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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592427

RESUMO

The current CAR-T cell therapy products have been hampered in their druggability due to the personalized preparation required, unclear pharmacokinetic characteristics, and unpredictable adverse reactions. Enabling standardized manufacturing and having clear efficacy and pharmacokinetic characteristics are prerequisites for ensuring the effective practicality of CAR-T cell therapy drugs. This review provides a broad overview of the different approaches for controlling behaviors of CAR-T cells in vivo. The utilization of genetically modified vectors enables in vivo production of CAR-T cells, thereby abbreviating or skipping the lengthy in vitro expansion process. By equipping CAR-T cells with intricately designed control elements, using molecule switches or small-molecule inhibitors, the control of CAR-T cell activity can be achieved. Moreover, the on-off control of CAR-T cell activity would yield potential gains in phenotypic remodeling. These methods provide beneficial references for the future development of safe, controllable, convenient, and suitable for standardized production of CAR-T cell therapy products.

2.
Am J Cancer Res ; 14(3): 1306-1315, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590407

RESUMO

For advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the best second-line treatment after first-line treatment with sorafenib is unclear. This study aimed to compared the efficacy of second-line regorafenib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with advanced HCC after sorafenib therapy. This retrospective study included 89 patients with HCC treated with sorafenib, and then regorafenib (n = 58) or an ICI (n = 31). Treatment response, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of the 2 groups were compared, and factors associated with post-treatment mortality or disease progression were evaluated. During follow-up period, compared to regorafenib, treatment with an ICI results in a slight increase in a 20% decrease of AFP (35.7% vs. 31.8%), complete response rate (6.5% vs. 0%), objective response rate (16.1% vs. 6.9%), median overall survival (13.3 vs. 5 months), and median PFS (3.0 vs. 2.6 months). Combined locoregional treatment (LRT) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.99) during second-line treatment was associated with a decreased risk of post-treatment mortality. After propensity scoring matching, combined LRT during second-line treatment had longer post-treatment OS than patients without combined LRT. A 20% decrease of AFP (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.94) was associated with a decreased risk of post-treatment disease progression. In conclusions, second-line treatment with regorafenib or ICI prolongs OS in patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib. Combined LRT during second-line treatment is associated with decreased post-treatment mortality. A 20% decrease of AFP level may be predictive of a lower rate of disease progression.

3.
Elife ; 132024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568729

RESUMO

Primates rely on two eyes to perceive depth, while maintaining stable vision when either one eye or both eyes are open. Although psychophysical and modeling studies have investigated how monocular signals are combined to form binocular vision, the underlying neuronal mechanisms, particularly in V1 where most neurons exhibit binocularity with varying eye preferences, remain poorly understood. Here, we used two-photon calcium imaging to compare the monocular and binocular responses of thousands of simultaneously recorded V1 superficial-layer neurons in three awake macaques. During monocular stimulation, neurons preferring the stimulated eye exhibited significantly stronger responses compared to those preferring both eyes. However, during binocular stimulation, the responses of neurons preferring either eye were suppressed on the average, while those preferring both eyes were enhanced, resulting in similar neuronal responses irrespective of their eye preferences, and an overall response level similar to that with monocular viewing. A neuronally realistic model of binocular combination, which incorporates ocular dominance-dependent divisive interocular inhibition and binocular summation, is proposed to account for these findings.


Assuntos
Dominância Ocular , Olho , Animais , Visão Binocular , Macaca , Neurônios
4.
Environ Res ; 252(Pt 1): 118859, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574986

