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1.
Food Funct ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048099

RESUMO

Despite that colorectal cancer (CRC) is a severe global health problem, effective chemopreventive strategies against CRC are still lacking. Huang-qin tea (HQT), a healthy herbal tea, is prepared from the aerial parts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been consumed in China for thousands of years. HQT contains abundant flavonoids, which display potent anticancer effects, but no research studies have investigated the cancer-preventive effects of HQT on CRC in vivo. Here, we found that HQT inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in a preneoplastic colonic ACF rat model. The essential role of the gut microbiota in the chemopreventive effect of HQT on CRC in a pseudo-germ-free rat model was confirmed. Besides, HQT modulates inflammatory cytokine expression by significantly decreasing IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α expression, and elevating IFN-γ production. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis indicated that HQT regulated the gut microbiota by increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria (Lachnoclostridium, Alistipes, Roseburia, and Lactococcus) and reducing the levels of Bacteroides, Parasutterella, and unidentified_Clostridiales. Fecal metabolomics showed that HQT modulated the AOM-induced metabolomic disorder, and these altered metabolites were almost involved in the lipid metabolic pathways. The Spearman correlation analysis revealed a correlation between the gut microbiota and fecal metabolites. Collectively, these results suggested that HQT exerted beneficial effects on host health by inhibiting inflammation, and by regulating the gut microbiota profile and certain metabolic pathways. In conclusion, HQT inhibits AOM-induced ACF formation by modulating the gut microbiota composition and improving metabolomic disorders, indicating the potential of HQT as a functional beverage candidate for the prevention and treatment of CRC.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049001

RESUMO

Presynaptic mitochondrial Ca2+ plays a critical role in the regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. The presynaptic bouton of the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) is much larger in size than that of the Schaffer collateral (SC) synapse. Here we compare the structural and physiological characteristics of MF and SC presynaptic boutons to reveal functional and mechanistic differences between these two synapses. Our quantitative ultrastructural analysis using electron microscopy show many more mitochondria in MF presynaptic bouton cross-section profiles compared to SC boutons. Consistent with these results, post-tetanic potentiation (PTP), a form of presynaptic short-term plasticity dependent on mitochondrial Ca2+, is reduced by inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ release at MF synapses but not at SC synapses. However, blockade of mitochondrial Ca2+ release results in reduction of PTP at SC synapses by disynaptic MF stimulation. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ release selectively decreases frequency facilitation evoked by short trains of presynaptic stimulation at MF synapses, while having no effect at SC synapses. Moreover, depletion of ER Ca2+ stores leads to reduction of PTP at MF synapses, but PTP is unaffected by ER Ca2+ depletion at SC synapses. These findings show that MF and SC synapses differ in presynaptic mitochondrial content as well as mitochondrial Ca2+ dependent synaptic plasticity, highlighting differential regulatory mechanisms of presynaptic plasticity at MF and SC synapses.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011830

RESUMO

The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) secondary to congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS). Thirty-three pediatric patients diagnosed in our institution with CPSS between 2012 and 2019 were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into PAH and non-PAH groups. The PAH group included 15 patients who presented with unexplained PAH when CPSS was diagnosed. Two patients with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia died of right heart failure shortly after diagnosis. One patient received a liver transplant at the age of 4.3 years and showed a mild decrease in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) 4 years after the operation. Seven patients underwent one-stage shunt closure at a median age of 2.8 years (1.4-13 years). Follow-up examinations, from 1.6 to 4.1 years after intervention, showed marked reduction of PAP in one patient and stabilization of PAH in six others. However, in one patient who underwent two-stage shunt closure, a marked increase in PAP was noted after partial ligation of the shunt. The remaining four patients received only pulmonary vasodilator therapy, and one of them died of right heart failure 12 years after the PAH diagnosis. The non-PAH group included 18 patients without evidence of PAH upon CPSS diagnosis. Shunt closure was carried out in eight of these patients, but one patient subsequently developed PAH after the resolution of hepatopulmonary syndrome.Conclusion: CPSS may be a more likely cause of unexplained PAH in pediatric patients than previously thought. Shunt closure or liver transplantation may prevent the progression of PAH, or even improve it for the majority of CPSS patients.

