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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 20(7): 2476-2490, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725863

RESUMO

Peristaltic movements in gut are essential to propel ingested materials through the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal resident macrophages play an important role in this physiological function through protecting enteric neurons. However, it is incompletely clear how individuals maintain the homeostasis of gut motility. Here we found that NLRP3 is a critical factor in controlling loss of muscularis resident macrophages (MMs), and demonstrate that MMs are involved in the homeostasis of excitatory neurons such as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2)+ but not inhibitory neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)+ neurons. NLRP3 knockout (KO) mice had enhanced gut motility and increased neurons, especially excitatory ChAT+ and VGLUT2+ neurons. Single cell analyses showed that there had increased resident macrophages, especially MMs in NLRP3 KO mice. The MM proportion in the resident macrophages was markedly higher than those in wild-type (WT) or caspase 1/11 KO mice. Deletion of the MMs and transplantation of the NLRP3 KO bone marrow cells showed that survival of the gut excitatory ChAT+ and VGLUT2+ neurons was dependent on the MMs. Gut microbiota metabolites ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) could promote gut motility through protecting MMs from pyroptosis. Thus, our data suggest that MMs regulated by NLRP3 maintain the homeostasis of excitatory neurons.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Macrófagos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Neurônios , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Camundongos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Masculino , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/genética , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
2.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e29911, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707428

RESUMO

Introduction: Unilateral pulmonary edema (UPE), a life-threatening complication of cardiac surgery, often occurs after prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass and lung collapse, especially in minimally-invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). The present study reported a young patient with severe UPE after the surgery as well as corresponding clinical treatments. In addition to the supportive treatment of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), monitoring changes in cardiopulmonary function and early clinical interventions are crucial. Conclusion: By weighing the beneficial and detrimental effects of the treatment, it calls for early diagnosis and new therapeutic strategies for the complication.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 562, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the reporting quality of existing economic evaluations for negotiated glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) included in China National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL) using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards 2013 (CHEERS 2013). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature research through 7 databases to identify published economic evaluations for GLDs included in the China NRDL up to March 2021. Reporting quality of identified studies was assessed by two independent reviewers based on the CHEERS checklist. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to examine the association between reporting quality and characteristics of the identified studies. RESULTS: We have identified 24 studies, which evaluated six GLDs types. The average score rate of the included studies was 77.41% (SD:13.23%, Range 47.62%-91.67%). Among all the required reporting items, characterizing heterogeneity (score rate = 4.17%) was the least satisfied item. Among six parts of CHEERS, results part scored least at 0.55 (score rate = 54.79%) because of the incompleteness of characterizing uncertainty. Results from the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test showed that model choice, journal type, type of economic evaluations, and study perspective were associated with the reporting quality of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: There remains room to improve the reporting quality of economic evaluations for GLDs in NRDL. Checklists such as CHEERS should be widely used to improve the reporting quality of economic researches in China.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes , China , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Mecanismo de Reembolso/normas , Negociação
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 2356149, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747061

RESUMO

Lassa virus (LASV), a risk-group 4 pathogen, must be handled in biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) conditions, thereby limiting its research and antiviral development. Here, we developed a novel LASV reverse genetics system which, to our knowledge, is the first to study the complete LASV life cycle under BSL-2 conditions. Viral particles can be produced efficiently when LASV minigenomic RNA harboring minimal viral cis-elements and reporter genes is transfected into a helper cell line stably expressing viral NP, GP, Z and L proteins. The resulting defective virions, named LASVmg, can propagate only in the helper cell line, providing a BSL-2 model to study the complete LASV life cycle. Using this model, we found that a previously reported cellular receptor α-dystroglycan is dispensable for LASVmg infection. Furthermore, we showed that ribavirin can inhibit LASVmg infection by inducing viral mutations. This new BSL-2 system should facilitate studying the LASV life cycle and screening antivirals.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2403038, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724029

