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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1686, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papilon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS; OMIM 245000) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by aggressive periodontitis and palmoplantar keratoderma. The prevalence of PLS in the general population is one to four cases per million. Although the etiology and pathogenic mechanisms underlying PLS remain largely unclear, existing evidence shows loss-of-function mutations of the cathepsin C gene (CTSC; OMIM 602365) could cause PLS. Here we found a novel variant of the CTSC gene in a Chinese PLS family and predicted the effect of the variant on the physic-chemical characters and tertiary structure of the protein. METHODS: The 1-7 coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of CTSC gene of the proband and her family were amplified and sequenced directly, and Chromas was used to read sequencing files. Furthermore, the PolyPhen-2, PROVEAN, and Mutation Taster were utilized to predict the pathogenicity of the variant. Besides, the physic-chemical and structural characters of the protein were analyzed by ProtParam, ProtScale, and SWISS-MODEL. RESULTS: Our study identified a novel homozygous variant c.763T>C (p.Cys255Arg) in exon 6 of the CTSC gene, and it was a likely pathogenic variant as predicted by PolyPhen-2, PROVEAN, and Mutation Taster. Moreover, ProtParam and Protscale revealed the variant increased the isoelectric point and hydrophilicity of the protein, and the SWISS-MODEL analysis suggested the variant was located in a critical domain for protein activity. CONCLUSION: Our study analyzed a Chinese family with PLS and identified a novel missense variant in the CTSC gene. Besides, this study retrospectively summarized 113 variants of CTSC in the world and highlighted the features of 27 CTSC variants in Chinese PLS patients. In addition, this study paid much particular attention to the relationship between CTSC variants and different phenotypes.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2008171, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963781

RESUMO

Single-crystalline silicon (sc-Si) is the dominant semiconductor material for the modern electronics industry. Despite their excellent photoelectric and electronic properties, the rigidity, brittleness, and nontransparency of commonly used silicon wafers limit their application in transparent flexible optoelectronics. In this study, a new type of Si microstructure, named single-crystalline Si frameworks (sc-SiFs), is developed, through a combination of wet-etching and microfabrication technologies. The sc-SiFs are self-supported, flexible, lightweight, tailorable, and highly transparent. They can withstand a small bending radius of less than 0.5 mm and have a transparency of up to 96% in all wavelength ranges, owing to the hollowed-out framework structures. Thus, the sc-SiFs provide a new platform for high-performance transparent flexible optoelectronics. Taking transparent flexible photodetectors (TFPDs) as an example, substrate-free and self-driven TFPDs are achieved based on the sc-SiFs. The devices exhibit superior performance compared to other reported TFPDs and reveal the great potential for integrated optoelectronic applications. The development of sc-SiFs paves the way toward the fabrication of high-performance transparent flexible devices for a host of applications, including e-skins, the Internet of Things, transparent flexible displays, and artificial visual cortexes.

3.
EMBO Rep ; : e52175, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938130

RESUMO

Upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, protein kinase G (PknG), a eukaryotic-type serine-threonine protein kinase (STPK), is secreted into host macrophages to promote intracellular survival of the pathogen. However, the mechanisms underlying this PknG-host interaction remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PknG serves both as a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) and a ubiquitin ligase (E3) to trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and TGF-ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), thereby inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling and host innate responses. PknG promotes the attachment of ubiquitin (Ub) to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) UbcH7 via an isopeptide bond (UbcH7 K82-Ub), rather than the usual C86-Ub thiol-ester bond. PknG induces the discharge of Ub from UbcH7 by acting as an isopeptidase, before attaching Ub to its substrates. These results demonstrate that PknG acts as an unusual ubiquitinating enzyme to remove key components of the innate immunity system, thus providing a potential target for tuberculosis treatment.