4.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(10): 625-637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012731

RESUMO

NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) is involved in acute lung injury (ALI), but its exact role in phosgene-induced ALI is not clearly understood. The aim of the study is to explore the potential therapeutic effect of NLRP3 inflammasome modulation in the management of phosgene-induced ALI. ALI was induced in rats by phosgene exposure at 8.33 g/m3 for 5 min, 30 hr before intravenous injection of adenovirus-NLRP3 shRNA (Ad/NLRP3-shRNA). The histological changes in the lung were evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophils were counted (smear), and protein content was measured using the BCA assay. The wet/dry ratio of lung tissue (W/D) was measured. TUNEL staining for DNA damage was used to indirectly assess pyroptosis. NLRP3 inflammasome was assessed by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, western blotting. Cytokines were measured by ELISA. Histological analyses revealed reduced severity in phosgene-induced ALI with Ad/NLRP3-shRNA pretreatment. TUNEL staining indicated decreased pyroptosis in Psg-Ad/NLRP3-shRNA rats. Decreased mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 (all P < 0.05), but not ASC (P > 0.05), were found in Psg-Ad/NLRP3-shRNA rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Ad/NLRP3-shRNA pretreatment inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Reduced level of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-18, IL-33, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (all P < 0.05), but not of anti-inflammatory IL-4 and IL-10 (all P > 0.05), were found in serum and BALF from Ad/NLRP3-shRNA rats. NLRP3 gene silencing exerts beneficial effects on phosgene-induced lung injury by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pro-inflammatory factors, but not anti-inflammatory factors. Disruption of NLRP3 inflammasome activation might be used as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of phosgene-induced ALI.

5.
Development ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028612

RESUMO

Cell extrusion is a crucial regulator of epithelial tissue development and homeostasis. Epithelial cells undergoing apoptosis, bearing pathological mutations, and possessing developmental defects are actively extruded toward elimination. However, the molecular mechanisms of Drosophila epithelial cell extrusion are not fully understood. Here, we report that activation of the conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway induces both apical and basal cell extrusion in the Drosophila wing disc epithelia. We show that canonical Yorki targets Diap1, and that dMyc and Cyclin E are not required for either apical or basal cell extrusion induced by activation of this pathway. Another target gene, bantam, is only involved in basal cell extrusion, suggesting novel Hpo-regulated apical cell extrusion mechanisms. Using RNA-Seq analysis, we found that JNK signaling is activated in the extruding cells. We provide genetic evidence that JNK signaling activation is both sufficient and necessary for Hpo-regulated cell extrusion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ETS-domain transcription factor Ets21c, an ortholog of proto-oncogenes FLI1 and ERG, acts downstream of JNK signaling to mediate apical cell extrusion. Our findings reveal a novel molecular link between Hpo signaling and cell extrusion.

6.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044679

RESUMO

Background Self-efficacy for appropriate medication use is an important construct when evaluating the optimal use of medications. However, no instrument that assesses this construct in elderly Chinese patients has been shown to have valid psychometric properties.Objective To investigate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Setting Geriatric patients were recruited from the endocrinology department of a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. Method Self-efficacy was assessed by the Chinese version of the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale in subjects who were at least 65 years old. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to develop a psychometrically sound model of the scale. Main outcome measures Internal and test-retest reliability; convergent and discriminant validity of the scale; model fit indices of the factor model.Results The two-factor model of the self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale was not suitable for elderly patients with respect to both item factor loadings and model fit indices. Conceptually overlapping scale items emerged when the scale was used in these patients. The final model developed appeared to achieve an ideal model fit and presented acceptable convergent and discriminant validity.Conclusions This study presented a Chinese version of the self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale with psychometrically sound properties that will enable pharmacists, nurses and physicians to prospectively evaluate the impact of medication self-efficacy on a variety of health outcomes in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.