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are developed rapidly in efficiency and stability in recent years, which can compete with silicon solar cells. However, an important obstacle to the commercialization of PSCs is the toxicity of lead ions (Pb2+) from water-soluble perovskites. The entry of free Pb2+ into organisms can cause severe harm to humans, such as blood lead poisoning, organ failure, etc. Therefore, this work reports a "lead isolation-capture" dual detoxification strategy with calcium disodium edetate (EDTA Na-Ca), which can inhibit lead leakage from PSCs under extreme conditions. More importantly, leaked lead exists in a nontoxic aggregation state chelated by EDTA. For the first time, in vivo experiments are conducted in mice to systematically prove that this material has a significant inhibitory effect on the toxicity of perovskites. In addition, this strategy can further enhance device performance, enabling the optimized devices to achieve an impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.19%. This innovative strategy is a major breakthrough in the research on the prevention of lead toxicity in PSCs.

7.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714892

RESUMO

Messenger RNA vaccines lack specificity for dendritic cells (DCs)-the most effective cells at antigen presentation. Here we report the design and performance of a DC-targeting virus-like particle pseudotyped with an engineered Sindbis-virus glycoprotein that recognizes a surface protein on DCs, and packaging mRNA encoding for the Spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or for the glycoproteins B and D of herpes simplex virus 1. Injection of the DC-targeting SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in the footpad of mice led to substantially higher and durable antigen-specific immunoglobulin-G titres and cellular immune responses than untargeted virus-like particles and lipid-nanoparticle formulations. The vaccines also protected the mice from infection with SARS-CoV-2 or with herpes simplex virus 1. Virus-like particles with preferential uptake by DCs may facilitate the development of potent prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701142

RESUMO

Background: Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a key component for the success of the recently approved lecanemab and aducanumab. Patients with neuroinflammation-related conditions are associated with a higher risk for developing AD. Objective: Investigate the incidence of AD among patients with neuroinflammation-related conditions including epilepsy, hemorrhage stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: We used Optum's de-identified Clinformatics Data Mart Database (CDM). We derived covariate-matched cohorts including patients with neuroinflammation-related conditions and controls without the corresponding condition. The matched cohorts were: 1) patients with epilepsy and controls (N = 67,825 matched pairs); 2) patients with hemorrhage stroke and controls (N = 81,510 matched pairs); 3) patients with MS and controls (N = 9,853 matched pairs); and 4) patients TBI and controls (N = 104,637 matched pairs). We used the Cox model to investigate the associations between neuroinflammation-related conditions and AD. Results: We identified that epilepsy, hemorrhage stroke, and TBI were associated with increased risks of AD in both males and females (hazard ratios [HRs]≥1.74, p <  0.001), as well as in gender- and race-conscious subpopulations (HRs≥1.64, p <  0.001). We identified that MS was associated with increased risks of AD in both males and females (HRs≥1.47, p≤0.004), while gender- and race-conscious subgroup analysis shown mixed associations. Conclusions: Patients with epilepsy, hemorrhage stroke, MS, and/or TBI are associated with a higher risk of developing AD. More attention on cognitive status should be given to older patients with these conditions.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202407733, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735859

RESUMO

The variability of CO2 hydrogenation reaction demands new potential strategies to regulate the fine structure of the catalysts for optimizing the reaction pathways. Herein, we report a dual-site strategy to boost the catalytic efficiency of CO2-to-methanol (MA) conversion. A new descriptor, τ, was initially established for screening the promising candidates with low-temperature activation capability of CO2, and sequentially a high-performance catalyst was fabricated centred with oxophilic Mo single atoms, who was further decorated with Pt nanoparticles. In CO2 hydrogenation, the obtained dual-site catalysts possess a remarkably-improved MA generation rate (0.27 mmol gcat.-1 h-1). For comparison, the singe-site Mo and Pt-based catalysts can only produce ethanol (EA) and formate acid (FA) at a relatively low reaction rate (0.11 mmol gcat.-1 h-1 for EA and 0.034 mmol gcat.-1 h-1 for FA), respectively. Mechanism studies indicate that the introduction of Pt species could create an active hydrogen-rich environment, leading to the alterations of the adsorption configuration and conversion pathways of the *OCH2 intermediates on Mo sites. As a result, the catalytic selectivity was successfully switched.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202316755, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739420