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic hydrodechlorination (EHDC) is a promising approach to safely remove halogenated emerging contaminants (HECs) pollutants. However, sluggish production dynamics of adsorbed atomic H (H*ads) limit the applicability of this green process. In this study, bimetallic Pd-Cu@MXene catalysts were synthesized to achieve highly efficient removal of HECs. The alloy electrode (Pd-Cu@MX/CC) exhibited better EHDC performance in comparison to Pd@MX/CC electrode, resulting in diclofenac degradation efficiency of 93.3 ± 0.1%. The characterization analysis revealed that the Pd0/PdII ratio decreased by forming bimetallic Pd-Cu alloy. Density functional theory calculations further demonstrated the electronic configuration modulation of the Pd-Cu@MXene catalysts, optimizing binging energies for H* and thereby facilitating H*ads production and tuning the reduction capability of H*ads. Noteably, the amounts and reduction potential of H*ads for Pd-Cu@MXene catalysts were 1.5 times higher and 0.37 eV lower than those observed for the mono Pd electrode. Hence, the introduction of Cu into the Pd catalyst optimized the dynamics of H*ads production, thereby conferring significant advantages to EHDC reactions. This augmentation was underscored by the successful application of the alloy catalysts supported by MXene in EHDC experiments involving other HECs, which represented a new paradigm for EHDC for efficient recalcitrant pollutant removal by H*ads.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 132: 111943, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) is used as an immunotherapeutic drug in China. However, SEC2 are limited due to its immunosuppressive and toxic effects. A SEC2 2M-118 (H118A/T20L/G22E) mutant generated by site-directed mutagenesis was studied to elucidate the underlying antitumor mechanism. METHODS: The effects of 2M-118 on mouse fibrosarcoma (Meth-A) cells and cytokine responses were tested in vitro using a transwell assay and ELISA, respectively. 2M-118 effect on immune function in tumor-bearing mice was tested. Cytokine levels and antitumor responses were measured using ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. TUNEL staining and immunohistochemistry were employed to detect the tumor apoptosis and CD4+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in tumor tissue. RESULTS: 2M-118 demonstrated the growth inhibition on tumor cells, increase of cytokines production (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and splenocyte proliferation in vitro. 2M-118 effectively inhibited tumor development and increased lymphocytes and cytokines in a tumor-bearing mouse model. Additionally, 2M-118 regulated the tumormicroenvironment by reducing the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), increasing the number of TILs, and inducing tumorcell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: 2M-118 promotes immune function and enhances antitumor response. This indicates that 2M-118 could potentially be developed as a novel anti-tumor drug with-highefficiencyandlowtoxicity.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1870(5): 167159, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583815

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is regarded as a potent immunotherapy and has made significant success in hematologic malignancies by eliciting antigen-specific immune responses. However, response rates of CAR-T cell therapy against solid tumors with immunosuppressive microenvironments remain limited. Co-engineering strategies are advancing methods to overcome immunosuppressive barriers and enhance antitumor responses. Here, we engineered an IL-2 mutein co-engineered CAR-T for the improvement of CAR-T cells against solid tumors and the efficient inhibition of solid tumors. We equipped the CAR-T cells with co-expressing both tumor antigen-targeted CAR and a mutated human interleukin-2 (IL-2m), conferring enhanced CAR-T cells fitness in vitro, reshaped immune-excluded TME, enhanced CAR-T infiltration in solid tumors, and improved tumor control without significant systemic toxicity. Overall, this subject demonstrates the universal CAR-T cells armed strategy for the development and optimization of CAR-T cells against solid tumors.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 276: 116303, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599157

RESUMO

Certain insecticides are known to have estrogenic effects by activating estrogen receptors through genomic transcription. This has led researchers to associate specific insecticide use with an increased breast cancer risk. However, it is unclear if estrogen receptor-dependent pathways are the only way in which these compounds induce carcinogenic effects. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin on the growth of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Using tandem mass spectrometric techniques, the effect of permethrin on cellular protein expression was investigated, and gene ontology and pathway function enrichment analyses were performed on the deregulated proteins. Finally, molecular docking simulations of permethrin with the candidate target protein was performed and the functionality of the protein was confirmed through gene knockdown experiments. Our findings demonstrate that exposure to 10-40 µM permethrin for 48 h enhanced cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in MDA-MB-231. We observed deregulated expression in 83 upregulated proteins and 34 downregulated proteins due to permethrin exposure. These deregulated proteins are primarily linked to transmembrane signaling and chemical carcinogenesis. Molecular docking simulations revealed that the overexpressed transmembrane signaling protein, G protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39), has the potential to bind to permethrin. Knockdown of GPR39 partially impeded permethrin-induced cellular proliferation and altered the expression of proliferation marker protein PCNA and cell cycle-associated protein cyclin D1 via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings offer novel evidence for permethrin as an environmental breast cancer risk factor, displaying its potential to impact breast cancer cell proliferation via an estrogen receptor-independent pathway.

