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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a major cause of premature death among physicians, but the prevalence of suicide-related behaviors (including suicidal ideation, SI and suicide attempt, SA) is inconsistent across studies. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of suicide-related behaviors among physicians and its associated factors. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched from commencement date to August 14, 2018. Eligible studies on the prevalence of suicide-related behaviors among physicians were included. RESULTS: Thirty-five eligible studies with 70,368 physicians were included. The lifetime prevalence of SI was 17.4% (95% CI: 13.8%-21.8%), while the 1-year prevalence was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.1%-10.3%), 6-month prevalence was 11.9% (95% CI: 2.7%-39.2%), and 1-month prevalence was 8.6% (95% CI: 5.6%-13.0%). The lifetime prevalence of SA was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.9%-3.7%), while the 1-year prevalence was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.1%-0.8%). Subgroup analyses revealed that geographic region was significantly associated with lifetime and 1-year prevalence of SI, while sample size was significantly associated with 1-month prevalence of SI. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found a relatively high prevalence of suicide-related behaviors, particularly lifetime SI, among physicians. Appropriate preventive and treatment measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of suicide-related behaviors in this population.

2.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the development and progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the epigenetic mechanisms underlying NPC metastasis remains poorly understood. We aimed to find functional genes which regulate the metastasis of NPC and identify therapeutic targets for NPC treatment. METHODS: Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to analyze zinc finger protein 582 (ZNF582) methylation in NPC tissues and cell lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of ZNF582. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate the biological function of ZNF582 in NPC. ZNF582-targeting genes were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and were confirmed by ChIP-qPCR and luciferase assay. RESULTS: ZNF582 promoter was hypermethylated in NPC, and both the mRNA and protein levels of ZNF582 were down-regulated in NPC tissues and cell lines. The restoration of ZNF582 inhibited NPC migration, invasion, and metastasis, while the knockdown of ZNF582 promoted NPC migration, invasion, and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. ZNF582 directly regulated the transcription and expression of adhesion molecules Nectin-3 and NRXN3. Both Nectin-3 and NRXN3 were identified as functional targets of ZNF582, and the restoration or abrogation of these genes reversed the tumor suppressor effect of ZNF582 in NPC metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: ZNF582 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in NPC by regulating the transcription and expression of adhesion molecules Nectin-3 and NRXN3, which may provide novel therapeutic targets for NPC treatment.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e2004553, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048428

RESUMO

Halogen redox couples offer several advantages for energy storage such as low cost, high solubility in water, and high redox potential. However, the operational complexity of storing halogens at the oxidation state via liquid-phase media hampers their widespread application in energy-storage devices. Herein, an aqueous zinc-dual-halogen battery system taking the advantages of redox flow batteries (inherent scalability) and intercalation chemistry (high capacity) is designed and fabricated. To enhance specific energy, the designed cell exploits both bromine and chlorine as the cathode redox couples that are present as halozinc complexes in a newly developed molten hydrate electrolyte, which is distinctive to the conventional zinc-bromine batteries. Benefiting from the reversible uptake of halogens at the graphite cathode, exclusive reliance on earth-abundant elements, and membrane-free and possible flow-through configuration, the proposed battery can potentially realize high-performance massive electric energy storage at a reasonable cost.

4.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063514

RESUMO

A novel and efficient visible-light-induced decarboxylative cyclization/hydrogenation cascade reaction of α-oxocarboxylic acids and 2-isocyanobiaryls has been developed. Without the need of any external photosensitizer, oxidant, and reductant, this method offers a mild and green approach for the synthesis of diverse alcohols in moderate to good yields. A mechanism indicated that an electron donor-acceptor complex-driven decarboxylation, radical addition/cyclization, and in situ photochemical reduction of ketones to alcohols could be involved in the reaction.

5.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resurgence of Bordetella pertussis infections leading to whooping cough is a concern in many parts of the world. The number of pertussis cases in China has increased significantly since 2013. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study, whole genome sequencing analysis was performed for 388 B. pertussis strains isolated in China from 1970s to 2018, combining 594 published strains from around the world. RESULTS: This study revealed that lineage V diverged about 50 years ago in China, while lineage IV is dominant in the other countries. It also revealed that the erythromycin-resistant sub-lineages Va, Vb and Vc with limited genomic variation emerged 11~12 years ago. These three sub-lineages were identified after the co-purified acellular vaccines (cp-ACVs) completely replaced the previous whole cell vaccines (WCVs) after the national immunization program of 2012. It suggests that the cp-ACVs cannot induce immunity that is potent enough to restrict the spread of the lineage V, antibiotic abuse further favors the spread of this lineage in China. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demand a reassessment of the immunization strategy and development of new vaccines in China to stop the resurgence and drug resistance of B. pertussis.

