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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2640-2650, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629528

RESUMO

DOM is the largest reservoir of organic carbon in the world, and it plays a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycles of natural water bodies. A river is a transition area connecting source water and receiving water that controls the DOM exchange between them. Therefore, in this study, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) were used to analyze the spectral characteristics and sources of dissolved organic matter in the Fuhe River, Xiaobai River, Baigouyin River, and Puhe River of Baiyangdian. The results showed that a245 and a355 in the Fuhe River and Xiaobai River were significantly higher than those in the Baigouyin River and Puhe River. E2/E3 showed that the DOM relative molecular mass of the inflow river water body was Puhe River > Baigouyin River > Fuhe River > Xiaobai River. Three components, tyrosine-like (C1), terrigenous humus (C2), and tryptophan-like (C3), were determined using three-dimensional fluorescence through PARAFAC. There was no difference among the fluorescence components (P>0.05), but there were differences among the C2 and C3 components (P<0.05). The proportion of easily degradable protein-like components (C1+C3) was higher than that of humus-like components (C2). The autogeny index BIX was greater than 1, and the humification index HIX was less than 4, indicating that the autogeny characteristics of the river bodies were obvious, and the humification degree was weak. The FI index was the highest (1.96±0.25), and the HIX index was the lowest (0.46±0.08), and the self-generated source characteristics gradually strengthened along the direction of the river entering the lake, indicating that the water body of the Fuhe River showed higher endogenous and autogenic characteristics. Based on the correlation analysis of fluorescence components and characteristic parameters of DOM, the correlations between the Fuhe River and Xiaobaihe River and between the Baigouyin River and Puhe River bodies were similar. The correlation between fluorescence components of DOM and water quality parameters of each lake was significantly different, and it was strongly correlated with nitrogen and phosphorus in water. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there was no significant difference among C1 components, but there was a significant difference between C2 and C3 components. In summary, the carbon cycle process of Baiyangdian Lake was further understood through the study on the DOM spectral characteristics and sources of the inflow river waters in the summer flood season.

2.
J Phys Chem B ; 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607690

RESUMO

Viscosity, at the subcellular level, plays a crucial role as a physicochemical factor affecting microenvironment homeostasis. Abnormal changes in mitochondrial viscosity often lead to various diseases in the organism. Based on the twisted intramolecular charge transfer mechanism, four hemicyanine dye fluorescent probes (HT-SA, HT-SA-S, HT-Bzh, and HT-NA) were designed and synthesized for viscosity response. The single bond between the nitrogen-containing heterocycle and the carbon-carbon double in the structure of the probe bond served as the viscosity response site. Finally, the probe HT-Bzh was screened as the optimal mitochondrial viscosity probe according to its responsiveness, targeting, and interference resistance. The fluorescence intensity of the probe HT-Bzh increased 22-fold when the viscosity was increased from 13.75 to 811.2 cP. In summary, all four viscosity probes we have developed can be used in different applications depending on the external environment, providing a valuable reference for the design of potential tools to address viscosity monitoring in biological systems.

