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1.
Food Chem ; 302: 125331, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404867

RESUMO

Adulteration of the high-value silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) is a serious problem worldwide, necessitating accurate identification and quantification of the species. In this study, optimisation of the digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) assay for the identification and quantification of the silver pomfret was carried out. The primer and probe concentrations, melting temperature, and PCR cycle number were optimised by combining single-factor experiments with an orthogonal experimental design. The absolute limits of detection and quantification of the ddPCR were 2copies/µl and 21 copies/µl, respectively. Its sensitivity was 0.1% for meat mixtures and 0.5% for DNA mixtures. The ddPCR was 156 times more sensitive than the real-time PCR, although both methods had similar specificities. However, the overall time needed to complete the ddPCR method was twice that of the real-time PCR. Notwithstanding, the ddPCR methodology established in this study can be a valuable tool for addressing species adulteration issues.

2.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645659

RESUMO

The global prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) increases incredibly. NASH ends up to advanced liver disease, which is highly threatening to human health. Currently, treatment of NASH is very limited. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACC1/ACC2) are proved as effective drug targets for NASH. We aimed to develop novel ACC inhibitors and evaluate their therapeutic value for NASH prevention. ACC inhibitors were obtained through structure-based drug design, synthesized, screened from ACC enzymatic measurement platform and elucidated in cell culture-based assays and animal models. The lipidome and microbiome analysis were integrated to assess the effects of WZ66 on lipids profiles in liver and plasma as well as gut microbiota in the intestine. WZ66 was identified as a novel ACC1/2 inhibitor. It entered systemic circulation rapidly and could accumulate in liver. WZ66 alleviated NASH-related liver features including steatosis, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells activation in diet-induced obese mice. The triglycerides (TGs) and other lipids including diglycerides (DGs), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) were decreased in WZ66-treated mice as evidenced by lipidome analysis in livers. The lipids profiles in plasma were also altered with WZ66 treatment. Plasma TG were moderately increased, while the activation of SREBP1c was not detected. WZ66 also downregulated the abundance of Allobaculum, Mucispirillum and Prevotella genera as well as Mucispirillum schaedleri species in gut microbiota. WZ66 is an ideal lead compound and a potential drug candidate deserving further investigation in the therapeutics of NASH.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4627, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604917

RESUMO

Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are a popular chemogenetic technology for manipulation of neuronal activity in uninstrumented awake animals with potential for human applications as well. The prototypical DREADD agonist clozapine N-oxide (CNO) lacks brain entry and converts to clozapine, making it difficult to apply in basic and translational applications. Here we report the development of two novel DREADD agonists, JHU37152 and JHU37160, and the first dedicated 18F positron emission tomography (PET) DREADD radiotracer, [18F]JHU37107. We show that JHU37152 and JHU37160 exhibit high in vivo DREADD potency. [18F]JHU37107 combined with PET allows for DREADD detection in locally-targeted neurons, and at their long-range projections, enabling noninvasive and longitudinal neuronal projection mapping.

4.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 80, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) polymorphisms are implicated in premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) remains controversial. Thus, we performed this study to explore correlation between FSHR polymorphisms and POI in human beings. METHODS: Literature retrieve was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Embase and CNKI. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were enrolled for analyses. No significant relationship with POI was found for rs6165 and rs6166 polymorphisms in overall analyses. Further subgroup analyses revealed that rs6166 polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of POI in Asians with both FEM and REM. Nevertheless, we failed to detect any significant associations with POI for other ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that FSHR rs6166 polymorphism may serve as a potential genetic biomarker of POI in Asians, but not in other ethnicities.

