden across countries with similarly high health expenditure.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde , Incidência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Suécia , Bases de Dados Factuais
12.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 9: e2300229, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: AML accounts for 80% of acute leukemia in adults. While progress has been made in treating younger patients in the past 2 decades, there has been limited improvement for older patients until recently. This study examines the global and European Union (EU) 15+ trends in AML between 1990 and 2019. METHODS: We extracted age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), age-standardized death rates (ASMRs), and disability-adjusted life years, stratified by sex from the Global Burden of Disease Study database, and mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) were computed. Trends were compared using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS: The findings show a global increase in AML incidence for both sexes from 1990 to 2019. In the EU15+ countries, most countries exhibited an increase in ASIR for both sexes. Joinpoint revealed that globally for male patients, ASIR steadily increased until 2010, remained stable until 2015 followed by a decline till 2019. Similar trends were observed in female patients. For ASMR, although there was an increase globally and in most EU15+ countries, there was a statistically significant decrease in mortality rates globally and in the majority of EU15+ countries in recent years. MIR improved in both sexes globally. On age stratification, AML burden was highest among older groups (55 years and older), while the lowest rates were observed in younger than 20 years. CONCLUSION: The findings from our study indicate a global rise in AML incidence and mortality in both sexes and decrease in MIR from 1990 to 2019 suggesting a better survival. However, on Joinpoint analysis, there is no change in MIR in women in the past decade and past 4 years in men indicating plateau in survival trends despite recent advances.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incidência
13.
Br J Surg ; 110(12): 1785-1792, 2023 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37748866

RESUMO

METHODS: This was an open, multicentre, randomized controlled trial. Patients with intermittent claudication attending vascular surgery outpatient clinics were randomized (1:1) to receive either neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or not in addition to local standard care available at study centres (best medical therapy alone or plus supervised exercise therapy (SET)). The objective of this trial was to investigate the clinical efficacy of an NMES device in addition to local standard care in improving walking distances in patients with claudication. The primary outcome was change in absolute walking distance, measured by a standardized treadmill test at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included intermittent claudication (IC) distance, adherence, quality of life, and haemodynamic changes. RESULTS: Of 200 participants randomized, 160 were included in the primary analysis (intention to treat, Tobit regression model). The square root of absolute walking distance was analysed (due to a right-skewed distribution) and, although adjunctive NMES improved it at 3 months, no statistically significant effect was observed. SET as local standard care seemed to improve distance compared to best medical therapy at 3 months (3.29 units; 95 per cent c.i., 1.77 to 4.82; P < 0.001). Adjunctive NMES improved distance in mild claudication (2.88 units; 95 per cent c.i., 0.51 to 5.25; P = 0.02) compared to local standard care at 3 months. No serious adverse events relating to the device were reported. CONCLUSION: Supervised exercise therapy is effective and NMES may provide further benefit in mild IC.This trial was supported by a grant from the Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Program, a Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health and Care Research partnership. Trial registration: ISRCTN18242823.


Patients with intermittent claudication experience pain in their legs during walking or exercise which ends with rest. This severely impairs physical activity and quality of life. Treatment for such patients typically involves best medical therapy, which includes exercise advice. This study aimed to determine whether a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device improved the walking distance of patients with intermittent claudication compared to local standard care available (which may include supervised exercise therapy) in a trial. Supervised exercise improved walking distances but there was no difference in those that received a device in this patient group.


Assuntos
Claudicação Intermitente , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Caminhada , Terapia por Exercício , Resultado do Tratamento , Estimulação Elétrica
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 15030, 2023 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37699961

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulators have revolutionized cystic fibrosis (CF) care in the past decade. This study explores the CF-related mortality trends in the US from 1999 to 2020. We extracted CF-related mortality data from the CDC WONDER database. CF age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were identified by ICD-10 code E84 and were stratified by demographic and geographical variables. Temporal trends were analyzed using Joinpoint modeling. CF-related ASMRs decreased from 1.9 to 1.04 per million population (p = 0.013), with a greater reduction in recent years. This trend was replicated in both sexes. The median age of death increased from 24 to 37 years. CF mortality rates decreased across sex, white race, non-Hispanic ethnicity, census regions, and urbanization status. Incongruent trends were reported in non-white races and Hispanic ethnicity. A lower median age of death was observed in women, non-white races, and Hispanic ethnicity. SARS-CoV-2 infection was the primary cause of death in 1.7% of CF decedents in 2020. The national CF-related mortality rates declined and the median age of death among CF decedents increased significantly indicating better survival in the recent years. The changes were relatively slow during the earlier period of the study, followed by a greater decline lately. We observed patterns of sex, ethnic, racial, and geographical disparities associated with the worsening of the gap between ethnicities, narrowing of the gap between races and rural vs. urban counties, and closing of the gap between sexes over the study period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fibrose Cística , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2 , Etnicidade , Brancos
16.
J Thorac Dis ; 15(6): 3256-3272, 2023 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37426148

