Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 345
Filtrar
1.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 11: 1352700, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572306

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon condition which is increasingly recognized as a cause of significant morbidity. SCAD can cause acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction (MI), as well as sudden cardiac death. It presents similarly to atherosclerotic MI although typically in patients with few or no atherosclerotic risk factors, and particularly in women. As more patients are recognized to have this condition, there is a great need for clinician familiarity with diagnostic criteria, as well as with contemporary treatment approaches, and with appropriate patient-centered counseling, including genetic testing, exercise recommendations, and psychological care. The standard of care for patients with SCAD is rapidly evolving. This review therefore summarizes the diagnosis of SCAD, epidemiology, modern treatment, cardiac rehabilitation and preconception counseling, and the current approach to genetic testing, exercise recommendations, and psychological care, all of which are crucial to the vascular medicine specialist.

2.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 76(2): 2205-2211, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566666

RESUMO

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer worldwide. Most of basal cell carcinoma can be detected in the early stages and are generally well controlled with local resection. Despite the high incidence of BCC, intramucosal BCC is a very rare clinical entity. We hereby present a rare case report of pigmented BCC on soft palate and review the literature of this entity.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 8(2): 188-199, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38524280

RESUMO

This study aimed to systematically evaluate and quantify the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with pregnancy-associated cancer (PAC). This study was conducted from February 13, 2021, through July 24, 2023. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted to identify studies reporting outcomes for patients with PAC. The study was registered on PROSPERO. Two reviewers independently conducted screening, data extraction, and quality assessment. The associations were quantified using random-effects meta-analysis. The initial search produced 29,401 titles and abstracts, after which 147 unique full-text articles were screened, of which 22 articles with 59,190 pregnancies with PAC from 70,097,167 births were included in the meta-analysis. Women with PAC were at significantly increased risk of cesarean deliveries (risk ratio [RR], 1.58; 95% CI, 1.31-1.89), preterm birth (RR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.37-3.98), venous thromboembolism (RR, 6.76; 95% CI, 5.08-8.99), and maternal death (RR, 41.58; 95% CI, 20.38-84.83). The only outcome with reduced risk was instrumental mode of delivery (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.87). Pregnancy-associated cancer increases risk of adverse outcomes, including a 7-fold risk of venous thromboembolism and a 42-fold risk of maternal death. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms leading to these adverse outcomes, especially for women who are not diagnosed until the postpartum period. Affected women should have counseling regarding their increased risk of adverse outcomes.

5.
Int J Pharm ; 654: 123974, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447777

RESUMO

Sesamol, a lignan, obtained from sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum Linn., Pedaliaciae) has a promising antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory profile. When applied topically, free sesamol rapidly crosses skin layers and gets absorbed in systemic circulation. Its encapsulation into solid lipid nanoparticles not only improved its localised delivery to skin but also resulted in better skin retention, as found in ex-vivo skin retention studies. Free and encapsulated sesamol was compared for antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against some common skin pathogens and it was found that encapsulation improved the antimicrobial profile by 200%. In vivo evaluation in diabetic open excision wound model suggested that encapsulation of sesamol in SLNs substantially enhanced its wound healing potential when investigated for biophysical, biochemical and histological parameters. It was envisaged that this was achieved via inhibiting bacterial growth and clearing the bacterial biofilm at the wound site, and by regulating oxidative stress in skin tissue.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas , Fenóis , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Cicatrização
6.
One Health ; 18: 100700, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516289