9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(2): 655-667, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471906

RESUMO

Based on the continuous data of O3, NO, NO2, and NOx and the meteorological data from March 2019 to February 2020 at six atmospheric composition observation stations in Shanxi Province, the characteristics and influence factors of O3 volume fractions were studied using statistical analysis and backward trajectory analysis. The results showed that O3 volume fractions were generally higher from April to September and lower from October to the following March. During the study period, O3 pollution represented by φ(MDA8O3), i.e., the maximum daily 8-h average of O3 volume fractions, was the most serious at the Jincheng and Linfen stations in the south of Shanxi, followed by that in the Wutaishan, Shuozhou, and Datong stations in the north, with the least pollution occurring at the Taiyuan station in the middle. There were differences between the urban and alpine stations, although their seasonal O3 volume fractions were both summer > spring > autumn > winter. O3 volume fractions at the urban station were usually lower than those at the alpine station; O3 at the urban station might have been influenced by photochemical reactions with precursor NOx; however, this was not the main source of high O3 at the alpine station. The peak and valley values appeared at 15:00 and 06:00, respectively, at the urban station, whereas they appeared at 20:00 and 10:00, respectively, at the alpine station, representing diametrically opposite diurnal variation patterns. Further, the daily amplitude of O3 at the urban station was much larger than that at the alpine station. For urban stations specifically, temperature was the most important meteorological factor affecting O3 volume fraction, compared with sunlight hours, precipitation, and total cloud cover. The NO2 volume fraction in the daytime affected the daily amplitude of O3; although the photochemical generation potential of O3 at the Taiyuan station was good, the O3 volume fractions were the lowest among urban stations due to strong NO titration. The higher O3 corresponded to lower NOx in which NO2 was dominant, and the higher NOx was largely composed of NO, under which conditions O3 would be depleted completely. The surface wind that affected O3 volume fractions of all stations primarily came from the southeast, south, and southwest, and specific wind speed led to the increase in O3 volume fraction. The geographical situation of the station would cause the difference in the transport of atmospheric pollutants, whereas the horizontal transmissions of high O3 from the North China Plain and Fenwei Plain were likely to be the common reason for the increase in O3 volume fraction in Shanxi.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: VS-505 (AP301), an acacia and ferric oxyhydroxide polymer, is a novel fiber-iron-based phosphate binder. This two-part phase 2 study evaluated the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of oral VS-505 administered three times daily with meals in treating hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). METHODS: In Part 1, patients received dose-escalated treatment with VS-505 2.25, 4.50, and 9.00 g/day for 2 weeks each, guided by serum phosphorus levels. In Part 2, patients received randomized, open-label, fixed-dosage treatment with VS-505 (1.50, 2.25, 4.50, or 6.75 g/day) or sevelamer carbonate 4.80 g/day for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in serum phosphorus. RESULTS: The study enrolled 158 patients (Part 1: 25; Part 2: 133), with 130 exposed to VS-505 in total. VS-505 was well tolerated. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders, mainly feces discolored (56%) and diarrhea (15%; generally during weeks 1‒2 of treatment). Most gastrointestinal disorders resolved without intervention, and none were serious. In Part 1, serum phosphorus significantly improved (mean change -2.0 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval -2.7, -1.4) after VS-505 dose escalation. In Part 2, serum phosphorus significantly and dose-dependently improved in all VS-505 arms, with clinically meaningful reductions with VS-505 4.50 and 6.75 g/day, and sevelamer carbonate 4.80 g/day (mean change -1.6 (-2.2, -1.0), -1.8 (-2.4, -1.2), and -1.4 (-2.2, -0.5) mg/dL, respectively). In both Parts, serum phosphorus reductions occurred within 1 week of VS-505 initiation, returning to baseline within 2 weeks of VS-505 discontinuation. CONCLUSION: VS-505, a novel phosphate binder, was well tolerated with a manageable safety profile, and effectively and dose-dependently reduced serum phosphorus in CKD patients with hyperphosphatemia receiving MHD. Clinical Trial registration number: NCT04551300.