3.
Poult Sci ; 103(6): 103703, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631228

RESUMO

Granular cell apoptosis is a key factor leading to follicular atresia and decreased laying rate in aged laying hens. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) induced cell apoptosis is a new type of apoptosis pathway. Previous studies have shown that the ERS pathway is involved in the regulation of follicular development and atresia, and can be regulated by mTOR. Melatonin (MEL) can protect the normal development of follicles, but the precise mechanism by which MEL regulates follicular development is not yet clear. So, we investigated the potential relationship between MEL and ERS and mTOR signaling pathway in vivo through intraperitoneal injection of MEL in aged laying hens. The results show that the laying rate, ovarian follicle number, plasma MEL, E2, LH, FSH concentrations, as well as the mRNA expression of mTOR signaling-associated genes TSC1, TSC2, mTOR, 4E-BP1, and S6K in old later-period chicken control (Old-CN) group was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). In contrast, the ERS-related of plasma and granular cell layer mRNA expression of Grp78, CHOP, and Caspase-3 was significantly increased (P < 0.01). While both of the effects were reversed by MEL. Then, aging granulosa cells were treated with MEL in vitro, followed by RNA seq analysis, and it was found that 259 and 322 genes were upregulated and downregulated. After performing GO enrichment analysis, it was found that DEGs significantly contribute to the biological processes including cell growth and apoptosis. Using pathway enrichment analysis, we found significant overrepresentation of cellular processes related to mTOR signaling and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, involving genes such as GRB10, SGK1, PRKCA, RPS6KA2, RAF1, PIK3R3, FOXO1, DERL3, HMOX1, TLR7, VAMP7 and INSIG2. The obtained results of RT-PCR showed consistency with the RNA-Seq data. In summary, the underlined results revealed that MEL has significantly contributed to follicular development via activating the mTOR signaling pathway-related genes and alleviating ERS-related genes in laying hens. The current study provides a theoretical background for enhancing the egg-laying capability of hens and also providing a basis for elucidating the molecular mechanism of follicular selection.

4.
Planta ; 259(5): 122, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619628

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Overexpression of BnaC02.TPS8 increased low N and high sucrose-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Anthocyanin plays a crucial role in safeguarding photosynthetic tissues against high light, UV radiation, and oxidative stress. Their accumulation is triggered by low nitrogen (N) stress and elevated sucrose levels in Arabidopsis. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) serves as a pivotal signaling molecule, sensing sucrose availability, and carbon (C) metabolism. However, the mechanisms governing the regulation of T6P synthase (TPS) genes responsible for anthocyanin accumulation under conditions of low N and high sucrose remain elusive. In a previous study, we demonstrated the positive impact of a cytoplasm-localized class II TPS protein 'BnaC02.TPS8' on photosynthesis and seed yield improvement in Brassica napus. The present research delves into the biological role of BnaC02.TPS8 in response to low N and high sucrose. Ectopic overexpression of BnaC02.TPS8 in Arabidopsis seedlings resulted in elevated shoot T6P levels under N-sufficient conditions, as well as an increased carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, sucrose accumulation, and starch storage under low N conditions. Overexpression of BnaC02.TPS8 in Arabidopsis heightened sensitivity to low N stress and high sucrose levels, accompanied by increased anthocyanin accumulation and upregulation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis and regulation. Metabolic profiling revealed increased levels of intermediate products of carbon metabolism, as well as anthocyanin and flavonoid derivatives in BnaC02.TPS8-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants under low N conditions. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated that BnaC02.TPS8 interacts with both BnaC08.TPS9 and BnaA01.TPS10. These findings contribute to our understanding of how TPS8-mediated anthocyanin accumulation is modulated under low N and high sucrose conditions.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica napus , Fosfatos Açúcares , Trealose , Antocianinas , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica napus/genética , Carbono , Flavonoides , Nitrogênio , Trealose/análogos & derivados , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
5.
Hortic Res ; 11(4): uhae044, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623075

RESUMO

Linalool and caryophyllene are the main monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds in lavender; however, the genes regulating their biosynthesis still remain many unknowns. Here, we identified LaMYC7, a positive regulator of linalool and caryophyllene biosynthesis, confers plant resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. LaMYC7 was highly expressed in glandular trichomes, and LaMYC7 overexpression could significantly increase the linalool and caryophyllene contents and reduce susceptibility to P. syringae in Nicotiana. In addition, the linalool possessed antimicrobial activity against P. syringae growth and acted dose-dependently. Further analysis demonstrated that LaMYC7 directly bound to the promoter region of LaTPS76, which encodes the terpene synthase (TPS) for caryophyllene biosynthesis, and that LaTPS76 was highly expressed in glandular trichomes. Notably, the LaMYC7 promoter contained hormone and stress-responsive regulatory elements and responded to various treatments, including ultraviolet, low temperature, salt, drought, methyl jasmonate, and P. syringae infection treatments. Under these treatments, the changes in the linalool and caryophyllene contents were similar to those in LaMYC7 transcript abundance. Based on the results, LaMYC7 could respond to P. syringae infection in addition to being involved in linalool and caryophyllene biosynthesis. Thus, the MYC transcription factor gene LaMYC7 can be used in the breeding of high-yielding linalool and caryophyllene lavender varieties with pathogen resistance.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634487