6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1088-1091, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018175

RESUMO

A unified framework for the analysis of fluorescence data taken by a two-photon imaging system is presented. As in the processing of blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals of functional magnetic resonance imaging, the acquired functional images have to be co-registered with a structural brain atlas before delineating the regions activated by a given stimulus. The voxels whose calcium traces are highly correlated with the predicted responses are demarcated without the need for subjective reasoning. Experimental data acquired while presenting olfactory stimuli are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed schemes. The results indicate that the functional images of a Drosophila individual can be normalized into a standard stereotactic space, and the expected brain regions can be delineated adequately. This framework provides an opportunity to enable the development of a Drosophila functional connectome database.

7.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057161

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by low expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR), which is the most aggressive subtype with poor outcome among breast cancers. The underlying mechanisms of TNBC remain unclear and there is a lack of biomarkers. In this study we conducted an in silico assay and found that FOXC1 was highly expressed in ER-/PR-/HER2- breast cancers, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. FOXC1 was more highly expressed in TNBCs than the other breast cancers. Kaplan-Meier plotter revealed that expression of FOXC1 was associated with overall survival (OS) of patients with breast cancers. Expression of FOXC1 was reversely associated with level of H3K27me3, which was methylated by EZH2. In MCF-7 and T47D cells, inhibition of EZH2 by DZNeP or GSK343 concentration- and time-dependently increased expression of FOXC1. Finally, we demonstrated that the expression of FOXC1 was associated with resistance of doxorubicin treatment of breast cancer cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that FOXC1 may be a potential biomarker or drug target for TNBCs, and that downregulation of FOXC1 could have therapeutic value in treatment of TNBCs.

8.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105182, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049543

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that ocean acidification (OA) may affect animal behaviors such as feeding. Although gustation plays a crucial role in evaluating the quality and palatability of food and ultimately influences whether or not teleosts consume the food, the potential impact of OA on gustation-mediated feeding behavior remains unknown. In this study, gustation mediated-feeding behavior, as indicated by the consumption rate (CR) and swallowing rate (SR) of agar pellets with or without feed upon OA exposure was investigated in black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii). Results showed that the exposure to acidified seawater led to significant reductions in the CR and SR of feed-containing agar pellets. In addition, the in vivo contents of three neurotransmitters and expression of genes from the gustatory signal transduction pathway were all significantly suppressed by the OA treatment. In general, the data obtained indicated that OA may hinder the gustation-mediated feeding behavior of A. schlegelii by disrupting gustatory signal transduction, which may aggravate the issue of food shortage for wild populations of black sea bream.

9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 246: 119044, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068898

RESUMO

Terahertz (THz) waves have unique advantages in detecting biological substances. However, due to the strong absorption of THz waves by water, the development of THz detection technology in this field is seriously restricted. At present, although there are a few methods to detect hydrated materials, they cannot be widely used because of their defects. In this paper, a convenient and promising method for the detection of THz spectra of hydrated substances is proposed. A horn shaped tapered parallel plate waveguide is designed, which can enhance the electrical field of the incident THz wave at its central position, so as to obtain the THz spectral information of hydrated substances in a THz time-domain spectroscopy system. The detection of α-lactose dilute solution was demonstrated, the spectral range is from 0.1 to 1.5 THz and the sensitivity can reach the order of femtomole. This method has potential application prospect in the in situ detection of trace hydrated substances, cells and biomolecules.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115716, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011575