RESUMO

The hydrazine oxidation-assisted H2 evolution method promises low-input and input-free hydrogen production. However, developing high-performance catalysts for hydrazine oxidation (HzOR) and hydrogen evolution (HER) is challenging. Here, we introduce a bifunctional electrocatalyst α-MoC/N-C/RuNSA, merging ruthenium (Ru) nanoclusters (NCs) and single atoms (SA) into cubic α-MoC nanoparticles-decorated N-doped carbon (α-MoC/N-C) nanowires, through electrodeposition. The composite showcases exceptional activity for both HzOR and HER, requiring -80 mV and -9 mV respectively to reach 10 mA cm-2. Theoretical and experimental insights confirm the importance of two Ru species for bifunctionality: NCs enhance the conductivity, and its coexistence with SA balances the H adsorption for HER and facilitates the initial dehydrogenation during the HzOR. In the overall hydrazine splitting (OHzS) system, α-MoC/N-C/RuNSA excels as both anode and cathode materials, achieving 10 mA cm-2 at just 64 mV. The zinc hydrazine (Zn-Hz) battery assembled with α-MoC/N-C/RuNSA cathode and Zn foil anode can exhibit 96% energy efficiency, as well as temporary separation of hydrogen gas during the discharge process. Therefore, integrating Zn-Hz with OHzS system enables self-powered H2 evolution, even in hydrazine sewage. Overall, the amalgamation of NCs with SA achieves diverse catalytic activities for yielding multifold hydrogen gas through advanced cell-integrated-electrolyzer system.

11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 219: 141-152, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636714

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating disease that lacks effective treatment options and is characterized by severe pulmonary vascular remodeling. Pulmonary arterial endothelial cell (PAEC) dysfunction drives the initiation and pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels, a family of Ca2+-permeable channels, play an important role in various diseases. However, the effect and mechanism of TRPCs on PH development have not been fully elucidated. Among the TRPC family members, TRPC4 expression was markedly upregulated in PAECs from hypoxia combined with SU5416 (HySu)-induced PH mice and monocrotaline (MCT)-treated PH rats, as well as in hypoxia-exposed PAECs, suggesting that TRPC4 in PAECs may participate in the occurrence and development of PH. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether TRPC4 in PAECs has an aggravating effect on PH and elucidate the molecular mechanisms. We observed that hypoxia treatment promoted PAEC apoptosis through a caspase-12/endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-dependent pathway. Knockdown of TRPC4 attenuated hypoxia-induced apoptosis and caspase-3/caspase-12 activity in PAECs. Accordingly, adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 6-mediated pulmonary endothelial TRPC4 silencing (AAV6-Tie-shRNA-TRPC4) or TRPC4 antagonist suppressed PH progression as evidenced by reduced right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), pulmonary vascular remodeling, PAEC apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mechanistically, unbiased RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) suggested that TRPC4 deficiency suppressed the expression of the proapoptotic protein sushi domain containing 2 (Susd2) in hypoxia-exposed mouse PAECs. Moreover, TRPC4 activated hypoxia-induced PAEC apoptosis by promoting Susd2 expression. Therefore, inhibiting TRPC4 ameliorated PAEC apoptosis and hypoxic PH in animals by repressing Susd2 signaling, which may serve as a therapeutic target for the management of PH.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Células Endoteliais , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Hipóxia , Canais de Cátion TRPC , Animais , Canais de Cátion TRPC/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPC/genética , Camundongos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Ratos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Masculino , Monocrotalina/toxicidade , Remodelação Vascular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células Cultivadas , Indóis , Pirróis
12.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586009