5.
Life Sci ; : 116938, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593704

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effect of 7-O-geranylquercetin (GQ), a derivative of quercetin (Q), on reversing drug resistance in breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells and reveal the mechanisms related to P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MAIN METHODS: Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Accumulation of adriamycin (ADR) in cells was determined by confocal fluorescence microscope and microplate reader while that of rhodamine (Rh) was measured by flow cytometry. Expression levels of P-gp and MDR1 gene in cells were detected by western blot and Real-Time PCR, respectively. Molecular docking of GQ and Q with P-gp was conducted using AutoDock program. Xenograft model was established by inoculating MCF-7/ADR cells in BALB/c-nude mice. Tumor bearing mice were administered with ADR via tail vein injection and/or GQ (Q) by gavage. Expression levels of P-gp in tissues were detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry. KEY FINDINGS: GQ could reverse drug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells to ADR. GQ inhibited the efflux of ADR by down-regulating the expression of P-gp protein and its encoding gene MDR1 in MCF-7/ADR cells. Molecular modeling showed that GQ matched with P-gp better than Q. GQ enhanced the antitumor effects of ADR and decreased the expression of P-gp in mice and its activities were higher than that of Q. GQ could reverse drug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells by down-regulating the expression of P-gp in vitro and in vivo. SIGNIFICANCES: The reversal effect of GQ on P-gp-mediated drug resistance indicates its potential as a reversal agent for drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this project was to implement best practice in pain relief during wound care for patients with deep-open wounds in the trauma orthopedics department of a tertiary teaching hospital in China. INTRODUCTION: Patients with deep-open wounds often suffer from great pain during wound care. Inadequate pain relief for such patients in hospital calls for evidence-based changes to close the current practice gap. METHODS: The current quality improvement project was carried out over six months using the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System, a baseline and two follow-up audits of wound pain management practice were conducted to identify practice gaps and post implementation compliance in pain management in wound care. The sample comprised 20 patients and two dressing nurses. The Getting Research into Practice tool identified barriers to and strategies for improvement in practice. The patients' pain experience was measured following the implementation of changes. RESULTS: The baseline audit identified poor compliance with best practice. Following implementation of the recommended changes, significant improvements in practice were made by the dressing nurses and were inadequately maintained at the second post implementation audit. Patients' pain scores improved following the nurses' practice changes (t = 2.272, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The implementation of best practice in pain relief during wound care for patients with deep-open wounds has led to significant improvement in nurses' performance in the traumatic orthopedics department. The most challenging barriers involved interdisciplinary collaborations and organizational structure.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(11): 116104, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573246

RESUMO

Bound states in the continuum in periodic photonic systems like photonic crystal slabs are proved to be accompanied by vortex polarization singularities on the photonic bands in the momentum space. The winding structures of polarization states not only widen the field of topological physics but also show great potential that such systems could be applied in polarization manipulating. In this Letter, we report the phenomenon that by in-plane inversion (C_{2}) symmetry breaking, pairs of circularly polarized states could spawn from the eliminated bound states in the continuum. Along with the appearance of the circularly polarized states as the two poles of the Poincaré sphere together with linearly polarized states covering the equator, full coverage on the Poincaré sphere could be realized. As an application, ellipticity modulation of linear polarization is demonstrated in the visible frequency range. This phenomenon provides a new degree of freedom in modulating polarization. The C points could also find applications in light-matter interactions. Further studying and manipulating the reported polarization singularities may lead to novel phenomena and physics in radiation modulating and topological photonics.

8.
Int J Mol Med ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638173

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of microRNA­21 (miR­21) in regulating the classical WNT/ß­catenin signaling pathway by targeting low­density lipoprotein­related receptor 6 (LRP6) in non­alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). For this purpose, we established a NAFLD model by feeding C57BL/6J mice a methionine­choline­â€‹deficient diet. Antagomir­21 was then injected via the tail vein, and the expression levels of WNT/ß­catenin signaling pathway­related proteins, such as LRP6, glycogen synthase kinase­3ß (GSK3ß), p­ß­catenin, ß­catenin and the downstream protein, peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor Î³ (PPAR­Î³), and lipid metabolism­related genes, including sterol regulatory element­binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1α (CPT1α) and adenosine 5­monophosphate (AMP)­activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), were detected. The results revealed that in the NAFLD model, LRP6 expression was negatively associated with miR­21 expression. After antagonizing the expression of miR­21, the protein level of LRP6 was increased. In addition, the WNT/ß­catenin signaling pathway was activated, and lipid accumulation and inflammation were alleviated in the liver. However, the expression of PPAR­Î³ was not inhibited following the upregulation of the WNT signaling pathway. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that the inhibition of miR­21 expression can alleviate NAFLD by targeting LRP6 to activate the WNT/ß­catenin signaling pathway.