RESUMO

For acid-water oxidation, pyrochloric ruthenates are thought to be extremely effective electrocatalysts. In this work, through partial B-site replacement with larger M2+ cations, the electronic states of Y2Ru2O7 with strong electron correlations are reasonably managed, by which the inherent performance is tremendously promoted. Based on this, the improved Y2Ru1.9Sr0.1O7 electrocatalyst exhibits an outstanding durability and presents a highly inherent mass activity of 1915.1 A gRu-1 (at 1.53 V vs RHE). The enhanced oxygen-evolving reaction (OER) activity by ionic dopant in YRO pyrochlore can be attributed to two aspects, i.e., the lattice distortion induced inhibition of the grain coarsening, which results in a large surface area for YRO-M and increases the OER active sites, and the weakening of electron correlation via broadening of the Ru 4d bandwidths due to the increase of the average radius of B-site ions, which gives rise to an enhancement of conductivity and a strengthened hybridization between Ru 4d and O 2p orbitals and improves the reaction kinetics. The synergistic effects of lattice distortion and orbital hybridization promote the enhanced OER activity. The results would provide fresh concepts for the design of improved electrocatalysts and underscore the significance of managing the intrinsic performance through the dual modification of microstructure morphology and electronic structure.

7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2998, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589359

RESUMO

Understanding the sensing mechanism of metal oxide semiconductors is imperative to the development of high-performance sensors. The traditional sensing mechanism only recognizes the effect of surface chemisorbed oxygen from the air but ignores surface lattice oxygen. Herein, using in-situ characterizations, we provide direct experimental evidence that the surface chemisorbed oxygen participated in the sensing process can come from lattice oxygen of the oxides. Further density functional theory (DFT) calculations prove that the p-band center of O serves as a state of art for regulating the participation of lattice oxygen in gas-sensing reactions. Based on our experimental data and theoretical calculations, we discuss mechanisms that are fundamentally different from the conventional mechanism and show that the easily participation of lattice oxygen is helpful for the high response value of the materials.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 429, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is part of standard care in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) at present. As evidence from retrospective studies increases, the benefits of PCI for limited-stage SCLC are being challenged. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled study was designed. The key inclusion criteria were: histologically or cytologically confirmed small cell carcinoma, age ≥ 18 years, KPS ≥ 80, limited-stage is defined as tumor confined to one side of the chest including ipsilateral hilar, bilateral mediastinum and supraclavicular lymph nodes, patients have received definitive thoracic radiotherapy (regardless of the dose-fractionation of radiotherapy used) and chemotherapy, evaluated as complete remission (CR) of tumor 4-6 weeks after the completion of chemo-radiotherapy. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to two arms: (1) PCI and brain MRI surveillance arm, receiving PCI (2.5 Gy qd to a total dose of 25 Gy in two weeks) followed by brain MRI surveillance once every three months for two years; (2) brain MRI surveillance alone arm, undergoing brain MRI surveillance once every three months for two years. The primary objective is to compare the 2-year brain metastasis-free survival (BMFS) rates between the two arms. Secondary objectives include 2-year overall survival (OS) rates, intra-cranial failure patterns, 2-year progression-free survival rates and neurotoxicity. In case of brain metastasis (BM) detect during follow-up, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) will be recommended if patients meet the eligibility criteria. DISCUSSION: Based on our post-hoc analysis of a prospective study, we hypothesize that in limited-stage SCLC patients with CR after definitive chemoradiotherapy, and ruling out of BM by MRI, it would be feasible to use brain MRI surveillance and omit PCI in these patients. If BM is detected during follow-up, treatment with SRS or whole brain radiotherapy does not appear to have a detrimental effect on OS. Additionally, this approach may reduce potential neurotoxicity associated with PCI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Humanos , Adolescente , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , 60410 , Encéfalo/patologia
9.
Curr Probl Cancer ; 50: 101095, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A solitary plasmacytoma is classified into a solitary plasmacytoma of the bone (SBP) and a solitary extramedullary (soft tissue mass) plasmacytoma, based on the site of the lesion. Despite the high local control rate with radiotherapy, approximately half of patients' conditions progress to multiple myeloma (MM) within 3-5 years after diagnosis, with SBP having a worse prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the treatment and outcomes of patients with SBP in a hospital in China from 2008 to 2021. Twenty-four patients treated over 13 years with SBP were enrolled in this retrospective study. RESULTS: The most common sites for SBP were the axial skeleton and femur. The M protein was detected in 11 patients (46 %), of which 8 (33 %) had light chains, 2 (8 %) had immunoglobulin G kappa and 1 (4 %) had immunoglobulin D kappa. Flow cytometry revealed that 5 patients (21 %) had minimal bone marrow involvement. The treatment included chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy in 18 (75 %), 12 (50 %), and 9 (38 %) patients, respectively, of whom 13 (54 %) received combined treatment. Over a median follow-up period of 67.2 months, 9 patients (38 %) developed MM in a median time of 101.5 months. The 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 67.3 % and 37.4 %, respectively. One patient died due to pneumonia without progression and the other died due to relapse. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the high rate of progression of SBP to MM, indicating a need for adjunct chemotherapy for the management of SBP.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1340867, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590751