RESUMO

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the sole mediator of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Despite great advances in understanding its conserved core architecture, the peripheral regions can exhibit considerable variation within and between species. One such structure is the cage-like nuclear basket. Despite its crucial roles in mRNA surveillance and chromatin organization, an architectural understanding has remained elusive. Using in-cell cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram analysis, we explored the NPC's structural variations and the nuclear basket across fungi (yeast; S. cerevisiae), mammals (mouse; M. musculus), and protozoa (T. gondii). Using integrative structural modeling, we computed a model of the basket in yeast and mammals that revealed how a hub of Nups in the nuclear ring binds to basket-forming Mlp/Tpr proteins: the coiled-coil domains of Mlp/Tpr form the struts of the basket, while their unstructured termini constitute the basket distal densities, which potentially serve as a docking site for mRNA preprocessing before nucleocytoplasmic transport.

13.
World J Diabetes ; 15(4): 654-663, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38680696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is likely to occur after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in some patients, thus reducing the expected benefit. Understanding the risk factors for NVG occurrence and building effective risk prediction models are currently required for clinical research. AIM: To develop a visual risk profile model to explore factors influencing DR after surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively selected 151 patients with DR undergoing PPV. The patients were divided into the NVG (NVG occurrence) and No-NVG (No NVG occurrence) groups according to the occurrence of NVG within 6 months after surgery. Independent risk factors for postoperative NVG were screened by logistic regression. A nomogram prediction model was established using R software, and the model's prediction accuracy was verified internally and externally, involving the receiver operator characteristic curve and correction curve. RESULTS: After importing the data into a logistic regression model, we concluded that a posterior capsular defect, preoperative vascular endothelial growth factor ≥ 302.90 pg/mL, glycosylated hemoglobin ≥ 9.05%, aqueous fluid interleukin 6 (IL-6) ≥ 53.27 pg/mL, and aqueous fluid IL-10 ≥ 9.11 pg/mL were independent risk factors for postoperative NVG in patients with DR (P < 0.05). A nomogram model was established based on the aforementioned independent risk factors, and a computer simulation repeated sampling method was used to internally and externally verify the nomogram model. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the model were 0.962 [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.932-0.991], 91.5%, and 82.3%, respectively. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of the external validation were 0.878 (95%CI: 0.746-0.982), 66.7%, and 95.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A nomogram constructed based on the risk factors for postoperative NVG in patients with DR has a high prediction accuracy. This study can help formulate relevant preventive and treatment measures.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(40): 5294-5297, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38659410

RESUMO

We developed a triazatruxene-based hole transport material (HTM), 3Ka-DBT-3Ka, aiming to enhance band alignment and augment charge generation and collection in devices, as an alternative for 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The PbS CQD solar cells employing 3Ka-DBT-3Ka as the HTM achieve a peak efficiency of 11.4%, surpassing devices employing the conventional PbS-EDT HTM (8.9%).

15.
Int J Legal Med ; 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The offender-victim spatial relationship is crucial in reconstructing a crime scene. The study aims to evaluate the spatial relationship of performing slashing attacks on a dummy using a Chinese kitchen knife, and thus to establish a scientific basis for crime scene reconstruction. METHODS: Twenty-four participants (12 males and 12 females) slashed a dummy's neck or chest using a kitchen knife, and the kinematic data were obtained using a three-dimensional motion capture system. The spatial relationships among offender, knife, and victim during slashing attacks were analyzed. RESULTS: Slashing distance and occupancy area are significantly influenced by gender (all P < 0.05), with males having higher values than females. Body parts significantly influence bevel angle, offender and victim azimuth angles, slashing distance, relative slashing distance, and occupancy area (all P < 0.01), with slashing the chest resulting in larger values than slashing the neck. CONCLUSION: Gender and body position significantly influence the spatial relationships of slashing action. Our data indicate that males stand farther away and occupy a larger area during slashing attacks. When the chest is slashed, the wound orientation is more diagonal, the offender's standing position and slashing distance are farther, and the occupancy area is larger compared to the neck. The findings could help identify the spatial relationships among offender, knife, and victim, providing a scientific basis for criminal investigations and court trials.