9.
J Mater Chem B ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638633

RESUMO

Phototherapy, particularly photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), has become a promising therapeutic technique for the treatment of skin cancers because of its minial invasiveness, high efficacy, and low side effects. Nevertheless, single modality therapy, either PTT or PDT, has limited clinical effectiveness in treating skin cancers. Thus, combined applications of PTT and PDT have been frequently reported; however, PTT and PDT often require their respective photoagents and excitation light sources, resulting in challenges in clinical transformation. In this study, to address these issues, we report the use of biocompatible gold nanoclusters Au25(Capt)18 for the concurrent PTT and PDT treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) using an 808 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser. Utilizing their high light-thermal conversion efficiency, potent generation of singlet oxygen, and strong photothermal stability, Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters potentiated a significant proliferation suppression of cSCC XL50 cells in vitro and the inhibition of cSCC tumors on SKH-1 mice in vivo. In particular, under 808 nm light irradiation, the tumor-cell-killing contributions of PTT and PDT were estimated to be 28.86% and 71.14%, respectively, by using an ROS scavenger to quench the PDT effect. Tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells were observed after one course of concurrent PTT and PDT. Preliminary toxicity studies indicated low adverse effects of the Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters. Through this study, we report the use of a simple nanostructure for simultaneous PTT and PDT applications to effectively kill cSCC and to induce anti-tumor immune responses. Our study could lead to the development of effective photoagents for current, synergistic applications of different phototherapies with targeted immunological responses for the treatment of cancers.

10.
Cell ; 179(3): 687-702.e18, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626770

RESUMO

A single mouse blastomere from an embryo until the 8-cell stage can generate an entire blastocyst. Whether laboratory-cultured cells retain a similar generative capacity remains unknown. Starting from a single stem cell type, extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells, we established a 3D differentiation system that enabled the generation of blastocyst-like structures (EPS-blastoids) through lineage segregation and self-organization. EPS-blastoids resembled blastocysts in morphology and cell-lineage allocation and recapitulated key morphogenetic events during preimplantation and early postimplantation development in vitro. Upon transfer, some EPS-blastoids underwent implantation, induced decidualization, and generated live, albeit disorganized, tissues in utero. Single-cell and bulk RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that EPS-blastoids contained all three blastocyst cell lineages and shared transcriptional similarity with natural blastocysts. We also provide proof of concept that EPS-blastoids can be generated from adult cells via cellular reprogramming. EPS-blastoids provide a unique platform for studying early embryogenesis and pave the way to creating viable synthetic embryos by using cultured cells.

11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 183: 111731, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577977

RESUMO

With the expectation to find out new anti-gastric cancer agents with high efficacy and selectivity, a series of novel tertiary sulfonamide derivatives were synthesized and the anti-cancer activity was studied in three selected cancer cell lines (MGC-803, PC-3, MCF-7) in vitro. Some of the synthesized compounds could significantly inhibit the proliferation of these tested cancer cells and were more potent than the positive control (5-Fu). The structure-activity relationship of tertiary sulfonamide derivatives was explored in this report. Among the tested compounds, compound 13g containing benzimidazole moiety showed the best anti-proliferation activities against MGC-803 cells (IC50 = 1.02 µM), HGC-27 cells (IC50 = 1.61 µM), SGC-7901 (IC50 = 2.30 µM) cells as well as the good selectivity between the cancer and normal cells. Cellular mechanism studies elucidated compound 13g inhibited the colony formation of gastric cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, compound 13g arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase and induced cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, compound 13g markedly decreased p-Akt and p-c-Raf expression, which revealed that compound 13g targeted gastric cancer cell lines via interfering with AKT/mTOR and RAS/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways. All the findings suggest that compound 13g might be a valuable lead compound for the anti-gastric cancer agents.