4.
Front Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860875

RESUMO

The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 333, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and imaging features of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections that progressed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been explored in numerous studies. However, little is known about these features in patients who received negative respiratory nucleic acid test results after the infections resolved. In this study, we aim to describe these features in a group of Chinese patients. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 51 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 (median age: 34.0 years and 47.1% male) between January 31 and February 28, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and computed tomography (CT) imaging data were collected before and after two consecutive negative respiratory SARS-CoV-2 tests. RESULTS: Following a negative test result, the patients' clinical symptoms continued to recover, but abnormal imaging findings were observed in all moderate cases. Specifically, 77.4% of patients with moderate COVID-19 exhibited multi-lobar lung involvement and lesions were more frequently observed in the lower lobes. The most common CT imaging manifestations were ground-glass opacities (51.6%) and fibrous stripes (54.8%%). Twelve of the 31 patients with moderate COVID-19 underwent repeated chest CT scans after a negative SARS-CoV-2 test. Among them, the ground-glass opacities decreased by > 60% within 1 week in seven patients (58.3%), but by < 5% in four patients (13.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Following a positive and subsequent negative SARS-CoV-2 tests, patients with COVID-19 continued to recover despite exhibiting persistent clinical symptoms and abnormal imaging findings.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721211008785, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845645

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between diabetic iridopathy (DI) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) and distinguish iris neovascular and physiological leakage using iris fluorescein angiography (IFA). METHODS: A total of 210 subjects were prospectively recruited in this study. Sixty normal subjects were divided equally into three groups (<40 years old, 40-59 years old, and 60-79 years old). One hundred fifty patients with diabetic mellitus (DM) were divided equally into five groups (no retinopathy, mild non proliferative DR (mildnPDR), moderate nPDR, severe nPDR, and PDR group). Normal subjects underwent IFA. Patients with DR underwent both IFA and ultrawide field fundus fluorescein angiography (uwFFA) at the same time. The leakage time and area were recorded and compared with each group. RESULTS: Fluorescein leakage occurred at the pupillary edge of patients that were 40-59 and 60-79 years old but not in those <40 years old. In the PDR group, the leakage time was earlier and the leakage area was larger than nPDR and patients with no retinopathy (p = 0.039 and p = 0.005, respectively). However, the leakage time and area were not significantly different between patients with no retinopathy and nPDR (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: IFA examination can only assist in estimating the fundus severity of PDR patients, whereas the fundus changes of patients with no retinopathy and nPDR were not related to DI changes.Trial registration No.: ChiCTR1800018003.The date of registration: Aug 26th, 2018.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2039, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795681

RESUMO

Photocatalytic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation represents a promising approach for artificial photosynthesis. However, the sluggish half-reaction of water oxidation significantly limits the efficiency of H2O2 generation. Here, a benzylamine oxidation with more favorable thermodynamics is employed as the half-reaction to couple with H2O2 generation in water by using defective zirconium trisulfide (ZrS3) nanobelts as a photocatalyst. The ZrS3 nanobelts with disulfide (S22-) and sulfide anion (S2-) vacancies exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance for H2O2 generation and simultaneous oxidation of benzylamine to benzonitrile with a high selectivity of >99%. More importantly, the S22- and S2- vacancies can be separately introduced into ZrS3 nanobelts in a controlled manner. The S22- vacancies are further revealed to facilitate the separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The S2- vacancies can significantly improve the electron conduction, hole extraction, and kinetics of benzylamine oxidation. As a result, the use of defective ZrS3 nanobelts yields a high production rate of 78.1 ± 1.5 and 32.0 ± 1.2 µmol h-1 for H2O2 and benzonitrile, respectively, under a simulated sunlight irradiation.