12.
Nature ; 627(8002): 67-72, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448698

RESUMO

Ordinary metals contain electron liquids within well-defined 'Fermi' surfaces at which the electrons behave as if they were non-interacting. In the absence of transitions to entirely new phases such as insulators or superconductors, interactions between electrons induce scattering that is quadratic in the deviation of the binding energy from the Fermi level. A long-standing puzzle is that certain materials do not fit this 'Fermi liquid' description. A common feature is strong interactions between electrons relative to their kinetic energies. One route to this regime is special lattices to reduce the electron kinetic energies. Twisted bilayer graphene1-4 is an example, and trihexagonal tiling lattices (triangular 'kagome'), with all corner sites removed on a 2 × 2 superlattice, can also host narrow electron bands5 for which interaction effects would be enhanced. Here we describe spectroscopy revealing non-Fermi-liquid behaviour for the ferromagnetic kagome metal Fe3Sn2 (ref. 6). We discover three C3-symmetric electron pockets at the Brillouin zone centre, two of which are expected from density functional theory. The third and most sharply defined band emerges at low temperatures and binding energies by means of fractionalization of one of the other two, most likely on the account of enhanced electron-electron interactions owing to a flat band predicted to lie just above the Fermi level. Our discovery opens the topic of how such many-body physics involving flat bands7,8 could differ depending on whether they arise from lattice geometry or from strongly localized atomic orbitals9,10.

13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1281622, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38524630

RESUMO

Background: CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is associated with the progression and metastasis of numerous malignant tumors. However, its relationship with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms Grade 3 (GEP-NENs G3) is unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of CXCR4 in GEP-NENS and to explore the clinical and prognostic value of CXCR4. Methods: This study retrospectively collected clinical and pathological data from patients with GEP-NENs who receiving surgery in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from January 2013 to April 2021, and obtained the overall survival of the patients based on follow-up. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on pathological paraffin sections to observe CXCR4 staining. Groups were made according to pathological findings. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) curve was used to evaluate prognosis. SPSS 26.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: 100 GEP-NENs G3 patients were enrolled in this study. There was a significant difference in primary sites (P=0.002), Ki-67 index (P<0.001), and Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) elevation (P=0.008) between neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G3 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). CXCR4 was highly expressed only in tumors, low or no expressed in adjacent tissues (P<0.001). The expression level of CXCR4 in NEC was significantly higher than that in NET G3 (P=0.038). The K-M curves showed that there was no significant difference in overall survival between patients with high CXCR4 expression and patients with low CXCR4 expression, either in GEP-NEN G3 or NEC (P=0.920, P=0.842. respectively). Conclusion: Differential expression of CXCR4 was found between tumor and adjacent tissues and between NET G3 and NEC. Our results demonstrated that CXCR4 can be served as a new IHC diagnostic indicator in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of GEP-NENs G3. Further studies with multi-center, large sample size and longer follow-up are needed to confirm the correlation between CXCR4 expression level and prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino , Neoplasias Intestinais , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Receptores CXCR4 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia
14.
ACS Sens ; 9(3): 1280-1289, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456635

RESUMO

DNA motors have attracted extensive interest in biosensing and bioimaging. However, the amplification capacity of the existing DNA motor systems is limited since the products from the walking process are unable to feedback into the original DNA motor systems. As a result, the sensitivities of such systems are limited in the contexts of biosensing and bioimaging. In this study, we report a novel self-feedback DNAzyme motor for the sensitive imaging of tumor-related mRNA in live cells and in vivo with cascade signal amplification capacity. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are modified with hairpin-locked DNAzyme walker and track strands formed by hybridizing Cy5-labeled DNA trigger-incorporated substrate strands with assistant strands. Hybridization of the target mRNA with the hairpin strands activates DNAzyme and promotes the autonomous walking of DNAzyme on AuNPs through DNAzyme-catalyzed substrate cleavage, resulting in the release of many Cy5-labeled substrate segments containing DNA triggers and the generation of an amplified fluorescence signal. Moreover, each released DNA trigger can also bind with the hairpin strand to activate and operate the original motor system, which induces further signal amplification via a feedback mechanism. This motor exhibits a 102-fold improvement in detection sensitivity over conventional DNAzyme motors and high selectivity for target mRNA. It has been successfully applied to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells and diagnose tumors in vivo based on mRNA imaging. The proposed DNAzyme motor provides a promising paradigm for the amplified detection and sensitive imaging of low-abundance biomolecules in vivo.