RESUMO

Vacuolar Pi transporters (VPTs) have recently been identified as important regulators of cellular Pi status in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. In the oil crop Brassica napus, BnA09PHT5;1a and BnC09PHT5;1a are two homologs of AtPHT5;1, the vacuolar Pi influx transporter in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that Pi deficiency induces the transcription of both homologs of PHT5;1a genes in B. napus leaves. Brassica PHT5;1a double mutants (DM) had smaller shoots and higher cellular Pi concentrations than wild-type (WT, Westar 10), suggesting the potential role of BnPHT5;1a in modulating cellular Pi status in B. napus. A proteomic analysis was performed to estimate the role of BnPHT5;1a in Pi fluctuation. Results show that Pi deprivation disturbs the abundance of proteins in the physiological processes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, response to stimulus and stress in B. napus, while disruption of BnPHT5;1a genes may exacerbate these processes. Besides, the processes of cell redox homeostasis, lipid metabolic and proton transmembrane transport are supposed to be unbalanced in BnPHT5;1a DM under the -Pi condition. Noteworthy, disruption of BnPHT5;1a genes severely alters the abundance of proteins related to ATP biosynthesis, and proton/inorganic cation transmembrane under normal Pi condition, which might contribute to B. napus growth limitations. Additionally, seven new protein markers of Pi homeostasis are identified in B. napus. Taken together, this study characterizes the important regulatory role of BnPHT5;1a genes as vacuolar Pi influx transporters in Pi homeostasis in B. napus.

11.
Plant Physiol ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589996

RESUMO

Efficient uptake, translocation, and distribution of Cu to rice (Oryza sativa) spikelets is crucial for flowering and yield production. However, the regulatory factors involved in this process remain unidentified. In this study, we isolated a WRKY transcription factor gene induced by Cu deficiency, OsWRKY37, and characterized its regulatory role in Cu uptake and transport in rice. OsWRKY37 was highly expressed in rice roots, nodes, leaf vascular bundles, and anthers. Overexpression of OsWRKY37 promoted the uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Cu in rice under -Cu condition but not under +Cu condition. While mutation of OsWRKY37 significantly decreased Cu concentrations in the stamen, the root-to-shoot translocation and distribution ratio in brown rice affected pollen development, delayed flowering time, decreased fertility, and reduced grain yield under -Cu condition. yeast one-hybrid, transient co-expression and EMSAs, together with in situ RT-PCR and RT-qPCR analysis, showed that OsWRKY37 could directly bind to the upstream promoter region of OsCOPT6 (copper transporter) and OsYSL16 (yellow stripe-like protein) and positively activate their expression levels. Analyses of oscopt6 mutants further validated its important role in Cu uptake in rice. Our study demonstrated that OsWRKY37 acts as a positive regulator involved in the uptake, root-to-shoot translocation, and distribution of Cu through activating the expression of OsCOPT6 and OsYSL16, which is important for pollen development, flowering, fertility, and grain yield in rice under Cu deficient conditions. Our results provide a genetic strategy for improving rice yield under Cu deficient condition.