8.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 146: 109766, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812563

RESUMO

Phosphotriesterase (PTE) is considered to be a good biodegradation agent for organophosphorus pesticides. However, the instability of the free PTE limits its application. In this study, the free PTE was hybridized with copper ions (Cu2+) to enhance its catalytic stability and activity. The acquired particles were freeze-dried after precipitation with PO43- at 4 °C for 72 h. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the Cu-PTE complexes formed flower-like nanoparticles after hybridization. The characteristic peaks of both the enzyme and metal material were revealed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that PTE was encapsulated in the Cu3(PO4)2·3H2O based hybrid nanoflowers. Compared with free PTE, the catalytic activity of Cu-PTE hybrid nanoflowers was significantly increased about 2.2 fold. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Vmax) of Cu-PTE hybrid nanoflowers was 1.76 fold than that of free PTE. The stability of the immobilized PTE under thermal and pH conditions was improved and the tolerance of it to organic solvents was also enhanced. Moreover, the Cu-PTE hybrid nanoflowers still exhibited 72.3 % relative activity after ten consecutive reactions. In general, this is the first time to use copper based hybrid nanoflowers to immobilize PTE, and the immobilized enzyme shows excellent performance on OPs degradation. The Cu-PTE hybrid nanoflowers may have great potential in the biodegradation of organophosphorus compounds in future.

9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850277

RESUMO

Endothelial cells play an obligatory role in regulating local vascular tone and maintaining homeostasis in vascular biology. Cell metabolism, converting food to energy in organisms, is the primary self-sustaining mechanism for cell proliferation and reproduction, structure maintenance, and fight-or-flight responses to stimuli. Four major metabolic processes take place in the energy-producing process, including glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, glutamine metabolism, and fatty acid oxidation. Among them, glycolysis is the primary energy-producing mechanism in endothelial cells. The present review focused on glycolysis in endothelial cells under both physiological and pathological conditions. Since the switches among metabolic processes precede the functional changes and disease developments, some prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategies concerning the role of glycolysis in cardiovascular disease are discussed.

10.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890609

RESUMO

An I2-DMSO mediated oxidative amidation of methyl ketones using anthranils as masked N-nucleophiles has been developed for the direct synthesis of α-ketoamides with high atom-economy. This metal-free process involves reductive N-O bond cleavage of anthranils and oxidative C-N bond formation of methyl ketones under mild conditions. The iodo group and electrophilic formyl group provide multiple possibilities for further functionalization of α-ketoamides.

11.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880749

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is known as one of the most hazardous elements in the environment and a persistent soil constraint toxic to all flora and fauna. In this study, we conducted physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic analyses of Nicotiana rustica (N. rustica) and Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) treated with CdCl2 to know the underlying molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation. As a result, N. rustica had more dry weight than N. tabacum. Additionally, N. rustica accumulated higher Cd concentration (69.65 times), Cd2+ influx (1.32-fold), glutathione S-transferases (GST) enzyme activity (2.54 times), GSH/GSSG (oxidized form of GSH) ratio, increase of superoxide dismutase and CAT and a lower H2 O2 and superoxide (O2 •- ) accumulation in their roots than N. tabacum. Cd mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of both species and N. rustica had a significant proportion in the cell wall. Furthermore, the transcriptomic analysis revealed 173 and 710 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between control and Cd-stressed plants in the leaves and roots of N. rustica, while 576 and 1543 DEGs were found in the leaves and roots of N. tabacum, respectively. In N. rustica, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were the most enriched pathways, while GSH metabolism, ATP-binding cassette transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were the most enriched in N. tabacum. Finally, we found that DEGs related to metal influx, sequestration, remobilization, and chelation were responsible for Cd accumulation. These results indicated that N. rustica accumulated higher Cd content than N. tabacum, suggesting that each species utilized different response mechanism under the same Cd stress conditions. The DEGs identified in this study might lead to the identification of genes or pathways related to Cd regulation. This study identifies important regulators related to Cd accumulation.

12.
Plant Reprod ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903950

RESUMO

The pollen coat, which forms on the pollen surface, consists of a lipid-protein matrix. It protects pollen from desiccation and is involved in adhesion, pollen-stigma recognition, and pollen hydration during interactions with the stigma. The classical methods used for pollen coat observation are scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In this work, we screened a collection of fluorescence dyes and identified two fluorescent brighteners FB-52 and FB-184. When they were used together with the exine-specific dye, Basic fuchsin, the pollen coat and the exine structures could be clearly visualized in the pollen of Brassica napus. This co-staining method was applied successfully in staining pollen from Fraxinus chinensis, Calystegia hederacea, and Petunia hybrida. Using this method, small pollen coat-containing cavities were detected in the outer pollen wall layer of Oryza sativa and Zea mays. We further showed these dyes are compatible with fluorescent protein markers. In the Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic line of GFP-tagged pollen coat protein GRP19, GRP19-GFP was observed to form particles at the periphery of pollen coat. This simple staining method is expected to be widely used for the studies of the palynology as well as the pollen-stigma interaction.

