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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170448, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301774

RESUMO

In the past decade, there has been a significant rise in sustainable biomass based biofuel production to address energy needs while mitigating environmental impacts. Traditionally, bioethanol was used for biofuel production, but concerns over food security and environmental preservation have led to growing interest in alternative sources such as neutral lipids from vegetable oil and microalgae for biodiesel production. This research paper evaluates the potential of various oleaginous plants and microalgae as feedstocks for biodiesel production, with a focus on their fatty acid composition and its impact on biodiesel properties. The study examines the fatty acid profiles of 43 different plant and microalgae species and employs various equations to estimate key physical properties of biodiesel. Additionally, the communication compares these properties to International Biodiesel Standards (EN 14214 and ASTM D6751-08) to assess the suitability of the derived biodiesel for commercial use. It is impossible to describe a single composition that is optimal in terms of all essential fuel properties due to the opposing effects of some structural features of the Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME). However, biodiesel should contain relatively low concentrations of both long chain saturated and polyunsaturated FAME to ensure adequate efficiency in terms of low temperature operability and oxidative stability. The results reveal significant variations in properties amongst different feedstocks, highlighting the importance of feedstock selection in biodiesel production. The study also establishes correlations between various fuel properties, providing valuable insights in to optimizing biodiesel production processes, which will be of great use to researchers, engineers, and stakeholders involved in biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Microalgas , Ácidos Graxos/química , Biocombustíveis , Óleos de Plantas/química , Temperatura Baixa , Biomassa
2.
Cureus ; 15(11): e48376, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38060711

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication during pregnancy, with potential adverse effects on maternal and fetal health. Several studies have reported that in diabetic patients, both morphological and functional pathological mechanisms lead to exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Pancreatic enzyme deficiency or dysfunction result in the inability to digest food properly, giving rise to a range of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. We hypothesized that pregnant women with GDM may also have deficiency of pancreatic enzymes, amylase and lipase, leading to persistent GI symptoms beyond the first trimester and impaired quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate serum amylase and lipase levels in pregnant women with GDM and association with GI symptoms. Understanding the relationship between GDM and exocrine pancreatic function may help identify novel therapeutic targets and improve the clinical management of GDM women with GI symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional comparative study included a total of 125 pregnant women in their third trimester, who were either diagnosed with diabetes (n = 25) or were healthy volunteers without diabetes (n = 100). A detailed history, including the presence or absence of GI symptoms and the type of symptoms, was recorded. Serum amylase and lipase levels were measured using enzyme kinetic assay. Data were coded and analysed. RESULTS: GI symptoms were significantly more in GDM women than in normal pregnant women, and GDM women with GI symptoms had significantly lower levels of serum lipase and amylase than normal pregnant women with GI symptoms. CONCLUSION: The study suggests the importance of evaluating serum amylase and lipase in GDM women with GI symptoms, as they may be indicative of underlying pancreatic enzyme deficiency.

3.
Cureus ; 15(10): e46904, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37954809

RESUMO

Introduction Diabetes is a known risk factor for heart failure (HF), and HF often manifests as a common cardiovascular event in people with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Once HF is present, diabetes presents an especially adverse prognosis for subsequent morbidity and mortality. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and n-terminal ProBNP (NT-proBNP) are used as diagnostic biomarkers for HF that are secreted by the ventricles in response to increased myocardial wall stress. If we could unmask some clinical and routine laboratory parameters affecting BNP and ejection fraction (EF), we can predict impending HF and take measures to prevent it. The current study was conducted to investigate the factors affecting BNP and EF for detecting potential HF in T2DM patients who do not exhibit overt HF symptoms. Materials and methods The present cross-sectional study was performed after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee. T2DM patients consulting the Medicine Outpatient Department (OPD) of BRD Medical College Gorakhpur during a two-month period (from 20 July 2023 to 19 September 2023) with age >40 years and duration of T2DM >10 years. Multistage random sampling was done to recruit study participants, and 308 patients participated in the study. Informed consent was obtained from the recruited participants. The chi-square or Fisher's exact test (whichever was applicable) was used to explore the association between categorical variables. Correlation statistics were calculated using Spearman correlation among the NT-proBNP, EF, and other relevant variables. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 21; IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Armonk, NY) was used for the analysis, and a two-sided p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Three hundred and eight diabetic patients satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled as study participants and completed the study. The mean age of the total study subjects was 60.82 ± 9.23 years. There were 161 (52.3%) male and 147 (47.7%) female participants, and about half (153/308, 49.7%) of the participants belonged to the age group 40-60 years. There was a statistically significant association (p = 0.01) between NT-proBNP and glycated hemoglobin. Statistically highly significant (p < 0.001) associations were found between NT-proBNP with duration of T2DM and EF. There was a strong negative correlation (correlation coefficient = -0.743) between EF and NT-proBNP, and this correlation was statistically highly significant with a p-value < 0.001. Conclusion Elevated NT-proBNP levels and impaired EF were found in a significant proportion of these patients, indicating an increased risk of cardiovascular complications. This study highlights a significant association between NT-proBNP and EF in patients with T2DM in those without overt heart failure symptoms. Furthermore, longer T2DM duration and higher HbA1c levels were found to be associated with elevated NT-proBNP levels, while longer T2DM duration and elevated NT-proBNP were linked to lower EF. These findings have important clinical implications, as they suggest that monitoring NT-proBNP levels in patients with T2DM without clinical features of overt heart failure may help identify those at risk for decreased EF and potentially prevent heart failure.

