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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(49): 45796-45804, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774645

RESUMO

Perovskite silicon tandem solar cells have the potential to overcome the efficiency limit of single-junction solar cells. For both monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem devices, a semi-transparent perovskite top solar cell, including a transparent contact, is required. Usually, this contact consists of a metal oxide buffer layer and a sputtered transparent conductive oxide. In this work, semi-transparent perovskite solar cells in the regular n-i-p structure are presented with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly sputtered on the hole conducting material Spiro-OMeTAD. ITO process parameters such as sputter power, temperature, and pressure in the chamber are systematically varied. While a low temperature of 50 °C is crucial for good device performance, a low sputter power has only a slight effect, and an increased chamber pressure has no influence on device performance. For the 5 × 5 mm2 perovskite cell with a planar front side, a 105 nm thick ITO layer with a sheet resistance of 44 Ω sq-1 allowing for the omission of grid fingers and a MgF2 antireflection coating are used to improve transmission into the solar cells. The best device achieved an efficiency of 14.8%, which would result in 24.2% in a four-terminal tandem configuration.

2.
Nano Lett ; 18(5): 3038-3046, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701974

RESUMO

III-V solar cells in the nanowire geometry might hold significant synthesis-cost and device-design advantages as compared to thin films and have shown impressive performance improvements in recent years. To continue this development there is a need for characterization techniques giving quick and reliable feedback for growth development. Further, characterization techniques which can improve understanding of the link between nanowire growth conditions, subsequent processing, and solar cell performance are desired. Here, we present the use of a nanoprobe system inside a scanning electron microscope to efficiently contact single nanowires and characterize them in terms of key parameters for solar cell performance. Specifically, we study single as-grown InP nanowires and use electron beam induced current characterization to understand the charge carrier collection properties, and dark current-voltage characteristics to understand the diode recombination characteristics. By correlating the single nanowire measurements to performance of fully processed nanowire array solar cells, we identify how the performance limiting parameters are related to growth and/or processing conditions. We use this understanding to achieve a more than 7-fold improvement in efficiency of our InP nanowire solar cells, grown from a different seed particle pattern than previously reported from our group. The best cell shows a certified efficiency of 15.0%; the highest reported value for a bottom-up synthesized InP nanowire solar cell. We believe the presented approach have significant potential to speed-up the development of nanowire solar cells, as well as other nanowire-based electronic/optoelectronic devices.

3.
Opt Express ; 23(19): 24634-47, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26406665

RESUMO

Light spectrometers are highly versatile state-of-the-art measurement devices. However, using these systems, e.g., in semiconductor device characterization, creates challenging obstacles with respect to measurement time. We present a new, flexible and accurate approach to either characterize optical properties of arbitrary photosensitive devices or examine the spectral components of light reliably. Using a spatial light modulator (SLM) in combination with frequency division multiplexing methods, it is possible to significantly improve signal-to-noise ratios and decrease measurement times. Moreover, the use of SLM ensures a greater reliability of the setup because conventional moving parts are replaced. The feasibility and experimental setup are described in detail. The setup has been validated for various applications by comparative measurements.

4.
Opt Express ; 23(19): A1270-9, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26406756

RESUMO

In photovoltaics (PV), sun simulators are used to reproduce outdoor conditions in a lab environment such as irradiance level, light uniformity and spectral distribution. Concentrator (C)PV applications additionally require the sun simulators to provide rays with an angular distribution similar to that of the sun rays. However, different factors in CPV sun simulator setups make it difficult to achieve the perfect sun like angular distribution. This is mainly caused by the unavailability of appropriate light sources. Therefore, we investigated in this work, to which deviations such a non-ideal light source can lead and which impact is expected at the measurement of a CPV module. For this, two ray tracing models are presented - one for the simulation of natural sunrays, another one for the simulation of sun simulator conditions. The models are validated based on measurements and subsequently used to simulate the impact on a typical CPV module with silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses. Here, significant deviations to outdoor conditions are found.

5.
Science ; 339(6123): 1057-60, 2013 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23328392

RESUMO

Photovoltaics based on nanowire arrays could reduce cost and materials consumption compared with planar devices but have exhibited low efficiency of light absorption and carrier collection. We fabricated a variety of millimeter-sized arrays of p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) doped InP nanowires and found that the nanowire diameter and the length of the top n-segment were critical for cell performance. Efficiencies up to 13.8% (comparable to the record planar InP cell) were achieved by using resonant light trapping in 180-nanometer-diameter nanowires that only covered 12% of the surface. The share of sunlight converted into photocurrent (71%) was six times the limit in a simple ray optics description. Furthermore, the highest open-circuit voltage of 0.906 volt exceeds that of its planar counterpart, despite about 30 times higher surface-to-volume ratio of the nanowire cell.

6.
Opt Express ; 19 Suppl 2: A136-45, 2011 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21445215

RESUMO

Restricting the angular range in which a photovoltaic system emits light, is a promising but rather unexplored approach to enhance conversion efficiency. In this paper we analyze and discuss the effect of a directionally selective filter on the absorption of light and the generation of charge carriers in a germanium solar cell. A directionally selective filter transmits photons of perpendicular incidence and reflects photons under oblique incidence in a given spectral range. To investigate its effect on light trapping, we perform reflection and quantum efficiency measurements. The reflection measurements show that a wavelength dependent absorption enhancement is induced by the application of the directionally selective filter. We calculate a maximum absorption enhancement of 45% at λ ≈ 1900 nm. We show that the absorption enhancement is caused by light trapping of non-absorbed and scattered light and is not due to a suppression of radiative processes. A trapping of photons generated by radiative recombination could not be detected. Measurements of the quantum efficiency confirm the results of the reflection measurements. The generation of charge carriers is increased by up to 33% at λ ≈1900 nm. A comparison of path length enhancement factors calculated from reflection and quantum efficiency measurements indicates a low parasitic absorption in the solar cell device.

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