12.
J Appl Lab Med ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of more efficient drug delivery devices for ciclesonide inhalation products requires an ultrasensitive bioanalytical method to measure systematic exposure of ciclesonide (CIC) and its active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC) in humans. METHOD: Serum sample was extracted with 1-chlorobutane. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APPI-MS/MS) method was used for quantification of 1-500 pg/mL for both analytes in a 0.500-mL serum. The analysis time was 4.7 min/injection. CIC-d11 and des-CIC-d11 were used as the internal standards. RESULTS: Calibration curves showed good linearity (r 2 > 0.99) for both analytes. This novel method was precise and accurate with interassay precision and accuracy of all within 9.6% CV and ± 4.0% bias for regular QC samples. Extraction recovery was approximately 85% for both analytes. Serum samples are stable for 3 freeze-thaw cycles, 24 h at bench top, and up to 706 days at both -20 °C and -70 °C. This method was successfully used to support a pharmacokinetic (PK) comparison between the inhalation suspensions and an inhalation aerosol of ciclesonide in healthy participants. The method robustness was also supported by the good incurred sample reanalysis reproducibility. CONCLUSION: APPI, a highly selective and sensitive ionization source, made possible for quantifying CIC and des-CIC with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 pg/mL in human serum by LC-MS/MS. A 10-fold sensitivity improvement from the most sensitive reported method (LLOQ, 10 pg/mL) is essential to fully characterize the PK profiles of CIC and des-CIC in support of the clinical development of the ciclesonide-related medications for patients.

13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 138-147, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590769

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of the water-sediment regulation on the spatial variations of metals in the surface sediments of the Yellow River Estuary (YRE), sampling sites were set in 2015 (51 sites in June and 33 in October). The content of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Ni and Mn was determined using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry and of Hg and As atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the concentrations of metals in the sediments of YRE were lower after the regulation, while that of most metals increased in the tidal areas of the current estuary with fine particles. Environmental pollution and ecological risk of metals were mainly from Hg and Cd. Metals carried with the silt of the river should be focused. The findings were expected to update the current status of metal pollution of YRE and be helpful for the delicacy management of the regime and silt-laden rivers.

15.
Heart ; 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) in northeast China. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey using a multistage, stratified and cluster random sampling method was conducted in Liaoning Province between September 2017 and March 2019. A total of 18 796 participants (28.9% urban, 71.1% rural) aged ≥40 years were included. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination and ECG. AF was diagnosed according to history and ECG findings. RESULTS: The overall AF prevalence was 1.1%; it increased steeply with age. AF was more prevalent in men than in women (1.5% vs 0.9%, p<0.001); however, the difference between urban and rural areas was not significant (1.3% vs 1.1%, p=0.228). Among the AF population, the overall AF awareness rate was 52.6%, higher in women than in men (61.5% vs 44.1%, p=0.011); however, the difference between areas was not statistically significant (60.0% vs 49.0%, p=0.129). According to the CHA2DS-VASc score, almost all (90.2%, 194/215) of our subjects required oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy; however, only 4.1% actually received it. Moreover, hypertension (66.5%), dyslipidaemia (32.6%) and diabetes (24.2%) were highly prevalent in patients with AF, but their control rates were unacceptably low (7.0%, 8.6% and 28.8%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The burden of AF in northeast China was substantial. Underuse of OAC therapy and uncontrolled comorbidities will likely contribute to the cardiovascular outcomes of patients with AF in the coming decades. Long-term management strategies for AF and related risk factors are required in northeast China.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633901

RESUMO

One of the key objectives in PEM electrolysis technology is to reduce iridium loading and to improve iridium mass activity at the side of oxygen evolution electrocatalysis. 6H-phase, Ir-based perovskite (6H-SrIrO3) is known to be a promising alternative to the IrO2 catalyst, and developing effective strategies to further enhance its catalytic performance is needed. Here we present that a significant enhancement in electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction of 6H-SrIrO3 can be achieved by cobalt incorporation. A suitable amount of cobalt dopants results in a decreased formation temperature of 6H-SrIrO3 from 700 to 500 °C and thereby a decreased thickness of platelike particles for the material. Besides the morphological effect, the cobalt incorporation also increases the coverage of surface hydroxyl groups, regulates the Ir-O bond covalency, and modulates the oxygen p-band center of the material. This synergistic optimization of the morphological, surface, and electronic structures makes the cobalt-doped 6H-SrIrO3 catalyst give a 3-fold increase in iridium mass activity for oxygen evolution reaction in comparison with the undoped 6H-SrIrO3 under acidic conditions.