4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 12192, 2023 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37500681

RESUMO

Infections by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) lead to considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide and treatment is reliant on a single class of drugs, nitroimidazoles. Treatment failures and intermittent reports of relapse from different parts of world indicate towards development of clinical drug resistance. In the present study, susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of E. histolytica was carried against metronidazole and tinidazole. Additionally, anti-amoebic property of active compounds of Andrographis paniculata was also evaluated. Prevalence of metronidazole resistance gene (nim) in patients attending hospital was also done to get comprehensive insight of present situation of drug resistance in E. histolytica. Mean inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) value of E. histolytica isolates against metronidazole and tinidazole was 20.01 and 16.1 µM respectively. Andrographolide showed minimum mean IC50 value (3.06 µM). Significant percentage inhibition of E. histolytica isolates by andrographolide was seen as compared to metronidazole (p = 0.0495). None of E. histolytica isolates showed presence of nim gene. However, in stool samples from hospital attending population, prevalence of nimE gene was found to be 76.6% (69/90) and 62.2% (56/90) in diarrheal and non-diarrheal samples respectively. Inhibitory concentration of commonly used nitroimidazoles against clinical isolates of E. histolytica are on rise. Percentage inhibition of E. histolytica isolates by andrographolide was significantly higher than control drug metronidazole.


Assuntos
Entamoeba histolytica , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano , Nitroimidazóis , Humanos , Nitroimidazóis/farmacologia , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/diagnóstico , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/tratamento farmacológico , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Tinidazol/uso terapêutico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos
5.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; : 15347346231182793, 2023 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37415406

RESUMO

Low macrophage viability in chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) may lead to inadequate interleukin (IL) expression and the persistence of infection. This study evaluates the association between macrophage function, IL-2 expression, and wound microflora in chronic DFUs. Diabetic patients with DFUs (group 1, n = 40) and without DFUs (group 2, n = 40) were compared for macrophage function in serum by viability testing. Immunological response was measured by serum IL-1ß, IL-2ß, and IL-10 levels. The aerobic and anaerobic microflora of the DFUs were assessed by culture and molecular methods. Demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors were statistically analyzed by χ2 test and Student t test. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to detect the pattern of association between glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c), serum IL-2 levels, and macrophage viability. Of the total DFU cases, 22 (55%) showed the presence of polymicrobial microflora. Low macrophage viability with predominant Gram-negative flora was seen in 10 (25%) cases in group 1. Serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower (P = .004) in patients in group 1 along with elevated levels of hemoglobin A1c (P = .038). MCA showed an association between low viability of macrophages and lower IL-2 levels and elevated hemoglobin A1c levels with lower serum IL-2 levels. As compared to group 2, the low viability of macrophages was significantly associated (P = .007) with lower IL-2 levels in group 1. Elevated hemoglobin A1c levels are strongly associated with lower IL-2 levels and low macrophage viability. This might be a contributing factor to the persistence of infections in chronic DFUs.