7.
Prog Plann ; : 100513, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041436

RESUMO

There has been growing interest in the expansion of global investment in urban areas, and the financialisation of urban development, both of which bring new business logics into the production of the built environment and shape urban outcomes. At the same time, mega urban projects have continued and spread as a significant format of urban expansion and renewal, often strongly linked to transnational investors and developers. Nonetheless, the distinctive regulatory and political contexts within which transnational actors must bring such projects to fruition matter greatly to outcomes, with territorialised governance arrangements both shaping and being shaped by transnational dynamics. However, there has been little systematic comparative consideration of these diverse regulatory contexts in their own right, rather than as contributors to wider circulating processes such as neoliberalisation. As a result, the implications of different regulatory regimes for urban outcomes have not been effectively assessed. In this paper we therefore broaden the discussion from globalised processes of "financialisation" to consider three large-scale urban development projects from the perspective of their distinctive "business models", including their place in achieving wider strategic objectives at national and metropolitan scales, their agile and often bespoke institutional configurations, and their different forms of financing, taxation and land value capture. Our cases are Lingang, Shanghai (one of nine planned satellite cities), the Corridors of Freedom project in Johannesburg (a linear transport oriented development seeking to integrate the racially divided city), and Old Oak and Park Royal in north-west London (under a mayoral development corporation, associated with significant new metropolitan and national transport investments). We observe that the business models adopted, notably in relation to financial calculations and income streams associated with the developments, are a result of strongly path dependent formats of governance and income generation in each case. However we want to move beyond seeing these as residual, as contingent and contextual to wider accounts of urban development focussed on globalised financial flows and calculations. Using a comparative approach we initiate a systematic analytical conversation about the implications of different business models for the form and socio-economic potential of mega-urban development projects.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22453, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize and identify the available evidence from studies to estimate the clinical value of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). And provides clinicians with evidence on which to base their clinical decision making. METHODS: This review will include all studies comparing clinical efficacy of TCM in the treatment of RA-ILD. The search strategy will be performed in 9 databases. We will not establish any limitations to language and publication status, published from inception to the August 2020. Two reviewers will screen, select studies, extract data, and assess quality independently. Outcome is lung function, number of swelling joints, number of painful joints, duration of morning stiffness, VAS score, adverse effects, quality of life, ESR, CRP, rheumatoid factor and safety. The methodological quality including the risk of bias of the included studies will be evaluated. We will carry out statistical analysis using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: This study will summarize current evidence to assess the efficacy and safety of TCM in the treatment of RA-ILD. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will provide helpful evidence for the clinician, and will promote further studies, as well as studying the value of TCM. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202080108 (DOI number: 10.37766/inplasy2020.8.0108).

9.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998585

RESUMO

Strain SZW01 was isolated from sea sediment collected from Shenzhen in Guangdong province, China, and was later identified as Aspergillus fumigatus by16S rDNA sequence analysis. Various chromatographic processes led to the isolation and purification of three compounds from the fermentation culture of SZW01, including a new compound, 2,6'-dihydroxy-2,4'dimethoxy-8'-methyl-6-methoxy-acyl-ethyl-diphenylmethanone (1), and two known compounds: fumigaclavine C (2) and alternarosin A (3), as characterised by UV, IR, 1 D, 2 D-NMR and MS data. The antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of these compounds were evaluated. The result illustrated that compound 1 exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity and stronger α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than acarbose.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 69: 101826, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010726

RESUMO

In our previous breast cancer case control study in Hispanics, we found 14 metabolites whose levels differed between cases and controls. To validate the results, we carried out a nested case control study of 100 incident breast cancer and 100 matched healthy women identified from the Mano-A-Mano Mexican American Cohort study. With the adjustment of parity, education, birth place, language acculturation, BMI category, smoking, drinking, physical activity, and sitting time, 4 metabolites were associated with breast cancer risk: 3-hydroxyoctanoate (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 3.47), 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) (OR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.01, 3.72), linoleate (18:2n6) (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.04), and bilirubin (OR = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.42, 0.95). Then, we used 3 non-redundant metabolites, namely 3-hydroxyoctanoate, linoleate (18:2n6), and bilirubin, to generate a metabolic risk score. Increased metabolites risk score was associated with a 1.67-fold increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.32, 3.94). And the significant association was more evident among those who were diagnosed with cancer earlier during the follow-up (≤ 5 years) than their counterparts. In conclusion, we identified four significant metabolites which may help elucidate metabolic pathways that contribute to breast carcinogenesis. Our findings warrant further replication efforts.