RESUMO

The annual production of sludges is significant all over the world, and large amounts of sludges have been improperly disposed by random dumping. The contaminants in these sludges may leak into the surrounding soils, surface and groundwater, or be blown into the atmosphere, thereby causing adverse effects to human health. In this study, the (anti-)androgenic activities in organic extracts of sludges produced from both industrial and domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were examined using reporter gene assay based on MDA-kb2 cell lines and the potential (anti-)androgenic risks were assessed using hazard index (HI) based on bioassays. Twelve of the 18 samples exhibited androgen receptor (AR) antagonistic activities, with AR antagonistic equivalents ranging from 1.2 × 102 µg flutamide/g sludge to 1.8 × 104 µg flutamide/g sludge; however, no AR agonistic activity was detected in any of the tested samples. These 12 sludges were all from chemical WWTPs; no sludges from domestic WWTPs displayed AR antagonistic activity. Aside from wastewater source, treatment scale and technology could also influence AR antagonistic potencies. The HI values of all the 12 sludges exceeded 1.0, and the highest HI value was above 3.0 × 103 for children; this indicates that these sludges might cause adverse effects to human health and that children are at a greater risk than adults. The anti-androgenic potencies and risks of the subdivided fractions were also determined, and medium-polar and polar fractions were found to have relatively high detection rates and contribution rates to the AR antagonistic potencies and risks of the raw sample extracts.

11.
J Insect Sci ; 20(5)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078842

RESUMO

Use of novel plant hosts can facilitate the establishment and range expansion of herbivorous invasive species. However, the inherent mechanisms of novel host use are still unclear in many herbivorous species. Here, we examine mechanisms of novel host use in the invasive tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker)(Diptera: Tephritidae) by documenting changes in the RNA transcriptomes associated with a novel host. RNA transcripts of B. tau were obtained with high-throughput sequencing from samples continuously reared on two traditional Cucurbitaceae hosts and a novel host (banana). We found transcriptome variation was strongly associated with feeding on banana. Moreover, B. tau feeding on banana contained more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and more annotated categories of DEGs in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database with 1,595 DEGs and 21 major annotated pathways. The annotated categories of DEGs in individuals reared on banana differed with from those individuals feeding on other hosts and were enriched in oxidative phosphorylation, citrate cycle pathway, and four other carbohydrate pathways. For B. tau feeding on banana, the predominant numbers of upregulated genes in the mitochondrial NADH (56 on average) and a relatively higher numbers of upregulated genes (13 on average) were found in oxidative phosphorylation and the TCA pathway, respectively. Changes in RNA transcriptomes associated with novel host use, especially for genes related to energy and carbohydrate metabolism, help to explain how B. tau can be successful in use of novel hosts and may be useful in developing novel strategies for control of tephritid flies.

12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914397

RESUMO

Immunochromatographic assay (ICA) has been used widely for the onsite monitoring of illegal additives due to its simplicity, speed, and low cost. However, a scanner is commonly required for ICA to achieve quantitative results. In this work, we developed a visual semi-quantitative ICA for sibutramine, a banned additive in diet foods, without the need for a scanner for measurement. Monoclonal antibodies specific for sibutramine were raised and conjugated with upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as the luminescent tracer. ICA was developed by employing multiple test lines to achieve the semi-quantitative detection of sibutramine. Based on the optimal conditions, the cutoff levels (limit of quantitation, LOQ) of T1 line, T2 line, T3 line, and T4 line were 0.02 µg/mL, 0.15 µg/mL, 1.0 µg/mL, and 7.5 µg/mL, respectively, in buffer system. The ICA demonstrated a LOQ at 0.2 mg/kg for sibutramine in diet food samples. The assay (including pretreatment) can be finished within 30 min without the aid of other instruments, except a laser pen. No false positive or false negative results were observed. The results indicated that the proposed method was reliable, simple, and rapid for the screening of sibutramine abuse in diet food samples.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914963

RESUMO

Diglycolamide-based ligands have recently received increased attention due to their outstanding affinity for trivalent actinides and lanthanides. The structure optimization of the ligands, however, still remains a hot topic to achieve better extraction performance. In this work, we prepare and investigate three multidentate diglycolamide ligands for the selective separation of Eu(III) over Am(III) from a nitric acid solution to explore the effect on the extraction of alkyl groups on the nitrogen atoms in the center of the BisDGA ligands. The introduction of ethyl or isopropyl groups on the central nitrogen atoms greatly increased the distribution ratios of trivalent metal ions and enhanced the separation factor of Eu(III) over Am(III). The complexation behaviors of Eu(III) and Am(III) ions were studied by slope analyses, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the trivalent metal ions were extracted as 1:2 and 1:3 complexes for all three BisDGA ligands during the extraction. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations verified the relevant experimental conclusion that the selectivity of THEE-BisDGA for Eu(III) is better than that for Am(III). The metal-DGA bonds in the ML3(NO3)3 complexes seem to be stronger than those in ML2(NO3)3 complexes.