12.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1348678, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585004

RESUMO

Objective: To establish a radiomics model based on intratumoral and peritumoral features extracted from pre-treatment CT to predict the major pathological response (MPR) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving neoadjuvant immunochemotherapy. Methods: A total of 148 NSCLC patients who underwent neoadjuvant immunochemotherapy from two centers (SRRSH and ZCH) were retrospectively included. The SRRSH dataset (n=105) was used as the training and internal validation cohort. Radiomics features of intratumoral (T) and peritumoral regions (P1 = 0-5mm, P2 = 5-10mm, and P3 = 10-15mm) were extracted from pre-treatment CT. Intra- and inter- class correlation coefficients and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator were used to feature selection. Four single ROI models mentioned above and a combined radiomics (CR: T+P1+P2+P3) model were established by using machine learning algorithms. Clinical factors were selected to construct the combined radiomics-clinical (CRC) model, which was validated in the external center ZCH (n=43). The performance of the models was assessed by DeLong test, calibration curve and decision curve analysis. Results: Histopathological type was the only independent clinical risk factor. The model CR with eight selected radiomics features demonstrated a good predictive performance in the internal validation (AUC=0.810) and significantly improved than the model T (AUC=0.810 vs 0.619, p<0.05). The model CRC yielded the best predictive capability (AUC=0.814) and obtained satisfactory performance in the independent external test set (AUC=0.768, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91). Conclusion: We established a CRC model that incorporates intratumoral and peritumoral features and histopathological type, providing an effective approach for selecting NSCLC patients suitable for neoadjuvant immunochemotherapy.

13.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1348347, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558794

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is a metabolic and chronic inflammatory disease involving genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the causal relationship among gut microbiota abundance, plasma metabolomics, peripheral cell (blood and immune cell) counts, inflammatory cytokines, and obesity. Methods: Summary statistics of 191 gut microbiota traits (N = 18,340), 1,400 plasma metabolite traits (N = 8,299), 128 peripheral cell counts (blood cells, N = 408,112; immune cells, N = 3,757), 41 inflammatory cytokine traits (N = 8,293), and 6 obesity traits were obtained from publicly available genome-wide association studies. Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was applied to infer the causal links using inverse variance-weighted, maximum likelihood, MR-Egger, weighted median, weighted mode, and Wald ratio methods. Several sensitivity analyses were also utilized to ensure reliable MR results. Finally, we used mediation analysis to identify the pathway from gut microbiota to obesity mediated by plasma metabolites, peripheral cells, and inflammatory cytokines. Results: MR revealed a causal effect of 44 gut microbiota taxa, 281 plasma metabolites, 27 peripheral cells, and 8 inflammatory cytokines on obesity. Among them, five shared causal gut microbiota taxa belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria, order Bifidobacteriales, family Bifidobacteriaceae, genus Lachnospiraceae UCG008, and species Eubacterium nodatum group. Furthermore, we screened 42 shared causal metabolites, 7 shared causal peripheral cells, and 1 shared causal inflammatory cytokine. Based on known causal metabolites, we observed that the metabolic pathways of D-arginine, D-ornithine, linoleic acid, and glycerophospholipid metabolism were closely related to obesity. Finally, mediation analysis revealed 20 mediation relationships, including the causal pathway from gut microbiota to obesity, mediated by 17 metabolites, 2 peripheral cells, and 1 inflammatory cytokine. Sensitivity analysis represented no heterogeneity or pleiotropy in this study. Conclusion: Our findings support a causal relationship among gut microbiota, plasma metabolites, peripheral cells, inflammatory cytokines, and obesity. These biomarkers provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying obesity and contribute to its prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Análise de Mediação , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metaboloma , Citocinas
14.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611941