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. In the last two decades, significant advances have been made in management of World Health Organization (WHO) group 1 PH. However, there are no approved targeted pharmacotherapies for PH secondary to left-sided heart diseases or chronic hypoxic lung diseases which are thought to account for more than 70-80% of the disease burden. No recent investigation has analyzed and compared the mortality burden related to WHO group 1 PH with the mortality burden with WHO groups 2-5 PH at the national level in the United States (US). We hypothesize that WHO group 1 PH-related mortality has improved over the last two decades in comparison to WHO groups 2-5 PH. Methods: In this study, we used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (CDC WONDER) the underlying cause of death database to study age-standardized mortality rates related to PH in the US from 2003 to 2020. Results: A total of 126,526 deaths were recorded from PH in the US between 2003 and 2020. Across the study period, PH-related ASMR increased from 17.81 per million population in 2003 to 23.89 in 2020 with a percentage change (PC) of +34%. However, there are contrasting mortality trends in WHO group 1 PH when compared to WHO groups 2-5 PH. Data demonstrated a decline in mortality from group 1 PH regardless of gender. In contrast, an increase in mortality from WHO groups 2-5 PH was observed, accounting for the major proportion of the overall PH mortality burden in recent years. Conclusions: PH-related mortality continues to an increase primarily due to increase in mortality attributed to WHO groups 2-5 PH. These findings have notable public health implications. Screening and risk assessment tools for secondary PH, risk factor modification, and novel management strategies are vital to improve outcomes.

17.
Int J Surg ; 109(9): 2608-2613, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37232122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appendicitis places a substantial burden on healthcare systems, with acute appendicitis alone being the most common abdominal surgical emergency worldwide. Further characterisation of the disease burden in EU15+ countries may help optimise the distribution of healthcare resources. The aim of this observational study was to assess the trends in mortality, incidence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of appendicitis across European Union (EU) 15+ countries between the years 1990 and 2019, Supplemental Digital Content 3, http://links.lww.com/JS9/A589 . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs), age-standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) and DALYs data for appendicitis in males and females were extracted from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Temporal trends within the study period were analysed using Joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: The median ASMRs across EU15+ countries in 2019 were 0.08/100 000 and 0.13/100 000 for females and males, respectively. Between 1990 and 2019 the median percentage change in ASMR was -52.12% for females and -53.18% in males. The median ASIRs in 2019 for females and males were 251/100 000 and 278/100 000, respectively, with a median percentage change of +7.22% for females and +3.78% for males during the observation period. Decreasing trends in DALYs were observed over the 30-year study period, with median percentage changes of -23.57% and -33.81% for females and males, respectively, Supplemental Digital Content 3, http://links.lww.com/JS9/A589 . CONCLUSION: Overall, a general trend of decreasing appendicitis ASMRs and DALYs was observed across EU15+ countries, despite small overall increases in appendicitis ASIRs, Supplemental Digital Content 3, http://links.lww.com/JS9/A589 . Variations in both diagnostic and management strategies over the study period are likely contributory to the changing trends.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Carga Global da Doença , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Incidência , Apendicite/epidemiologia , Apendicite/cirurgia , Atenção à Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Saúde Global
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 184, 2023 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37237250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Latent infection has enabled it to spread to a quarter of the world's population. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw an increase in the number of TB cases related to the HIV epidemic, and the spread of multidrug-resistant TB. Few studies have reported pulmonary TB mortality trends. Our study reports and compares trends in pulmonary TB mortality. METHODS: We utilized the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database from 1985 through 2018 to analyze TB mortality using the International Classification of Diseases-10 codes. Based on the availability and quality of data, we investigated 33 countries including two countries from the Americas; 28 countries from Europe; and 3 countries from the Western Pacific region. Mortality rates were dichotomized by sex. We computed age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population using the world standard population. Time trends were investigated using joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: We observed a uniform decrease in mortality in all countries across the study period except the Republic of Moldova, which showed an increase in female mortality (+ 0.12 per 100,000 population). Among all countries, Lithuania had the greatest reduction in male mortality (-12) between 1993-2018, and Hungary had the greatest reduction in female mortality (-1.57) between 1985-2017. For males, Slovenia had the most rapid recent declining trend with an estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) of -47% (2003-2016), whereas Croatia showed the fastest increase (EAPC, + 25.0% [2015-2017]). For females, New Zealand had the most rapid declining trend (EAPC, -47.2% [1985-2015]), whereas Croatia showed a rapid increase (EAPC, + 24.9% [2014-2017]). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary TB mortality is disproportionately higher among Central and Eastern European countries. This communicable disease cannot be eliminated from any one region without a global approach. Priority action areas include ensuring early diagnosis and successful treatment to the most vulnerable groups such as people of foreign origin from countries with a high burden of TB and incarcerated population. Incomplete reporting of TB-related epidemiological data to WHO excluded high-burden countries and limited our study to 33 countries only. Improvement in reporting is crucial to accurately identify changes in epidemiology, the effect of new treatments, and management approaches.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Europa (Continente) , Hungria , Incidência
19.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 11(4): 866-875.e1, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37030447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a common complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) that can result in significant morbidity for the patient with detrimental impact on their quality of life. Evidence supporting lytic catheter-based interventions (LCBI) undertaken for early thrombus reduction in acute proximal DVT for the prevention of PTS is conflicting. Despite this, rates of LCBIs are increasing. To summaries the existing evidence and pool treatment effects, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of LCBIs in proximal acute DVT for the prevention of PTS was undertaken. METHODS: This meta-analysis was undertaken aligning with PRISMA guidelines following a protocol pre-registered on PROSPERO. Online searches of Medline and Embase databases, as well as the gray literature, were performed up to December 2022. Included articles were randomized controlled trials that studied the use of LCBIs with additional anticoagulation vs anticoagulation alone and had determined follow-up periods. Outcomes of interest were PTS development, moderate to severe PTS, major bleeding episodes, and quality-of-life measures. Subgroup analyses were performed for DVTs involving the iliac vein and/r common femoral vein. Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed effects model. Quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias and GRADE assessment tools. RESULTS: Three trials were included in the final meta-analysis, the Post-thrombotic Syndrome after Catheter-directed Thrombolysis for Deep Vein Thrombosis (CaVenT), Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal with Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (ATTRACT), and Ultrasound-accelerated Catheter-directed Thrombolysis Versus Anticoagulation for the Prevention of Post-thrombotic Syndrome (CAVA) trials, comprising 987 patients. Patients undergoing LCBIs had a reduced risk of PTS (relative risk [RR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.95; P = .006) and a lower risk of developing moderate to severe PTS (RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.97; P = .03). LBCIs increased the risk of having a major bleed (RR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.08-3.82; P = .03). In the iliofemoral DVT subgroup analysis, there was a trend toward decreasing the risk of developing PTS and moderate to severe PTS (P = .12 and P = .05, respectively). There was no significant difference in quality-of-life score (as measured by the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study - Quality of Life/Symptoms) between the two groups (P = .51). CONCLUSIONS: Pooling of current best evidence suggests that LCBIs in acute proximal DVT decreases the rate of PTS and moderate to severe PTS with a number needed to treat of 12 and 18, respectively. However, this is complicated by a significantly higher rate of major bleeding with a number needed to treat of 37. This evidence supports the use of LCBIs in selected patients, including those who are at low risk of major bleeding.