11.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(5): 652-658, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919485

RESUMO

Fragrances are extensively applied in food, daily chemicals, tobacco and medicine industries. However, too strong volatility of fragrances results in a fast release rate, thereby reducing the usage time of aromatherapy products. Although loading fragrances into nanomaterials is capable of slowing their rates of release, the encapsulation efficiency of traditional nanomaterials is very low, and the nanomaterials themselves are not stable. Herein, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (hMSNs) were designed for encapsulation of eugenol and the nano-fragrance was named EG@hMSNs. The structure of hMSNs was stable and the encapsulation rate of eugenol reached 46.5%. Besides, EG@hMSNs could significantly slow the release rate of eugenol. Subsequently, the EG@hMSNs were testified that they had positive roles in stress relief by open field tests. The molecular mechanisms of these positive effects on the central nervous system were then explored. Furthermore, the preparation method of hMSCs was simple, and the preparation cost was low. Therefore, EG@hMSNs are expected to be industrially produced and have a great application prospect.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933152

RESUMO

Dihydromyricetin (DHY), a flavonoid component isolated from Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts versatile pharmacological activities. However, the possible effects of DHY on diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, male C57BL/6 mice, wild type (WT) 129S1/SvImJ mice and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) knockout (SIRT3-/-) mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg/day) for 5 consecutive days. Two weeks later, DHY were given at the doses of 250 mg/kg by gavage once daily for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, endothelium-dependent relaxation of thoracic aorta, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, SIRT3, and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) protein expressions, as well as mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic Acid (mtDNA) copy number, in thoracic aorta were detected. Our study found that DHY treatment decreased FBG and HbA1c level, improved endothelium-dependent relaxation of thoracic aorta, inhibited oxidative stress and ROS production, and enhanced SIRT3 and SOD2 protein expression, as well as mtDNA copy number, in thoracic aorta of diabetic mice. However, above protective effects of DHY were unavailable in SIRT3-/- mice. The study suggested DHY improved endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice via oxidative stress inhibition in a SIRT3-dependent manner.

13.
Neuropharmacology ; 181: 108335, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979381

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the common complex neurodegenerative diseases and characterized by abnormal metabolic brain networks. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), an endocrine hormone that belongs to the fibroblast growth factor superfamily, plays an extensive role in the regulation of metabolism. However, our understandings of the specific function and mechanisms of FGF21 on PD are still quite limited. Here we aimed to elucidate the actions and the underlying mechanisms of FGF21 on dopaminergic neurodegeneration using cellular and animal models of parkinsonism. To investigate the effects of FGF21 on dopaminergic neurodegeneration in vivo and in vitro, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine models of PD were utilized, and animals were treated with recombinant FGF21 protein or FGF21 gene delivered via an adeno-associated virus. In the present study, systemic and continuous intracerebroventricular recombinant FGF21 protein administration to mice both prevented behavioral deficits, protected dopaminergic neurons against degeneration, and ameliorated α-synuclein pathology in PD models; and in vivo gene delivery of FGF21 improved PD-like symptoms and pathologies suggesting a potential implication of FGF21 in gene therapy for PD. In vitro evidence confirmed FGF21 mediated neuroprotective benefits against PD pathologies. Further, our data suggested that enhanced autophagy was involved in the FGF21 neuroprotection in PD models, and silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 may play a crucial role in molecular mechanisms underlying anti-PD activities of FGF21.