RESUMO

In this study, a novel green fluorescent probe material, nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs), was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis method using walnut green skin as a carbon source and acetamide-glycolic acid deep eutectic solvent (AGADES) as a modifier. By covalent coupling, the amide chromophore in AGADES is designed to cover the surface of walnut green skin carbon quantum dots (W-CQDs), forming a fluorescence energy resonance effect and improving the fluorescence performance of the carbon quantum dots. The prepared N-CQDs have a uniform particle size distribution, and the fluorescence quantum efficiency has increased from 12.5% to 32.5%. Within the concentration range of 0.01~1000 µmol/L of Pb2+, the linear detection limit is 1.55 nmol/L, which can meet the trace detection of Pb2+ in the water environment, and the recycling rate reaches 97%. This method has been successfully applied to the fluorescence detection and reuse of Pb2+ in actual water bodies, providing new ideas and methods for the detection of heavy metal ions in environmental water.

15.
Poult Sci ; 103(6): 103656, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583308

RESUMO

Follicular atresia in chickens reduces the number of follicles that can further develop, leading to decrease egg laying. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) can initiate a unique pathway inducing the apoptosis of follicular granulosa cells, thus reducing egg laying. Melatonin (MEL) is involved in the regulation of follicle development, ovulation, and oocyte maturation, and is closely related to follicle fate. Mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays an important role in cell growth regulation, and that there is a possible crosstalk between melatonin and mTOR activity in granular cells maturation and ovulation. This study aimed to investigate whether MEL inhibits ERS and follicular granulosa cell apoptosis by regulating ATF4 to activate mTOR signaling pathway in chickens. Frist, we established an in vitro ERS cell model using tunicamycin (TM). The results showed that different concentrations of TM exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cell activity and induction of granulosa cells (P<0.01). Therefore, we chose 5 µg/mL of TM and a treatment time for 6 h as the optimal concentration for the following experiments. Then we investigate whether melatonin can inhibit ERS. TM treatment decreased the cell viability and Bcl-2 expression, increasing ROS levels and the mRNA expression of Grp78, ATF4, CHOP, PERK, eIF-2α, and BAX (P<0.01), whereas TM+MEL treatment significantly inhibited these changes (P<0.01). Then we explored whether melatonin protects follicular granulosa cells from ERS-induced apoptosis through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by regulating ATF4, we found that ATF4 knockdown inhibited ERS by decreasing the expression of ERS-related genes and proteins and activating mTOR signaling pathway by increasing the protein expression of p4E-BP1 and pT389-S6K (P<0.001), while these changes were promoted by TM+si-ATF4+MEL treatment (P<0.01). These results indicate that MEL could alleviate TM-induced ERS by regulating ATF4 to activate mTOR signaling pathway in follicular granulosa cells, thus providing a new perspective for prolonging the laying cycle in chickens.

16.
medRxiv ; 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585951

RESUMO

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not a cure. Upon ART cessation, virus rapidly rebounds from latently-infected cells ("the HIV reservoir"). The reservoir is largely stabilized at the time of ART initiation and then decays slowly. Here, leveraging >500 longitudinal samples from 67 people with HIV (PWH) treated during acute infection, we developed a novel mathematical model to predict reservoir decay using the intact proviral DNA assay (IPDA) from peripheral CD4+ T cells. Nonlinear generalized additive models adjusted for initial CD4+ T count, pre-ART viral load, and timing of ART initiation demonstrated rapid biphasic decay of intact DNA (week 0-5: t1/2 ~0.71 months; week 5-24: t1/2 ~3.9 months) that extended out to 1 year of ART, with similar trends for defective DNA. Predicted reservoir decay were faster for participants individuals with earlier timing of ART initiation, higher initial CD4+ T cell count, and lower pre-ART viral load. These estimates are ~5-fold faster than prior reservoir decay estimates among chronic-treated PWH. Thus, these data add to our limited understanding of host viral control at the earliest stages of HIV reservoir stabilization, potentially informing future HIV cure efforts aimed at diverse, global population of PWH initiating ART at varying stages of disease.