13.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800722

RESUMO

The main objectives of this study were to perform a systematic review of genomic regions associated with various behavioral traits in the main farmed mammals and identify key candidate genes and potential causal mutations by contrasting the frequency of polymorphisms in cattle breeds with divergent behavioral traits (based on a subjective clustering approach). A total of 687 (cattle), 1391 (pigs), and 148 (sheep) genomic regions associated with 37 (cattle), 55 (pigs), and 22 (sheep) behavioral traits were identified in the literature. In total, 383, 317, and 15 genes overlap with genomic regions identified for cattle, pigs, and sheep, respectively. Six common genes (e.g., NR3C2, PITPNM3, RERG, SPNS3, U6, and ZFAT) were found for cattle and pigs. A combined gene-set of 634 human genes was produced through identified homologous genes. A total of 313 out of 634 genes have previously been associated with behavioral, mental, and neurologic disorders (e.g., anxiety and schizophrenia) in humans. Additionally, a total of 491 candidate genes had at least one statistically significant polymorphism (p-value < 0.05). Out of those, 110 genes were defined as having polymorphic regions differing in greater than 50% of exon regions. Therefore, conserved genomic regions controlling behavior were found across farmed mammal species and humans.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808696

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic agents promote tumor metastasis while inhibiting tumor growth, which is a critical issue for certain patients in clinical practices. However, the role of chemotherapeutics in promoting tumor metastasis and the molecular mechanism involved are unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of cisplatin in promoting tumor metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We demonstrated that cisplatin promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell motility, and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The bioinformatic analysis and molecular biology approaches also indicated that DCBLD2 (Discoidin, CUB and LCCL domain containing 2) is a key gene that mediates cisplatin-induced metastasis. DCBLD2 stabilizes ß-catenin by phosphorylating GSK3ß and transporting accumulated ß-catenin to the nucleus to promote the expression of EMT-related transcriptional factors (TFs), ultimately resulting in tumor metastasis. We also identified that cisplatin enhanced DCBLD2 expression by phosphorylating ERK and hence the AP-1-driven transcription of DCBLD2. Furthermore, DCBLD2-specific siRNAs encapsulated by nanocarriers prominently inhibit cisplatin-induced metastasis in vivo. Therefore, DCBLD2 plays a key role in cisplatin-induced metastasis in LUAD and is a potential target for preventing chemotherapy-induced metastasis in vivo.

15.
Brain ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876820

RESUMO

The unc-13 homolog B (UNC13B) gene encodes a presynaptic protein, mammalian uncoordinated 13-2 (Munc13-2), that is highly expressed in the brain-predominantly in the cerebral cortex-and plays an essential role in synaptic vesicle priming and fusion, potentially affecting neuronal excitability. However, the functional significance of UNC13B mutation in human disease is not known. In this study we screened for novel genetic variants in a cohort of 446 unrelated cases (families) with partial epilepsy without acquired causes by trio-based whole-exome sequencing. UNC13B variants were identified in 12 individuals affected by partial epilepsy and/or febrile seizures from eight unrelated families. The eight probands all had focal seizures and focal discharges in EEG recordings, including two patients who experienced frequent daily seizures and one who showed abnormalities in the hippocampus by brain MRI; however, all of the patients showed favorable outcome without intellectual or developmental abnormalities. The identified UNC13B variants included one nonsense variant, two variants at or around a splice site, one compound heterozygous missense variant, and four missense variants that cosegregated in the families. The frequency of UNC13B variants identified in the present study was significantly higher than that in a control cohort of Han Chinese and controls of the East Asian and all populations in the Genome Aggregation Database. Computational modeling, including hydrogen bond and docking analyses, suggested that the variants lead to functional impairment. In Drosophila, seizure rate and duration were increased by Unc13b knockdown compared to wild-type flies, but these effects were less pronounced than in sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 1 (Scn1a) knockdown Drosophila. Electrophysiologic recordings showed that excitatory neurons in Unc13b-deficient flies exhibited increased excitability. These results suggest that UNC13B is potentially associated with epilepsy. The frequent daily seizures and hippocampal abnormalities but ultimately favorable outcome under antiepileptic therapy in our patients indicate that partial epilepsy caused by UNC13B variant is a clinically manageable condition.