14.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(8): 707-11, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the method and effect of small incision TightRope fixation in the treatment of fresh acromioclavicular joint dislocation. METHODS: From January 2016 to May 2018, 28 cases of fresh acromioclavicular dislocation were treated, including 20 males and 8 females, aged 26 to 87 years with an average age of 51.3 years. The modified Rockwood classification included 1 case of typeⅡ, 22 cases of typeⅢand 4 cases of type V. The average time from injury to operation was 2.4 days. The operative time, shoulder function recovery time and postoperative complications were recorded, and the immediate reduction effect and Karlsson function of shoulder joint were evaluated. RESULTS: In 28 patients, only one Rockwood typeⅡ was used to reconstruct the pyramidal ligament, and the other 27 were used to reconstruct the pyramidal ligament and the trapezoid ligament. The average operation time was (66.50±12.62) min (including intraoperative fluoroscopy time). Twenty-eight cases were followed up for 11 to 20 (16.7±4.6) months. The recovery time of shoulder function was 2 to 7 months with an average of 4 months. During the follow-up period, 1 case had osteolysis and loss of reduction at the clavicular plate site, and the rest had no complications such as re-dislocation and button plate prolapse. Immediate reduction effect after operation:6 cases with reduction insufficiency, 17 cases with complete reduction and 5 cases with excessive reduction;Karlsson function evaluation of shoulder joint in the last follow-up:excellent in 21 cases, good in 6 cases and poor in 1 case;Pearson analysis r=0.060, suggesting that the immediate reduction effect of fresh acromioclavicular dislocation operation has no significant correlation with Karlsson function evaluationof shoulder joint in the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: TightRope fixation through a small incision in the base of coracoid process is a simple and effective method for the treatment of dislocation of acromioclavicular joint. There was no significant correlation between the slight difference of immediate reduction effect within 5 mm and Karlsson function evaluation of shoulder joint in the last follow-up. It is suggested to pay attention to the loss of reduction and osteolysis of clavicular plate in clinical follow-up.


Assuntos
Articulação Acromioclavicular , Luxações Articulares , Luxação do Ombro , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Clavícula , Processo Coracoide , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8384742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963703

RESUMO

H2 has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ability in many clinical trials, and its application is recommended in the latest Chinese novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) treatment guidelines. Clinical experiments have revealed the surprising finding that H2 gas may protect the lungs and extrapulmonary organs from pathological stimuli in NCP patients. The potential mechanisms underlying the action of H2 gas are not clear. H2 gas may regulate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, mitochondrial energy metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, the immune system, and cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and circadian clock, among others) and has therapeutic potential for many systemic diseases. This paper reviews the basic research and the latest clinical applications of H2 gas in multiorgan system diseases to establish strategies for the clinical treatment for various diseases.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(40): 11151-11160, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902977

RESUMO

Eight previously undescribed lignan glycosides, viburmacrosides A-H (1-8), and seven known analogues (9-15) were isolated from Viburnum macrocephalum f. keteleeri fruits through bioactivity-guided fractionation. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical evidence. Using the well-recognized carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as the promising protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), as inhibitory targets, all isolated compounds were tested for their antidiabetic potential in vitro. Compound 4 displayed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 9.9 ± 0.6 and 8.9 ± 0.5 µM against α-glucosidase and PTP1B, respectively. The enzymatic kinetics results suggested that compound 4 competitively inhibited α-glucosidase while it suppressed α-amylase and PTP1B in the mixed-type manner. These findings supported that V. macrocephalum f. keteleeri fruits may be a new functional food resource with antidiabetic potential.