16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2308186, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664976

RESUMO

Natural products, while valuable for drug discovery, encounter limitations like uncertainty in targets and toxicity. As an important active ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, celastrol exhibits a wide range of biological activities, yet its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, they introduced an innovative "Degradation-based protein profiling (DBPP)" strategy, which combined PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeras (PROTAC) technology with quantitative proteomics and Immunoprecipitation-Mass Spectrometry (IP-MS) techniques, to identify multiple targets of natural products using a toolbox of degraders. Taking celastrol as an example, they successfully identified its known targets, including inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta (IKKß), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PI3Kα), and cellular inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), as well as potential new targets such as checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), O-GlcNAcase (OGA), and DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6-like (ERCC6L). Furthermore, the first glycosidase degrader is developed in this work. Finally, by employing a mixed PROTAC toolbox in quantitative proteomics, they also achieved multi-target identification of celastrol, significantly reducing costs while improving efficiency. Taken together, they believe that the DBPP strategy can complement existing target identification strategies, thereby facilitating the rapid advancement of the pharmaceutical field.

17.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1376544, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38638440

RESUMO

Background: Sarcopenia, common in the elderly, often linked to chronic diseases, correlates with inflammation.The association between SII and mortality in sarcopenia patients is underexplored, this study investigates this relationship in a U.S. adult cohort. Methods: We analyzed 1999-2018 NHANES data, focusing on 2,974 adults with sarcopenia. Mortality outcomes were determined by linking to National Death Index (NDI) records up to December 31, 2019. Using a weighted sampling design, participants were grouped into three groups by the Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index (SII). We used Cox regression models, adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, to explore SII's association with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in sarcopenia, performing sensitivity analyses for robustness. Results: Over a median follow-up of 9.2 years, 829 deaths occurred. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant survival differences across SII groups. The highest SII group showed higher hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality in both crude and adjusted models. The highest SII group had a higher HR for all-cause(1.57, 1.25-1.98), cardiovascular(1.61, 1.00-2.58), cancer(2.13, 1.32-3.44), and respiratory disease mortality(3.21, 1.66-6.19) in fully adjusted models. Subgroup analyses revealed SII's association with all-cause mortality across various demographics, including age, gender, and presence of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Sensitivity analyses, excluding participants with cardiovascular diseases, those who died within two years of follow-up, or those under 45 years of age, largely reflected these results, with the highest SII group consistently demonstrating higher HRs for all types of mortality in both unadjusted and adjusted models. Conclusion: Our study is the first to demonstrate a significant relationship between SII and increased mortality risks in a sarcopenia population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sarcopenia , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inflamação
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When experimentally determined dislodgeable foliar residue (DFR) values are not available, regulatory agencies use conservative default DFR values as a first-tier approach to assess post-application dermal exposures to plant protection products (PPPs). These default values are based on a limited set of field studies, are very conservative, and potentially overestimate exposures from DFRs. OBJECTIVE: Use Random Forest to develop classification and regression-type ensemble models to predict DFR values after last application (DFR0) by considering experimentally-based variability due to differences in physical and chemical properties of PPPs, agronomic practices, crop type, and climatic conditions. METHODS: Random Forest algorithm was used to develop in-silico ensemble DFR0 prediction models using more than 100 DFR studies from Corteva AgriscienceTM. Several variables related to the active ingredient (a.i.) that was applied, crop, and climate conditions at the time of last application were considered as model parameters. RESULTS: The proposed ensemble models demonstrated 98% prediction accuracy that if a DFR0 is predicted to be less than the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) default DFR0 value of 3 µg/cm2/kg a.i./ha, it is highly indicative that the measured DFR value will be less than the default if the study is conducted. If a value is predicted to be larger than or equal to the EFSA default, the model has an 83% prediction accuracy. IMPACT STATEMENT: This manuscript is expected to have significant impact globally as it provides: A framework for incorporating in silico DFR data into worker exposure assessment, A roadmap for a tiered approach for conducting re-entry exposure assessment, and A proof of concept for using existing DFR data to provide a read-across framework that can easily be harmonized across all regulatory agencies to provide more robust assessments for PPP exposures.