6.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 50(1): 26-30, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36668986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent reports have noted an emergence of unusual organisms in microflora of pilonidal sinus (PNS); this study was undertaken to identify the primary microbial flora associated with infected primary PNS over a period of 1 year. DESIGN: A prospective multiple case series. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: A case series of 20 patients with primary PNS in a tertiary care center in Varanasi, India, was studied. The study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology and General Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, over a period of 1 year (September 2016 to July 2017). METHODS: Purulent exudate (pus) samples were collected from 20 patients with primary PNS from the discharging sinuses by aseptic methods. Samples were assessed for aerobic and anaerobic flora by conventional culture and molecular methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done for bacterial isolates. Bacterial diversity was compared with the demographic and clinical profile of the sinuses by multiple correspondence analysis. RESULTS: Of the total cases, 11 (55%) had purulent discharge, among which all showed polymicrobial flora. The ratio of aerobic to anaerobic organisms was 1:2 (16/32). Escherichia coli (E. coli, 4, 36.36%) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis, 4, 36.36%) were commonly isolated. Bifidobacterium was the most frequent anaerobe. Detailed molecular analysis revealed the presence of Kocuria flava as an unusual pathogen. On statistical analysis, factors like male gender, increased body mass index, absence of hair in sinus, presence of features of hirsutism, and absence of Fusobacteria were closely associated with one another in these PNS cases. CONCLUSIONS: The case series revealed the predominance of anaerobes in primarily infected PNS cases. Bifidobacterium spp and unusual pathogens like K. flava were among the emerging pathogens in infected PNS. Use of better molecular diagnostic facilities in addition to the conventional methods might enhance the verified diversity of microorganisms in such cases.


Assuntos
Seio Pilonidal , Humanos , Masculino , Escherichia coli , Estudos Prospectivos , Índia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0268216, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease data suggest that respiratory diseases contribute to high morbidity in India. However, the factors responsible for high morbidity are not quite clear. Therefore, the Seasonal Waves Of Respiratory Disorders (SWORD) study was planned to estimate the point prevalence due to respiratory diseases in Indian OPD services and its association with risk factors and change in seasons. METHODS: In this point prevalence observational multicenter study conducted during 2017-18, participating physicians recorded information of consecutive patients in response to a questionnaire. The study was conducted on four predetermined days representing transition of Indian seasons i.e., February (winter), May (summer), August (monsoon), and November (autumn). RESULTS: The eligible number of patients from across 302 sites in India was 25,177. The mean age of study population was 46.1±18.1 years, 14102(56.0%) were males and 11075(44.0%) females. The common diagnoses were: asthma(29.8%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),15.6%, respiratory tract infections (RTIs),11.3%, and tuberculosis(8.7%). All these conditions showed significant seasonal trends (Asthma 31.4% autumn vs. 26.5% summer, COPD 21.1% winter vs. 8.1% summer, RTIs 13.3% winter vs. 4.3% summer, and tuberculosis 12.5% autumn vs. 4.1% summer, p<0.001 for each respectively). After adjustment for risk factors, asthma was significantly associated with exposure to molds (OR:1.12,CI:1.03-1.22), pet animals (OR:1.07,CI:1.01-1.14), recent-travel (OR:1.22,CI:1.13-1.32), and rain-wetting (OR:1.27,CI:1.15-1.40); and RTIs with rain-wetting (OR:1.53,CI:1.34-1.74), and recent-travel (OR:1.17,CI:1.05-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: The SWORD study showed wide seasonal variations in outpatient attendance of patients with common respiratory conditions. Novel risk-factors associated with respiratory diseases were also identified.


Assuntos
Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Transtornos Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias , Animais , Asma/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443495