RESUMO

Background: Antibiotics are frequently utilized in livestock, particularly poultry, for therapy and growth promotion, resulting in antimicrobial resistance. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are frequent in poultry samples from India. The purpose of this study was to better understand main antibiotic consumption patterns in poultry value chains, as well as antibiotic knowledge and practices among the stakeholders. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Assam and Karnataka, India. The poultry farmers were interviewed on antibiotic usage, antibiotic knowledge, feeding practices, and preventive measures on the farm. Poultry farmers reported their veterinarians, and we also interviewed them on knowledge and practices related to antimicrobial use in poultry and antimicrobial resistance. Item response theory (IRT) was used to assess the association between the answers and demographic factors. Results: This survey interviewed 62 poultry farmers and 11 veterinarians. Small poultry farms with fewer than 4000 birds were owned by 51.6% of farmers. Most poultry farmers had heard about antibiotics, and 62.9% thought they cured all diseases. If one chicken is sick, 72.6% said others should be given antibiotics to prevent the disease. All veterinarians utilized tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and cephalexin on the poultry farms. Over half (54.5%) stated antibiotics prevent diseases, and 72.7% said they treat and prevent diseases. Some (45.5%) said antibiotics boost growth. IRT analysis showed that 8 questions assessed a knowledge scale well. Univariable analysis showed that Assam farmers and women were likely to have have more knowledge. Conclusion: The poultry farmers were mostly unaware of the relation between antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance. Despite being aware, the veterinarians agreed with use antibiotics as a prophylactic measure. It is vital that these stakeholders understand the repercussions of such widespread antibiotic use. In order to increase knowledge, frequent trainings and antimicrobial stewardship programmes with effective communication and incentives for behaviour change should be conducted.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 47(4): 698-706, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and prognostic value of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in individuals with prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We pooled participants free of clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) from four prospective cohorts: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, Framingham Heart Study, and Jackson Heart Study. Two definitions were used for prediabetes: inclusive (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥100 to <126 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] ≥5.7% to <6.5%, if available, and no glucose-lowering medications) and restrictive (FPG ≥110 to <126 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥5.7% to <6.5%, if available, among participants not taking glucose-lowering medications). RESULTS: The study included 13,376 participants (mean age 58 years; 54% women; 57% White; 27% Black). The proportions with CAC ≥100 were 17%, 22%, and 37% in those with euglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes, respectively. Over a median (25th-75th percentile) follow-up time of 14.6 (interquartile range 7.8-16.4) years, individuals with prediabetes and CAC ≥100 had a higher unadjusted 10-year incidence of ASCVD (13.4%) than the overall group of those with diabetes (10.6%). In adjusted analyses, using the inclusive definition of prediabetes, compared with euglycemia, the hazard ratios (HRs) for ASCVD were 0.79 (95% CI 0.62, 1.01) for prediabetes and CAC 0, 0.70 (0.54, 0.89) for prediabetes and CAC 1-99, 1.54 (1.27, 1.88) for prediabetes and CAC ≥100, and 1.64 (1.39, 1.93) for diabetes. Using the restrictive definition, the HR for ASCVD was 1.63 (1.29, 2.06) for prediabetes and CAC ≥100. CONCLUSIONS: CAC ≥100 is frequent among individuals with prediabetes and identifies a high ASCVD risk subgroup in which the adjusted ASCVD risk is similar to that in individuals with diabetes.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus , Estado Pré-Diabético , Calcificação Vascular , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Cálcio , Estudos Prospectivos , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia
8.
NEJM Evid ; 3(2): EVIDra2300273, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320493

RESUMO

Maternal Cardiovascular Health Post-DobbsPregnancy is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in the United States. In the post-Dobbs era, many pregnant patients at highest risk no longer have access to abortion, which has been a crucial component of standard medical care.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Sistema Cardiovascular , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Saúde Materna
9.
Circulation ; 149(7): e330-e346, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346104