17.
PeerJ ; 12: e17175, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560456

RESUMO

Background: Geographic isolation caused by high-altitude valleys promotes the formation of geographic segregation of species, leading to species differentiation. The subgenus Oreosaura contains viviparous species from the Tibetan Plateau and the vicinity of the Tarim Basin, which can be divided into three species complexes according to their geographical distribution: Phrynocephalus vlangalii, Phrynocephalus theobaldi, and Phrynocephalus forsythii. However, molecular data for the P. forsythii complex are limited and the diversity of this species complex has been greatly underestimated. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the species diversity of Oreosaura and species differentiation within the P. forsythii complex. Methods: We analysed the species diversity of Oreosaura by combining previous data, constructed a phylogenetic tree of the subgenus based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S sequences, and estimated the divergence time. Results: The results suggest significant genetic differences between the Tarim Basin populations and adjacent mountain valley populations of the P. forsythii complex and that the combination of deep valley landscapes in the high mountains and ice-age events have contributed to the differentiation of the viviparous toad-headed agama lizard, which is a key factor in the phylogenetics of the P. forsythii complex. Furthermore, we identified a population collected from Wuqia County, Xinjiang, as a new species, Phrynocephalus kangsuensis sp. nov. The results will provide data for phylogenetic studies following the P. forsythii complex and help demonstrate that valleys promote the formation of Phrynocephalus species.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Lagartos , Animais , Filogenia , Lagartos/genética
19.
Adv Mater ; : e2303311, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561020

RESUMO

The musculoskeletal system, constituting the largest human physiological system, plays a critical role in providing structural support to the body, facilitating intricate movements, and safeguarding internal organs. By virtue of advancements in revolutionized materials and devices, particularly in the realms of motion capture, health monitoring, and postoperative rehabilitation, "musculoskeletal electronics" has actually emerged as an infancy area, but has not yet been explicitly proposed. In this review, we attempt to elucidate the concept of musculoskeletal electronics, and summarize the evolution history, representative progress and key strategies of the involved materials and state-of-the-art devices. Therefore, we first introduce the fundamentals of musculoskeletal electronics and key functionality categories. Subsequently, we present recent advances in musculoskeletal electronics from the perspectives of "in-vitro" to "in-vivo" signal detection, interactive modulation, and therapeutic interventions for healing and recovery. Additionally, we propose nine strategies avenues for the development of advanced musculoskeletal electronic materials and devices. Finally, concise summaries and perspectives are proposed to highlight the directions that deserve focused attention in this booming field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558976

RESUMO

The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a critical role in the central nervous system and has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders. The ligand-based approaches are instrumental to decipher the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of DAT ligands, especially the quantitative SAR (QSAR) modeling. By gathering and analyzing data from literature and databases, we systematically assemble a diverse range of ligands binding to DAT, aiming to discern the general features of DAT ligands and uncover the chemical space for potential novel DAT ligand scaffolds. The aggregation of DAT pharmacological activity data, particularly from databases like ChEMBL, provides a foundation for constructing robust QSAR models. The compilation and meticulous filtering of these data, establishing high-quality training datasets with specific divisions of pharmacological assays and data types, along with the application of QSAR modeling, prove to be a promising strategy for navigating the pertinent chemical space. Through a systematic comparison of DAT QSAR models using training datasets from various ChEMBL releases, we underscore the positive impact of enhanced data set quality and increased data set size on the predictive power of DAT QSAR models.

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