17.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909120

RESUMO

Appendage regeneration has been widely studied in many species. Compared to other animal models, Harmonia axyridis has the advantage of a short life cycle, is easily reared, has strong regeneration capacity and contains systemic RNAi, making it a model organism for research on appendage regeneration. Here, we performed transcriptome analysis, followed by gene functional assays to reveal the molecular mechanism of H. axyridis leg regenerative growth process. Signaling pathways including Decapentaplegic (Dpp), Wingless (Wg), Ds/Ft/Hippo, Notch, Egfr, and Hedgehog (Hh) were all upregulated during the leg regenerative patterning and growth. Among these, Hh and its auxiliary receptor Lrp2 were required for the proper patterning and growth of the regenerative leg. The targets of canonical Hh signaling were required for the regenerative growth which contributes to the leg length, but were not essential for the pattern formation of the regenerative leg. dpp, wg and leg developmental-related genes including rn, dac and Dll were all regulated by hh and lrp2 and may play an essential role in the regenerative patterning of the leg.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956582

RESUMO

Metal-organic framework (MOF)-based drug delivery nanosystems with both precise drug release and multidrug codelivery capabilities have emerged as promising candidates for cancer treatment. However, challenges are posed by the limited number of suitable payload types, uncontrollable drug leakage, and lack of chemical groups for postmodification. To overcome those challenges, we developed a core-shell nanocomposite composed of zeolitic imidazolate framework-90 (ZIF-90) coated with spermine-modified acetalated dextran (SAD) by a facile microfluidics-based nanoprecipitation method. This nanocomposite could serve as a multidrug storage reservoir for the loading of two drugs with distinct properties, where the hydrophilic doxorubicin (DOX) was coordinately attached to the ZIF-90 framework, and hydrophobic photosensitizer IR780 was loaded into the SAD shell, enabling the combination therapy of photodynamic treatment with chemotherapy. Meanwhile, equipping ZIF-90 with a SAD shell not only substantially improved the pH-responsive drug release of ZIF-90 but also enabled the postformation conjugation of ZIF-90 with hyaluronic acid for specific CD44 recognition, thereby facilitating precise drug delivery to CD44-overexpressed tumor. Such a simple microfluidics-based strategy can efficiently overcome the limitations of solely MOF-based DDSs and greatly extend the flexibility of MOF biomedical applications.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15656, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973274

RESUMO

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) constitute very rare and aggressive malignancies. To date, there are no standard guidelines for management of peripheral PNETs due to the paucity of cases arising in various body sites. Therapeutic approach is derived from Ewing sarcoma family, which currently remains multimodal. Our study retrospectively analyzed 86 PNET patients from February 1, 1998 to February 1, 2018 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital with an additional 75 patients from review of literature. The clinicopathologic and treatment plans associated with survival was investigated. Surgery, chemotherapy, female sex, small tumor size, no lymph node metastasis, R0 surgical resection, (vincristine + doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide)/(isophosphamide + etoposide) regimen, and more than 10 cycles of chemotherapy were associated with improved overall survival in univariate analysis. Surgery, more than 10 cycles of chemotherapy, and small tumor size were independent prognostic factors for higher overall survival. Our data indicates that multimodal therapy is the mainstay therapeutic approach for peripheral PNET.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14988, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917938

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in leukocytes has been regarded as a biomarker for various environmental exposures and chronic diseases. Our previous study showed that certain demographic factors (e.g. age, gender, BMI, etc.) significantly affect levels of leukocyte mtDNA copy number in Mexican Americans. However, the effect of the built environment on leukocyte mtDNA copy number has not been studied previously. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the association between multiple components of the built environment with leukocyte mtDNA copy number among 5,502 Mexican American adults enrolled in Mano-A-Mano, the Mexican American Cohort Study (MACS). Based on the median levels of mtDNA copy number, the study population was stratified into low mtDNA copy number group (< median) and high mtDNA copy number group (≥ median). Among all built environment exposure variables, household density and road/intersection ratio were found to be statistically significant between groups with low and high mtDNA copy number (P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, individuals living in areas with elevated levels of household density had 1.24-fold increased odds of having high levels of mtDNA copy number [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CIs) 1.08, 1.36]. Similarly, those living in areas with elevated levels of road/intersection ratio had 1.12-fold increased odds of having high levels of mtDNA copy number (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). In further analysis, when both variables were analyzed together in a multivariate logistic regression model, the significant associations remained. In summary, our results suggest that selected built environment variables (e.g. population density and road/intersection ratio) may influence levels of mtDNA copy number in leukocytes in Mexican Americans.

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