RESUMO

Acute Pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas.Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process ranging clinically from mild discomfort with localized inflammation to severe disease involving remote organ systems. There is a continuum from the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrom, to the onset of multiple organ dysfunction (MODS), which is seen in about 24% of patients with acute pancreatitis and carries the highest mortality rate of 36%, and imaging tests showing characteristic findings of acute pancreatitis. Several inflammatory markers are being used routinely in various hospitals in India to assess the prognosis of patients with acute pancreatitis. Among these are the total and differential leukocyte counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, thioredoxin-1, and polymorphonuclear elastase. serum procalcitonin is one of the components to assess the severity of pancreatitis. Procalcitonin is an acute phase reactant that has been extensively investigated as early marker in systemic bacterial infection, sepsis, and multi organ failure. Because severe acute pancreatitis is associated with sepsis, infected pancreatic necrosis, and multi organ failure. Procalcitonin can be used as a useful marker in early prediction of severity. MATERIAL: a prospective observational hospital based study conducted on patients of Department of General Medicine with collaboration from Department of Biochemistry and Radio diagnosis of SMS Medical College Jaipur. Patient who were diagnosed as case of acute pancreatitis on basis of diagnostic criteria as per Atlanta classification 2013 guidelines7 were included. Total of 56 cases were included in this study. OBSERVATION: The finding observed are as under:- 1) The mean age of the population was 38.5 ±11.83 years. CONCLUSION: In present, study serum PCT was done in patients diagnosed as acute pancreatitis on basis of Atlanta classification within 48 hours of admission and was found to be increased (value is significant if it is more than 0.5ng/ml) in 23 patients out of 60, with mean of 1.94±2.4ng /ml. These 23 patients were later on found to have severe acute pancreatitis on the basis Atlanta classification and rest 37 patients who had mild pancreatitis had mean PCT 0.38±0.66ng/ml. A study conducted on 40 patients of acute pancreatitis which was confirmed by Computed tomography was conducted in Poland, where they collected blood samples on admission and 24 hour thereafter, in which they tried to evaluate the role of procalcitonin as an early predictor of course of acute pancreatitis and they found that procalcitonin concentration was significantly higher in patients of acute pancreatitis and cut off was estimated at 0.5ng/ml.79 Similarly, in this study PCT was found to be high in patients of severe acute pancreatitis only.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Sepse , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Calcitonina , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pró-Calcitonina , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(3): 11-12, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is an important healthcare concern in India as well as globally. This study shows how the level of microalbuminuria predict mortality of patients diagnosed with sepsis and those without sepsis. METHODS: In this study total 150 patients of which 75 patients belonging to each sepsis and non-sepsis group, with age >15 years admitted in Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were enroled Microalbuminuria levels were analyzed at admission and after 24 hours after admission. RESULTS: Microalbuminuria levels were significantly high in patients with sepsis as compared to non sepsis. Microalbuminuria has highest sensitivity of 90 % and specificity of 98 % to differentiate between sepsis and non sepsis in comparison to APACHE II and SOFA scores. CONCLUSION: Serial monitoring of bedside urine albumin-creatinine measurement might help in the early identification of patients with sepsis that requires early targeted therapy. The 24-hour ACR assessment predicts ICU survival and may have the potential to monitor the efficacy of therapeutic interventions delivered, such as fluid resuscitation, appropriate antibiotics, vasopressors, and ionotropes that affect the endothelium.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sepse , APACHE , Adolescente , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Creatinina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/diagnóstico
10.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; : 15347346221088690, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322696

RESUMO

Infection is a foremost challenge in the cases of wound care, especially in cases of chronic wounds. The present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the colloidal silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs) on Gram positive organisms and to evaluate the in-vivo response of cAgNPs on patients of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). cAgNPs were tested against selected Gram-positive organisms like methicillin-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) using microbroth dilution assay to estimate minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC). Biofilm inhibition capacity and time kill assay was performed. Further, the in-vivo response of topical application of cAgNPs was evaluated on patients of DFUs. The susceptibility testing demonstrated the MIC and MBC values of the cAgNPs ranging from 0.5µg/ml to 1.0 µg/ml and 1.0 µg/ml to 8 µg/ml against the tested organisms respectively. The cAgNPs showed inhibition of biofilm formation in the low, medium and high biofilm producers by 91%, 83% and 75% respectively at the highest concentration (52ppm). The time kill kinetics showed significant reduction in the number of viable cells (p < 0.0001). Significant reduction in microbial load (p = 0.0062) and in the number of moderate to strong biofilm producing organisms (p = 0.0069) after treatment with cAgNPs was seen. cAgNPs exhibited significant in-vitro bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity against MRSA, MSSA and VRE respectively along with anti-biofilm activity. Additionally, cAgNPs showed significant reduction in microbial load of the chronic DFUs.

11.
Trop Parasitol ; 12(2): 69-77, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643990

RESUMO

Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) is an enteric microaerophilic protozoan parasite responsible for millions of cases worldwide. Majority of the infections due to E. histolytica remain asymptomatic; however, it can cause an array of symptoms ranging from devastating dysentery, colitis, and abscesses in different vital organs. The interactions between the E. histolytica and its host are a multifaceted chain of events rather than merely destruction and invasion. There are manifold decisive steps for the establishment of infections by E. histolytica which includes degradation of mucosal layer, adherence to the host epithelium, invasion into the host tissues, and dissemination to vital organs. It is widely hypothesized that, for establishment of infections, the interactions at the intestinal mucosa decides the fate of the disease. The delicate communications between the parasite, the host factors, and the associated bacterial microflora play a significant role in the pathogenesis of E. histolytica. In this review, we summarize the interactions between the E. histolytica and it's host at the genetic and immunological interphases emphasizing the crucial role of microbiota in these interactions.