14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(30): 4501-4522, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No guideline recommends antiviral therapy for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels and a high hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA viral load. AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a Chinese herbal formula as a therapeutic option for chronic HBV infection. METHODS: In total, 395 patients (30-65 years old) with confirmed HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B infection and persistently normal alanine aminotransferase were randomized to receive either Chinese herbal formula or placebo for 96 wk. Endpoints to evaluate therapeutic efficacy included: (1) HBV DNA levels decreased to less than 4 log10 IU/mL at weeks 48 and 96; and (2) HBeAg clearance and seroconversion rates at weeks 48 and 96. RESULTS: HBV DNA levels ≤ 4 log10 IU/mL were 10.05% at week 48 and 18.59% at week 96 in the treatment group. The HBeAg clearance and conversion rates were 8.54% and 8.04% at week 48 and 16.08% and 14.57% at week 96, respectively. However, HBV DNA levels ≤ 4 log10 IU/mL were 2.55% and 2.55% at weeks 48 and 96, respectively, and the HBeAg clearance rates were 3.06% and 5.61% at weeks 48 and 96, respectively, in the control group. The quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen and HBeAg levels at baseline and changes during the treatment period as well as the alanine aminotransferase elevation at weeks 12 and 24 were strong predictors of HBeAg clearance. CONCLUSION: High rates of HBV DNA reduction, HBeAg clearance and seroconversion could be achieved with Chinese herbal formula treatments, and the treatments were relatively safe for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B-infected patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase. The ability of the compound to modulate host immune function probably contributed to this effect.

15.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H ; : 954411920950904, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873144

RESUMO

The robot-assisted insertion surgery plays a crucial role in biopsy and therapy. This study focuses on determining the optimum puncture pattern for robot-assisted insertion, aiming at the matching problem of needle insertion parameters, thereby to reduce the pain for patients and to improve the reachability to the lesion point. First, a 6-degrees of freedom (DOFs) Computed Tomography (CT)-guided surgical robotic system for minimally invasive percutaneous lung is developed and used to perform puncture experiments. The effects of four main insertion factors on the robotic puncture are verified by designing the orthogonal test, where the inserting object is the artificial skin-like specimen with high transparent property and a digital image processing method is used to analyze the needle tip deflection. Next, the various phases of puncture process are divided and analyzed in detail in view of the tissue deformation and puncture force. Then, short discussion on the comparison of puncture force with different effect factors for the same beveled needle is presented. The same pattern can be observed for all of the cases. Finally, based on the experimental data, the formulations of the puncture force and needle deflection which depends on Gauge size, insertion velocity, insertion angle, and insertion depth are developed using the multiple regression method, which can be used to get an optimum puncture pattern under the constrains of minimum peak force and minimum needle tip deflection. The developed models have the effectiveness and applicability on determining the optimum puncture pattern for one puncture event, and which can also provide insights useful for the setting of insertion parameters in clinical practice.

16.
Chemistry ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901978

RESUMO

Uranyl cation, as a powerful photocatalyst, at present, is seriously delayed compared to the development of its fundamental and structural chemistry. However, the characteristic of highly oxidative capability in the excited state {[UO 2 ] 2+* (+ 2.6 V vs. SHE) combined with blue light (hv 380-500 nm) absorption and a long-lived fluorescence lifetime up to microseconds have revealed that uranyl cation approaches an ideal photocatalyst for visible-light-drvien organic transformations. Described herein is a successful utilization of uranyl nitrate photocatalyst which enables C(sp 3 )-H activation and C-C bond formation through hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) under blue light irradiation. In particular, this operationally simple scenario provides an appropriate approach to synthesize diverse and valuable diarylmethane motifs. Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations provide insights into detailed mechanism of the photoinduced HAT pathway. The current research is suggestive of a general platform that could popularize promising uranyl photocatalytic performance.

17.
Cytotechnology ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902720

RESUMO

MiR-548 has been reported to be involved in a variety of tumor processes, but its function in breast cancer remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-548 was low expressed in breast cancer tissues and cells compared with normal control. We then examined whether up-regulation of miR-548 could improve the progression of breast cancer. Our results indicate that up-regulation of miR-548 significantly inhibits cell proliferation, migration andinvasion, and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Further studies showed that miR-548 could specifically inhibit E2F3 expression. Moreover, rescue test showed that up-regulation of E2F2 could reverse the effect of miR-548 on proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of breast cancer cells. In general, miR-548 could improve the progression of breast cancer. By targeting E2F2, which may make a potential target for the treatment of breast cancer.