Assuntos
Carbocianinas , DNA Catalítico , Nanopartículas Metálicas , DNA Catalítico/química , Ouro/química , Retroalimentação , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , DNA/química
15.
Oncologist ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (atezo-bev) has been recommended for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). High-dose external beam radiotherapy (RT) is recognized for its excellent local tumor control. The efficacy and safety of concurrent atezo-bev with RT for highly advanced HCC has been minimally explored. METHODS: In this preliminary retrospective study, we assessed patients with highly advanced HCC, characterized by Vp4 portal vein thrombosis or tumors exceeding 50% of liver volume, who received concurrent atezo-bev and RT (group A). Group A included 13 patients who received proton radiation at a dose of 72.6 GyE in 22 fractions, and one patient who received photon radiation at a dose of 54 Gy in 18 fractions. This group was compared with 34 similar patients treated atezo-bev alone as a control (group B). The primary objectives were to evaluate the objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, except for a higher incidence of Vp4 portal vein thrombosis in group A (78.6% vs. 21.4%, P = .05). Group A achieved a higher ORR (50.0% vs. 11.8%, P < .01) and a longer OS (not reached vs. 5.5 months, P = .01) after a median follow-up of 5.2 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that concurrent RT independently favored longer OS (hazard ratio: 0.18; 95% CI, 0.05-0.63, P < .01). Group A did not increase any grade adverse events (78.6% vs. 58.8%, P = .19) or severe adverse events of grade ≥ 3 (14.3% vs. 14.7%, P = .97) compared to group B. CONCLUSIONS: The concurrent high-dose external beam radiotherapy appears to safely enhance the effectiveness of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab for highly advanced patients with HCC. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171549, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467260

RESUMO

In the multifaceted realm of environmental governance, emphasizing public environmental participation as an informal regulatory mechanism, alongside the influence of formal governmental environmental regulation on regional carbon emissions, contributes to providing empirical evidence and policy insights for China's "dual­carbon target" action plan. Using data from 282 prefecture-level cities in China from 2011 to 2020, this research develops an analytical framework for urban carbon emissions encompassing public environmental concern, environmental regulation, green finance, and industrial agglomeration. And through an amalgamation of theoretical insights and empirical validation, the study elucidates the mechanisms by which public environmental concern impact urban carbon emissions. It further delves into the mediating role of environmental regulation and the moderating effects of green finance and industrial agglomeration. It reveals that: (1) Public environmental concern significantly reduces urban carbon emissions, particularly in northern cities, non-environmental protection key cities, and resource regeneration cities. And this suppressive influence is markedly more potent via mobile platforms compared to PC channels; (2) Environmental regulation serves as a partially mediating role between public environmental concern and urban carbon emissions, suggesting that public environmental concern reduces emissions by amplifying governmental environmental oversight; (3) Both green finance and industrial agglomeration play a positive moderating role on the effect of public environmental concern in reducing urban carbon emissions.

17.
Zool Res ; 45(2): 284-291, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485498

RESUMO

Hereditary hearing loss (HHL), a genetic disorder that impairs auditory function, significantly affects quality of life and incurs substantial economic losses for society. To investigate the underlying causes of HHL and evaluate therapeutic outcomes, appropriate animal models are necessary. Pigs have been extensively used as valuable large animal models in biomedical research. In this review, we highlight the advantages of pig models in terms of ear anatomy, inner ear morphology, and electrophysiological characteristics, as well as recent advancements in the development of distinct genetically modified porcine models of hearing loss. Additionally, we discuss the prospects, challenges, and recommendations regarding the use pig models in HHL research. Overall, this review provides insights and perspectives for future studies on HHL using porcine models.