17.
Elife ; 82019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657716

RESUMO

CARM1 is a cancer-relevant protein arginine methyltransferase that regulates many aspects of transcription. Its pharmacological inhibition is a promising anti-cancer strategy. Here SKI-73 (6a in this work) is presented as a CARM1 chemical probe with pro-drug properties. SKI-73 (6a) can rapidly penetrate cell membranes and then be processed into active inhibitors, which are retained intracellularly with 10-fold enrichment for several days. These compounds were characterized for their potency, selectivity, modes of action, and on-target engagement. SKI-73 (6a) recapitulates the effect of CARM1 knockout against breast cancer cell invasion. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis revealed that the SKI-73(6a)-associated reduction of invasiveness acts via altering epigenetic plasticity and suppressing the invasion-prone subpopulation. Interestingly, SKI-73 (6a) and CARM1 knockout alter the epigenetic plasticity with remarkable difference, arguing distinct modes of action between the small-molecule and genetic perturbation. We therefore discovered a CARM1-addiction mechanism of cancer metastasis and developed a chemical probe to target this process.

18.
Water Res ; 167: 115110, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577967

RESUMO

Membrane separation and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been respectively demonstrated to be effective for a variety of water and/or wastewater treatments. Innovative integration of membrane with catalytic oxidation is thus expected to be more competing for more versatile applications. In this study, ceramic membranes (CMs) integrated with manganese oxide (MnO2) were designed and fabricated via a simple one-step ball-milling method with a high temperature sintering. Functional membranes with different loadings of MnO2 (1.67%, 3.33% and 6.67% of the total membrane mass) were then fabricated. The micro-structures and compositions of the catalytic membranes were investigated by a number of advanced characterisations. It was found that the MnO2 nanocatalysts (10-20 nm) were distributed uniformly around the Al2O3 particles (500 nm) of the membrane basal material, and can provide a large amount of active sites for the peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation which can be facilitated within the pores of the catalytic membrane. The catalytic degradation of 4-hydroxylbenzoic acid (HBA), which is induced by the sulfate radicals via PMS activation, was investigated in a cross-flow membrane unit. The degradation efficiency slightly increased with a higher MnO2 loading. Moreover, even with the lowest loading of MnO2 (1.67%), the effectiveness of HBA degradation was still prominent, shown by that a 98.9% HBA degradation was achieved at the permeated side within 30 min when the initial HBA concentration was 80 ppm. The stability and leaching tests revealed a good stability of the catalytic membrane even after the 6th run. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and quenching tests were used to investigate the mechanism of PMS activation and HBA degradation. Both sulfate radicals (SO4•-) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) were generated in the catalytic membrane process. Moreover, the contribution from non-radical process was also observed. This study provides a novel strategy for preparing a ceramic membrane with the function of catalytic degradation of organic pollutants, as well as outlining into future integration of separation and AOPs.

19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(19): 8169-8182, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581133

RESUMO

Two-pore-domain (KCNK, K2P) K+ channels are transmembrane protein complexes that control the flow of ions across biofilms, which underlie many essential cellular functions. Because KCNK family members are known to contribute to tumorigenesis in various types of cancer, we hypothesized that they might be differentially expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells as compared to healthy tissue and serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. We tested this hypothesis through bioinformatic analyses of publicly available data for the expression of various KCNK subunits in HCC. We observed reduced expression of KCNK2, KCNK15, and KCNK17 in liver cancer, as well as overexpression of KCNK9, all of which correlated with a better prognosis for HCC patients per survival analyses. Moreover, ROC curves indicated that KCNK2, KCNK9, KCNK15, and KCNK17 levels could be used as a diagnostic biomarker for HCC. Finally, our western blot and qRT-PCR results were consistent with those obtained from bioinformatic analyses. Taken together, these results suggest that KCNK2, KCNK9, KCNK15, and KCNK17 could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of HCC.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13920, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558763

RESUMO

In this paper, we design a simple coevolution model to investigate the role of heterogeneous learning ability on the evolution of cooperation. The model weakens the winner's learning ability in order to keep its current advantage. Conversely, it strengthens the loser's learning ability for increasing the chance to update its strategy. In particular, we consider this coevolutionary model separately applying to both cooperators and defectors (rule I), only cooperators (rule II), as well as only defectors (rule III) in spatial prisoner's dilemma game. Through numerical simulations, we find that cooperation can be promoted in rule II, whereas, cooperation is hampered in rule I and rule III. We reveal its potential reason from the viewpoint of enduring and expanding periods in game dynamics. Our results thus provide a deeper understanding regarding the heterogeneous learning ability on game theory.

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