RESUMO

Adverse pregnancy outcomes are common among pregnant individuals and are associated with long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. Individuals with adverse pregnancy outcomes also have an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease risk factors after delivery. Despite this, evidence-based approaches to managing these patients after pregnancy to reduce cardiovascular disease risk are lacking. In this scientific statement, we review the current evidence on interpregnancy and postpartum preventive strategies, blood pressure management, and lifestyle interventions for optimizing cardiovascular disease using the American Heart Association Life's Essential 8 framework. Clinical, health system, and community-level interventions can be used to engage postpartum individuals and to reach populations who experience the highest burden of adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular disease. Future trials are needed to improve screening of subclinical cardiovascular disease in individuals with a history of adverse pregnancy outcomes, before the onset of symptomatic disease. Interventions in the fourth trimester, defined as the 12 weeks after delivery, have great potential to improve cardiovascular health across the life course.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gravidez , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , American Heart Association , Período Pós-Parto , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Fatores de Risco
10.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 49(4): 102433, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rural-urban disparities in peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) are not well known. We examined rural-urban differences in maternal, fetal, and cardiovascular outcomes in PPCM during delivery hospitalizations. METHODS: We used 2003-2020 data from the National Inpatient Sample for delivery hospitalizations in individuals with PPCM. The 9th and 10th editions of the International Classification of Diseases were used to identify PPCM and cardiovascular, maternal, and fetal outcomes. Rural and urban hospitalizations for PPCM were 1:1 propensity score-matched using relevant clinical and sociodemographic variables. Odds of in-hospital mortality were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 72,880 delivery hospitalizations with PPCM, 4,571 occurred in rural locations, while 68,309 occurred in urban locations. After propensity matching, there were a total of 4,571 rural-urban pairs. There was significantly higher in-hospital mortality in urban compared to rural hospitalizations (adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.10-1.89). Urban PPCM hospitalizations had significantly higher cardiogenic shock (2.9% vs. 1.3%), mechanical circulatory support (1.0% vs. 0.6%), cardiac arrest (2.3% vs. 0.9%), and VT/VF (4.5% vs. 2.1%, all p <.05). Additionally, urban PPCM hospitalizations had worse maternal and fetal outcomes as compared to rural hospitalizations, including higher preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and fetal death (all p<.05). Notably, significantly more rural individuals were transferred to a short-term hospital (including tertiary care centers) compared to urban individuals (13.5% vs. 3.2%, p<.0001). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant rural-urban disparities in delivery hospitalizations with PPCM. Worse outcomes were associated with urban hospitalizations, while rural PPCM hospitalizations were associated with increased transfers, suggesting inadequate resources and advanced sickness.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Diabetes Gestacional , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Período Periparto , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Hospitalização , Hospitais
11.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 11: 1352675, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38380176

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for roughly 1 in 5 deaths in the United States. Women in particular face significant disparities in their cardiovascular care when compared to men, both in the diagnosis and treatment of CVD. Sex differences exist in the prevalence and effect of cardiovascular risk factors. For example, women with history of traditional cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, tobacco use, and diabetes carry a higher risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality when compared to men. These discrepancies in terms of the relative risk of CVD when traditional risk factors are present appear to explain some, but not all, of the observed differences among men and women. Sex-specific cardiovascular disease research-from identification, risk stratification, and treatment-has received increasing recognition in recent years, highlighting the current underestimated association between CVD and a woman's obstetric and reproductive history. In this comprehensive review, sex-specific risk factors unique to women including adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO), such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, and newborn size for gestational age, as well as premature menarche, menopause and vasomotor symptoms, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and infertility will be discussed in full detail and their association with CVD risk. Additional entities including spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), coronary microvascular disease (CMD), systemic autoimmune disorders, and mental and behavioral health will also be discussed in terms of their prevalence among women and their association with CVD. In this comprehensive review, we will also provide clinicians with a guide to address current knowledge gaps including implementation of a sex-specific patient questionnaire to allow for appropriate risk assessment, stratification, and prevention of CVD in women.

12.
Can J Cardiol ; 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387722

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the number one cause of maternal mortality, with over two-thirds of the cases being preventable. Social determinants of health (SDoH) encompass the non-medical social and environmental factors that an individual experiences which have a significant impact on their health. These stressors disproportionately affect socially disadvantaged and minority populations. Pregnancy is a physiologically stressful state that can unmask underlying CVD risk factors and lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). Disparities in APOs are particularly pronounced among individuals of color and those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. This variation underscores healthcare inequity and access, a failure of the healthcare system. Besides short-term negative effects, APOs are also strongly associated with long-term CVDs. APOs must therefore be identified as a cue for early intervention for the prevention and management of CVD risk factors. This review explores the intricate relationship between maternal morbidity and mortality, SDoH, and cardiovascular health, and the implementation of health policy efforts to reduce the impact of SDoH in this patient population. It emphasizes the importance of comprehensive strategies to improve maternal health outcomes.