Assuntos
Orelha Interna , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Perda Auditiva , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Suínos/genética , Qualidade de Vida , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/veterinária , Perda Auditiva/genética , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Perda Auditiva/veterinária , Modelos Animais
18.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 325, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486093

RESUMO

Regulating metabolic disorders has become a promising focus in treating intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). A few drugs regulating metabolism, such as atorvastatin, metformin, and melatonin, show positive effects in treating IDD. Glutamine participates in multiple metabolic processes, including glutaminolysis and glycolysis; however, its impact on IDD is unclear. The current study reveals that glutamine levels are decreased in severely degenerated human nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues and aging Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat nucleus pulposus tissues, while lactate accumulation and lactylation are increased. Supplementary glutamine suppresses glycolysis and reduces lactate production, which downregulates adenosine-5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) lactylation and upregulates AMPKα phosphorylation. Moreover, glutamine treatment reduces NP cell senescence and enhances autophagy and matrix synthesis via inhibition of glycolysis and AMPK lactylation, and glycolysis inhibition suppresses lactylation. Our results indicate that glutamine could prevent IDD by glycolysis inhibition-decreased AMPKα lactylation, which promotes autophagy and suppresses NP cell senescence.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Ratos , Animais , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Glutamina , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Autofagia , Lactatos/farmacologia , Lactatos/uso terapêutico
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504579

RESUMO

AIMS: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is closely related to low back pain (LBP), which is a prevalent age-related problem worldwide; however, the mechanism underlying IDD is unknown. Glutamine, a free amino acid prevalent in plasma, is recognized for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in various diseases, the current study aims to clarify the effect and mechanism of glutamine in IDD. RESULTS: A synergistic interplay was observed between pyroptosis and ferroptosis within degenerated human disc specimens. Glutamine exhibited significant efficacy in mitigating IDD in both ex-vivo and in-vivo experimental models. Moreover, glutamine protected nucleus pulposus (NP) cells after tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in vitro. Glutamine protected NP cells from TBHP-induced ferroptosis by promoting Nrf2 accumulation by inhibiting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation and inhibiting lipid oxidation. INNOVATION AND CONCLUSIONS: A direct correlation is evident in the progression of IDD between the processes of pyroptosis and ferroptosis. Glutamine suppressed oxidative stress-induced cellular processes, including pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and ECM degradation through deubiquitinating Nrf2 and inhibiting lipid oxidation in NP cells. Glutamine is a promising novel therapeutic target for the management of IDD.

20.
Headache ; 64(3): 285-298, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hemodialysis headache (HDH) is a common complication of dialysis that negatively affects the patient's quality of life. The etiology and triggering factors of HDH are not fully understood. This study aims to assess the prevalence and characteristics of HDH among patients undergoing hemodialysis across multiple centers in China. Furthermore, we conducted a case-control study at one hospital to identify risk factors associated with HDH. METHODS: The study consisted of two phases including a cross-sectional observational study and a case-control study. Participants underwent neurological examinations and interviews. Demographic and medical information were collected from both medical records and patient files. Serum creatinine, uric acid, urea, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma osmolarity, glucose, C1q, and a variety of electrolytes including potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus were measured before and after dialysis. Blood pressure variables including systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and heart rate were monitored hourly. Serum levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were quantified using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The prevalence of HDH was 37.7% (183/485). HDH was characterized by a bilateral tightening headache of moderate intensity and duration of <2 h, occurring in different locations. The case-control study included 50 patients with HDH and 84 control patients, pre-dialysis PP was found to be lower in the HDH group than in the control group (mean ± standard deviation 51.5 ± 18.2 vs. 67.9 ± 14.9, p = 0.027). Furthermore, the pre-dialysis serum complement C1q level was significantly higher for the HDH group than the control group (median and interquartile range 201.5 [179.0-231.5] vs. 189.0 [168.9-209.0], p = 0.021). Pre-dialysis PP was associated with 5.1% decreased odds of HDH (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.99, p = 0.026), body weight was associated with a 5.4% decreased risk of HDH (OR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99, p = 0.013), and pre-dialysis C1q levels increased the odds of HDH by 1.9% (OR = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Low PP, low body weight, and high blood complement C1q may be potential risk factors associated with HDH.


Assuntos
Complemento C1q , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Cefaleia/etiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Peso Corporal
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