Assuntos
Síndrome Pós-Flebítica , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/etiologia , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/terapia , Síndrome Pós-Flebítica/etiologia , Hemorragia/complicações , Veia Ilíaca , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Cateteres/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 66(1): 68-76, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36934837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess trends in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) hospital admissions, interventions, and aneurysm related mortality in England, and to examine the impact of endovascular repair on mortality for the years 1998 - 2020. METHODS: Hospital admission and operative approach (endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, or open surgical repair [OSR]) using Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES), and aneurysm related mortality data from the Office for National Statistics for England standardised to the 2013 European Standard Population, were analysed using linear regression and Joinpoint regression analyses. Aneurysm related mortality was compared between the pre-endovascular era (1998 - 2010) and the endovascular era (2011 - 2019). RESULTS: A declining trend in hospital admission incidence was observed, mainly due to a decline in ruptured admissions from 34.6 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 33.5 - 35.6) to 13.5 per 100 000 (95% CI 12.9 - 14.2; ßi = -1.04, r2 = .97, p < .001). Operative interventions have been declining over the last 23 years mainly due to the statistically significant decline in open procedures (41.2 per 100 000 in 2000 [95% CI 40 - 42.3] to 9.6 per 100 000 [95% CI 9.1 - 10.1]; ßi = -1.92, r2 = .95; p < .001). There was an increasing trend toward endovascular procedures (5.8 per 100 000 [95% CI 5.3 - 6.2] in 2006 to 16.9 per 100 000 [95% CI 16.2 - 17.5] in 2020; ßi = .82, r2 = .30, p = .040). Reductions in aneurysm related mortality due to AAAs were observed for males and females, irrespective of age and rupture status. CONCLUSION: A significant decrease in hospital admissions for AAAs was observed over the last 23 years in England, paralleled by a shift toward endovascular repair and a decline in OSR. Declines in aneurysm related mortality were observed overall, and in the endovascular era irrespective of age, sex, and rupture status.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Ruptura Aórtica , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Resultado do Tratamento , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos
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