13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 6(3): 101295, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278176

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease is a crucial issue during pregnancy. The term is composed of both preexisting conditions and acute coronary syndrome in pregnancy, including pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction, which can have a significant effect on maternal and fetal outcomes. This review provides a complete guide to managing ischemic heart disease in pregnant women, emphasizing the importance of multidisciplinary care and individualized treatment strategies. Cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemic heart disease, is now the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Pregnancy introduces unique physiological changes that increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction, with pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction cases often associated with factors, such as advanced maternal age, chronic hypertension, and preexisting cardiovascular conditions. This review distinguishes between preexisting ischemic heart disease and pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction. It will emphasize the various etiologies of pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction, including coronary atherosclerosis and plaque rupture presenting as ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and other nonatherosclerotic causes, including spontaneous coronary artery dissection, vasospasm, and embolism. Our study discusses the practical management of ischemic heart disease in pregnancy, with a focus on preconception counseling, risk assessment, and tailored antenatal planning for women with preexisting ischemic heart disease. Moreover, this document focuses on the challenges of diagnosing cardiovascular disease, especially when presented with nonclassical risk factors and presentation. It provides insight into the appropriate diagnostic testing methods, such as electrocardiogram, cardiac biomarkers, and echocardiography. In addition, the review covers various treatment strategies, from medical management to more invasive procedures, including coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass graft. Special attention is given to medication safety during pregnancy, including anticoagulation, beta-blockers, and antiplatelet agents. The complexities of delivery planning in women with ischemic heart disease are discussed, advocating for a multidisciplinary team-based approach and careful consideration of the timing and mode of delivery. Furthermore, the roles of breastfeeding and postpartum care are explored, emphasizing the long-term benefits and the suitability of various medications during lactation. Lastly, this review provides crucial insights into the management of ischemic heart disease in pregnancy, stressing the need for heightened awareness, prompt diagnosis, and tailored management to optimize maternal and fetal health outcomes.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Isquemia Miocárdica , Doenças Vasculares , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco
15.
Atherosclerosis ; 388: 117355, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37940398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Social determinants of health (SDOH) are key for the identification of populations at increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, whether at the individual level SDOH improve current ASCVD risk prediction paradigms beyond traditional risk factors and the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, is unknown. We evaluated the interplay between CAC and SDOH in ASCVD risk prediction. METHODS: MESA is a prospective study of US adults free of clinical ASCVD at baseline. We used an SDOH index inclusive of 14 determinants from 5 domains. The index ranged 0-1 and was divided into quartiles, with higher ones representing worse SDOH. Cox regression was used to evaluate the adjusted associations between CAC, SDOH, their interplay, and ASCVD events. The C-statistic was computed to assess improvement in risk discrimination for prediction of ASCVD events. RESULTS: We included 6479 MESA participants (50% with CAC = 0, 24% CAC>100). ASCVD incidence increased with increasing CAC scores across SDOH quartiles. The lowest incidence was noted in those with CAC = 0 and favourable SDOH (2/1000 person-years) and highest in those with CAC>100 and most unfavourable SDOH (20.6/1000 person-years). While CAC was strongly associated with ASCVD across SDOH quartiles, SDOH was weakly associated with ASCVD across CAC strata. CAC improved the discriminatory ability of all prediction models beyond traditional risk factors, the improvement in C-statistic ranging +0.02 - +0.05. Improvements with SDOH were smaller, and were none on top of CAC. CONCLUSIONS: CAC improves ASCVD risk stratification across the spectrum of social vulnerability, while SDOH fail to improve risk prediction beyond traditional RFs and CAC.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Calcificação Vascular , Adulto , Humanos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Cálcio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Cálcio da Dieta
16.
JACC Heart Fail ; 12(1): 67-78, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37897456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain antineoplastic therapies are associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF). Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve outcomes in patients with HF. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) or HF. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of deidentified, aggregate patient data from the TriNetX research network. Patients aged ≥18 years with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, and exposure to potentially cardiotoxic antineoplastic therapies, with a subsequent diagnosis of cardiomyopathy or HF between January 1, 2013, and April 30, 2020, were identified. Patients with ischemic heart disease were excluded. Patients receiving guideline-directed medical therapy were divided into 2 groups based on SGLT2 inhibitor use. After propensity score matching, odds ratios (ORs) and Cox proportional HRs were used to compare outcomes over a 2-year follow-up period. RESULTS: The study cohort included 1,280 patients with CTRCD/HF (n = 640 per group; mean age: 67.6 years; 41.6% female; 68% White). Patients on SGLT2 inhibitors in addition to conventional guideline-directed medical therapy had a lower risk of acute HF exacerbation (OR: 0.483 [95% CI: 0.36-0.65]; P < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (OR: 0.296 [95% CI: 0.22-0.40]; P = 0.001). All-cause hospitalizations or emergency department visits (OR: 0.479; 95% CI: 0.383-0.599; P < 0.001), atrial fibrillation/flutter (OR: 0.397 [95% CI: 0.213-0.737]; P = 0.003), acute kidney injury (OR: 0.486 [95% CI: 0.382-0.619]; P < 0.001), and need for renal replacement therapy (OR: 0.398 [95% CI: 0.189-0.839]; P = 0.012) were also less frequent in patients on SGLT2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2 inhibitor use is associated with improved outcomes in patients with CTRCD/HF.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Cardiomiopatias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Neoplasias , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Masculino , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 256(Pt 1): 128272, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000568