16.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 188: 114544, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831396

RESUMO

Although YM155 is reported to suppress survivin (also known as BIRC5) expression in cancer cells, its cytotoxic mechanism in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells has not been clearly resolved. In this study, we analyzed the mechanistic pathways that modulate the sensitivity of human AML U937 and HL-60 cells to YM155. YM155 induced apoptosis in AML cells, which was characterized by p38 MAPK phosphorylation and downregulation of survivin and MCL1 expression. Phosphorylated p38 MAPK causes autophagy-mediated Sp1 degradation, thereby inhibiting the transcription of survivin and MCL1. The reduction of survivin and MCL1 levels further facilitated Sp1 protein degradation through autophagy. The restoration of Sp1, survivin, or MCL1 expression protected U937 and HL-60 cells from YM155-mediated cytotoxicity. U937 and HL-60 cells were continuously exposed to hydroquinone (HQ) to generate U937/HQ and HL-60/HQ cells, which showed increased SLC35F2 expression. The increase in SLC35F2 expression led to an increase in the sensitivity of U937/HQ cells to YM155-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas no such effect was observed in HL-60/HQ cells. Of note, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in HL-60 and HL-60/HQ cells enhanced YM155 cytotoxicity in these cells, and the enforced expression of MPO also increased the sensitivity of U937 cells to YM155. Taken together, we conclude that p38 MAPK-modulated autophagy inhibits Sp1-mediated survivin and MCL1 expression, which, in turn, leads to the death of U937 and HL-60 cells following YM155 treatment. In addition, our data indicate that SLC35F2 increases the sensitivity of U937 cells to YM155-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas MPO enhances YM155 cytotoxicity in U937 and HL-60 cells.

17.
Cell Signal ; 84: 110025, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915247

RESUMO

Recent studies have emphasized microRNAs (miRs) as crucial regulators in the occurrence and development of pancreatic cancer that continues to be one of the deadliest malignancies with few effective therapies. The study aimed to investigate the functional role of miR-873 and its associated mechanism to unravel the biological characteristics of pancreatic cancer stem cells in tumor growth. The expression patterns of pleckstrin-2 (PLEK2) and miR-873 were detected in the pancreatic cancer tissues. Then to further investigate specific role of miR-873, the pancreatic cancer stem cells were treated with miR-873 mimic, PLEK2, small interfering RNA against PLEK2, LY294002 (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B [PI3K/AKT] pathway) to detect the relative gene expression as well as their effects on cell self-renewal, proliferation and apoptosis. Finally, the tumor formation in nude mice was measured to verify the preceding results in vivo. Pancreatic cancer tissues exhibited a decline of miR-873 expression and an enhancement of PLEK2 expression. miR-873 targeted PLEK2 and downregulated its expression, leading to inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. Overexpressed miR-873 or silenced PLEK2 inhibited the self-renewal and proliferation while promoting the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Tumor formation was inhibited by overexpressed miR-873 or silenced PLEK2 in nude mice. Overall, miR-873 can suppress the self-renewal and proliferation of pancreatic cancer stem cells by blocking PLEK2-dependent PI3K/AKT pathway. Hence, this study contributes to understanding the role of miR-873 in pancreatic cancer stem cells and its underlying molecular mechanisms to aid in the development of effective pancreatic cancer therapeutics.