19.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1354999, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563028

RESUMO

Objective: Accumulating evidence has indicated that neurodevelopmental defects may underlie the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are a family of neurotrophic factors that are essential for the survival and development of neurons. The present study aims to investigate whether IGF-2 signaling is implicated in the pathophysiological processes of BD. Method: 50 healthy controls and 78 patients with BD, including 23 patients who diagnosed acute depressive episode and 55 patients who diagnosed acute manic episode, were recruited in this study. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to assess the severity of the depressive and manic symptoms, respectively. The serum IGF-2 level was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for between-group comparisons and spearman analysis was used to analyze correlations. Results: Patients with BD had lower serum IGF-2 levels (66.08 ± 21.22 ng/ml) when compared to healthy controls (88.72 ± 31.55 ng/ml). BD patients were divided into manic episode and depressive episode subgroups. We found that serum IGF-2 levels were reduced in both the mania and depression subgroups (mania: 67.19 ± 21.52 ng/ml, depression: 63.43 ± 20.67 ng/ml; P < 0.001), while no significant difference was observed between two groups (P > 0.05). Spearman correlation analyses revealed that the levels of serum IGF-2 were negatively correlated with the YMRS scores in BD patients (r = -0.522, P < 0.001). Furthermore, IGF-2 was found to be an independent contributor to the severity of symptoms in patients with manic episodes (B = -0.610, t = -5.299, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Lower serum IGF-2 levels were found in BD patients and correlated with the severity of the manic symptoms in these patients during manic episodes. These results suggest that reduced IGF-2 levels might be involved in the pathophysiology of BD, and serum IGF-2 could be a peripheral biomarker for the evaluation of the severity of manic symptoms in BD patients.

20.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300789, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunotherapy has been shown to improve cancer survival, but there are no consensus guidelines to inform use in patients with both cancer and autoimmune disease (AD). We sought to examine immunotherapy utilization patterns between cancer patients with and without AD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study utilized data from a de-identified nationwide oncology database. Patients diagnosed with advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma were included. Outcomes of interest included first-line immunotherapy, overall immunotherapy, and number of immunotherapy cycles. We used logistic and Poisson regression models to examine associations between AD and immunotherapy utilization patterns. RESULTS: A total of 25,076 patients were included (796 with AD). Patients with AD were more likely to be female, White, receive care at academic centers, and have ECOG ≥ 3. Controlling for demographic and clinical variables, AD was associated with lower odds of receiving first-line (odds ratio [OR] = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.82) and overall (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.94) immunotherapy. Among patients who received at least one cycle of immunotherapy, there was no difference in mean number of cycles received between patients with and without AD (11.3 and 10.5 cycles respectively). The incident rate of immunotherapy cycles received for patients with AD was 1.03 times that of patients without AD (95% CI 1.01-1.06). DISCUSSION: Patients with AD were less likely to receive immunotherapy as first-line and overall therapy for treatment of their advanced cancer. However, among those who did receive at least one cycle of immunotherapy, patients with AD received a similar number of cycles compared to patients without AD. This not only indicates that AD is not an absolute contraindication for immunotherapy in clinical practice but may also demonstrate overall treatment tolerability and net benefit in patients with AD.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Renais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia
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