RESUMO

Nanozymes, a new class of nanomaterials-based artificial enzymes, have gained huge attraction due to their high operational stability, working efficiency in extreme conditions, and resistance towards protease digestion. Nowadays, they are effectively substituted for natural enzymes for catalysis by closely resembling the active sites found in natural enzymes. Nanozymes can compensate for natural enzymes' drawbacks, such as high cost, poor stability, low yield, and storage challenges. Due to their transforming nature, nanozymes are of utmost importance in the detection and treatment of cancer. They enable precise cancer detection, tailored drug delivery, and catalytic therapy. Through enhanced diagnosis, personalized therapies, and reduced side effects, their adaptability and biocompatibility can transform the management of cancer. The review focuses on metal and metal oxide-based nanozymes, highlighting their catalytic processes, and their applications in the prevention and treatment of cancer. It emphasizes their potential to alter diagnosis and therapy, particularly when it comes to controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS). The article reveals the game-changing importance of nanozymes in the future of cancer care and describes future research objectives, making it a useful resource for researchers, and scientists. Lastly, outlooks for future perspective areas in this rapidly emerging field have been provided in detail.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Nanoestruturas/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Endopeptidases , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Catálise
18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 22(2): 368-376.e4, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The evolution of complicated pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) in the era of anti-tumor necrosis factor (aTNF) therapy continues to be described. Because CD progresses from inflammatory to stricturing (B2) and penetrating (B3) disease behaviors in a subset of patients, we aimed to understand the risk of developing complicated disease behavior or undergoing surgery in relation to aTNF timing and body mass index z-score (BMIz) normalization. METHODS: Multicenter, 5-year longitudinal data from 1075 newly diagnosed CD patients were analyzed. Descriptive statistics, univariate and stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression (CPHR), and log-rank analyses were performed for risk of surgery and complicated disease behaviors. Differential gene expression from ileal bulk RNA sequencing was correlated with outcomes. RESULTS: Stricturing complications had the largest increase: from 2.98% to 10.60% over 5 years. Multivariate CPHR showed aTNF exposure within 3 months from diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.71) and baseline L2 disease (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.09-0.92) to be associated with reduced B1 to B2 progression. For children with a low BMIz at diagnosis (n = 294), multivariate CPHR showed BMIz normalization within 6 months of diagnosis (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.85) and 5-aminosalicyclic acid exposure (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.13-0.81) were associated with a decreased risk for surgery while B2 (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.66-10.65) and B2+B3 (HR, 8.24; 95% CI, 1.08-62.83) at diagnosis increased surgery risk. Patients without BMIz normalization were enriched for genes in cytokine production and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: aTNF exposure up to 3 months from diagnosis may reduce B2 progression. In addition, lack of BMIz normalization within 6 months of diagnosis is associated with increased surgery risk and a proinflammatory transcriptomic profile.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Criança , Humanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Necrose , Progressão da Doença , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
JACC Adv ; 2(2)2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38089916

RESUMO

South Asians (SAs, individuals with ancestry from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) are among the fastest growing ethnic subgroups in the United States. SAs typically experience a high prevalence of diabetes, abdominal obesity, and hypertension, among other cardiovascular disease risk factors, which are often under recognized and undermanaged. The excess coronary heart disease risk in this growing population must be critically assessed and managed with culturally appropriate preventive services. Accordingly, this scientific document prepared by a multidisciplinary group of clinicians and investigators in cardiology, internal medicine, pharmacy, and SA-centric researchers describes key characteristics of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, compares and contrasts available risk assessment tools, discusses the role of blood-based biomarkers and coronary artery calcium to enhance risk assessment and prevention strategies, and provides evidenced-based approaches and interventions that may reduce coronary heart disease disparities in this higher-risk population.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...