18.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Isolated true subclavian artery aneurysm (SAA) without aberrant subclavian artery or coarctation of descending aorta is a rare peripheral aneurysm. Herein, the experience of our medical center in the treatment of this disease is presented. METHODS: The Division operative log was queried to identify cases of SAA repair between January 2012 and September 2019 that were not associated with coarctation of the aorta or the presence of an aberrant subclavian artery. A total of 22 cases were identified. The characteristics, treatment and clinical outcomes of these cases were assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 53.5 ± 14.3 years and 14 patients were male (63.6%). Half of the cases were attributed to atherosclerotic degeneration. The clinical symptoms of aneurysms were varied, including asymptomatic, pulsatile mass of supraclavicular fossa, local pain, upper limb embolism, Horner's syndrome and hoarseness. Aneurysms were located on the right in 17 cases, on the left in 3 cases and on both sides in 2 cases. Fifteen (68%) patients underwent an intervention, of which 11 (50%) underwent an open surgical repair, and 4 (18%) underwent endovascular repair. The mean diameter of the aneurysms was 39.5 ± 20.7 mm in the open surgery group, and 24.0 ± 4.7 mm in the endovascular group. The follow-up duration ranged from 2 months to 12 years. One patient died of cardiogenic disease in the untreated group. Patients undergoing open operative repair had 100% patency of the reconstruction. In the endovascular group, one patient had stent occlusion 2 years after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: The most common cause of isolated subclavian aneurysm without aberrant subclavian artery or coarctation of descending aorta is atherosclerosis. The clinical symptoms of aneurysms are varied, and the aneurysms tend to occur on the right side. Based on the anatomical conditions of SAAs, open surgery and endovascular repair can be used for treatment.

19.
Theranostics ; 11(10): 5028-5044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754042

RESUMO

Background: Patients with preeclampsia display a spectrum of onset time and severity of clinical presentation, yet the underlying molecular bases for the early-onset and late-onset clinical subtypes are not known. Although several transcriptome studies have been done on placentae from PE patients, only a small number of differentially expressed genes have been identified due to very small sample sizes and no distinguishing of clinical subtypes. Methods: We carried out RNA-seq on 65 high-quality placenta samples, including 33 from 30 patients and 32 from 30 control subjects, to search for dysregulated genes and the molecular network and pathways they are involved in. Results: We identified two functionally distinct sets of dysregulated genes in the two major subtypes: 2,977 differentially expressed genes in early-onset severe preeclampsia, which are enriched with metabolism-related pathways, notably transporter functions; and 375 differentially expressed genes in late-onset severe preeclampsia, which are enriched with immune-related pathways. We also identified some key transcription factors, which may drive the widespread gene dysregulation in both early-onset and late-onset patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that early-onset and late-onset severe preeclampsia have different molecular mechanisms, whereas the late-onset mild preeclampsia may have no placenta-specific causal factors. A few regulators may be the key drivers of the dysregulated molecular pathways.

20.
Nano Lett ; 21(7): 2773-2779, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729811

RESUMO

Free-standing silicon nanoprobes (SiNPs) are critical tools for intracellular bioelectrical signal recording, while a scalable fabrication of these tiny SiNPs with ab initio geometry designs has not been possible. In this work, we demonstrate a novel growth shaping of slim Si nanowires (SiNWs) into SiNPs with sharp tips (curvature radii <300 nm), tunable angles of 30°, 60°, to 120° and even programmable triangle/circular shapes. A precise growth integration of orderly single, double, and quadruple SiNPs at prescribed locations enables convenient electrode connection, transferring and mounting these tiny tips onto movable arms to serve as long-protruding (over 4-20 µm) nanoprobes. Mechanical flexibility, resilience, and field-effect sensing functionality of the SiNPs were systematically testified in liquid nanodroplet and cell environments. This highly reliable and economic manufacturing of advanced SiNPs holds a strong potential to boost and open up the market implementations of a wide range of intracellular sensing, monitoring, and editing applications.

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