18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885602

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is the specific subtype of HDACs which preferentially located in the cytoplasm, and is crucial in insulin signalling. However, the role of HDAC6 in type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains undefined. In current study, we observed that HDAC6 was markedly activated in the kidneys of type 2 diabetic patients and db/db mice with albuminuria, along with the advanced glycation end products (AGE)-treated podocytes. Selective inhibition of HDAC6 activity protected kidneys from hyperglycaemia in db/db mice. Notably, overexpressing HDAC6 inhibited autophagy and promoted motility aside from the apoptosis of podocytes exposed to AGE. We further determined that HDAC6 regulated the autophagy partially by decreasing the acetylation of α-tubulin at the residue of lysine 40. In contrast, we confirmed that there was no interaction of HDAC6 with α-tubulin at the sites of lysine 112 and lysine 352. Consistently, inhibiting HDAC6 by siRNA or the selective inhibitor, tubacin, restored the autophagy level and motility of podocytes and rescued podocytes from AGE stimulation. We provide strong evidence of an unexpected role of HDAC6 in the cascade that modulates podocytes autophagy and motility, enlightening that HDAC6 may be a promising therapeutic target for DN treatment.

19.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; : 107289, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949727

RESUMO

Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare neonatal lung disease with fatal outcome. Typically, respiratory symptoms present in the first 24 hours of life and patients die within the neonatal period. Atypical, delayed clinical presentations and/or longer survival have also been reported. Here, we studied the clinicopathologic relationship of ACD/MPV by examining 16 cases of ACD/MPV, focusing on atypical features. Based on the presence of diffuse vs. focal/patchy ACD/MPV histopathologic changes, we divided the cases into classic and non-classic pathology groups. MPV was found in all ACD/MPV. Ten of sixteen cases exhibited classic diffuse abnormalities, while six of sixteen had a non-classic focal/patchy distribution. However, among seven patients with atypical clinical features, only two had non-classic pathology, while four out of nine clinically typical cases had non-classic ACD/MPV pathology. Marked intrapulmonary aberrant arteriovenous vessels were present in all atypical cases. In conclusion, clinical presentation is not always correlated with histopathology in ACD/MPV. Atypical ACD/MPV should be suspected in any infants with fulminant pulmonary hypertension. Abnormal pulmonary veins and aberrant intraseptal vessels are the most important clues for diagnosis. Additional studies are needed for further elucidation of diagnostic histological criteria of atypical ACD/MPV and to explore its pathogenesis.

20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5734932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964037

RESUMO

The cryptogenic epilepsy of the neocortex is a disease in which the seizure is accompanied by intense cerebral nerve electrical activities but the lesions are not observed. It is difficult to locate disease foci. Electrocorticography (ECoG) is one of the gold standards in seizure focus localization. This method detects electrical signals, and its limitations are inadequate resolution which is only 10 mm and lack of depth information. In order to solve these problems, our new method with implantable micro ultrasound transducer (MUT) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) device detects blood changes to achieve higher resolution and provide depth information. The basis of this method is the neurovascular coupling mechanism, which shows that intense neural activity leads to sufficient cerebral blood volume (CBV). The neurovascular coupling mechanism established the relationship between epileptic electrical signals and CBV. The existence of mechanism enables us to apply our new methods on the basis of ECoG. Phantom experiments and in vivo experiments were designed to verify the proposed method. The first phantom experiments designed a phantom with two channels at different depths, and the MUT was used to detect the depth where the blood concentration changed. The results showed that the MUT detected the blood concentration change at the depth of 12 mm, which is the position of the second channel. In the second phantom experiments where a PPG device and MUT were used to monitor the change of blood concentration in a thick tube, the results showed that the trend of superficial blood concentration change provided by the PPG device is the same as that provided by the MUT within the depth of 2.5 mm. Finally, in the verification of in vivo experiments, the blood concentration changes on the surface recorded by the PPG device and the changes at a certain depth recorded by the MUT all matched the seizure status shown by ECoG. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the combined micro sensors.

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