12.
Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS ; 42(2): 101-105, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909612

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infections by intestinal parasites (IPs) are prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive individuals. Although diarrhea is the usual manifestation, asymptomatic presentations are common. In such situations, the problem of parasitosis is often underestimated. This study was performed to assess the presence of IPs among asymptomatic HIV-seropositive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was designed, including stool samples from 75 asymptomatic HIV-seropositive patients and 75 seronegative patients with gastrointestinal discomfort. IPs was identified by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Entamoeba spp, Cryptosporidium and Microsporidium spp. The data were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test. RESULTS: The prevalence of IPs in HIV-seropositive cases (25.33%) was statistically significantly more (P < 0.05) than that of controls (4%). Helminths predominated in both the groups. PCR detected IPs in 5 (6.6%) additional microscopy-negative cases. The presence of IPs was associated with CD4 count <200 cells/µl. CONCLUSION: The asymptomatic carriage of IPs in HIV patients poses an important reservoir in the community. To prevent transmission, frequent screening is needed.

13.
J Food Sci Technol ; 58(12): 4755-4765, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629540

RESUMO

This study reports the polyphenol profile of helencha (Enydra fluctuans Lour.), an underutilised, aquatic leafy vegetable, based on high resolution accurate mass analysis. The methanolic extract of helencha leaves was screened by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS). An in-house developed database of phytochemical metabolites was referred for compound identifications. Based on the detection of the pseudomolecular ion and at least one molecule-specific fragment ion (each with < 5 ppm of mass error), 25 potentially-bioactive phenolic compounds were putatively identified. These included 6 flavonols, 4 phenolic acids, 3 lignans, 3 flavones and 1 each of flavanol, flavanone, dihydroflavonol, tetramethoxyflavone, isoflavonoid and methylated flavonol. In addition, 3 unclassified compounds are also reported. The helencha extract showed antibiofilm properties with a potent bacteriostatic activity against the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogenic bacteria. The complementary molecular docking studies indicated strong binding interactions of the identified compounds with the active site of LasR protein of P. aeruginosa. The in vitro and in silico study results would be useful to develop novel neutraceutical products based on helencha-extract and design new lead compounds to control the biofilm producing pathogenic microorganisms. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at (10.1007/s13197-021-04968-y).

14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(9): e0009762, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entamoeba infections have major impact on millions of the people worldwide. Entamoeba histolytica has long been accepted as the only pathogenic species. However, recent reports of other Entamoeba spp. in symptomatic cases have raised questions on their pathogenicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total 474 stool samples and 125 liver aspirates from patients with intestinal and extra intestinal manifestations and from community were included. Sewage samples from the hospital and the city were also included. Microscopic examination and molecular detection were performed to detect presence of E. histolytica/ dispar/ moshkovskii/ bangladeshi. The associated demographic and socioeconomic factors were statistically analyzed with the presence of Entamoeba. Microscopy detected Entamoeba spp. in 5.4% stool and 6.4% liver aspirate samples. Through nested multiplex PCR, prevalence of Entamoeba spp. in intestinal and extra-intestinal cases was 6.6% (20/301) and 86.4% (108/125) respectively and in asymptomatic population was 10.5% (13/123). Sewage samples did not show presence of any Entamoeba spp. Uneducated subjects, low economic conditions, untreated drinking water, consumption of raw vegetables and habit of not washing hands before meals were significantly associated with presence of Entamoeba spp. CONCLUSIONS: E. histolytica still remains the only Entamoeba spp. in invasive extra intestinal infections. E. dispar was detected in both asymptomatic and symptomatic intestinal infections. Routine identification of Entamoeba spp. should incorporate PCR based detection methods.


Assuntos
Entamoeba , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
3 Biotech ; 11(7): 344, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221815

RESUMO

The present study was aimed at producing enhanced and sustained bioelectricity from distillery wastewater in a double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) by changing inter-electrode distance, inoculum and reactor volume. Using double chamber MFC with 1 L working volume, when the distance between the electrodes was kept shorter (1 cm), it generated power density of 1.74 W/m3, which was 42.5% higher than that of MFC with electrode spacing of 10 cm (1 W/m3). Using inoculum from different sources viz. garden soil (MFC-GS), wetland sediment (MFC-WS) and sludge from wastewater treatment plant (MFC-S), the highest open circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.84 V and power density of 2.74 W/m3 were produced by MFC-WS, which also showed sustained electricity production (1.68 W/m3) from the wastewater during a 10-day experiment. Relatively lower power density was generated from MFC-S (1.42 W/m3), while that from MFC-GS was the lowest (0.94 W/m3). Bioelectricity generation and overall performance were then assessed using a smaller reactor size. Smaller working volume of MFC (250 ml) favoured greater production of power density (3.2 W/m3) than that with 1 L working volume (2.96 W/m3) with electrode distance of 1 cm. The present study was novel in selecting a suitable mixed-microbial inoculum out of the diverse sources screened and reducing resistance by sharply narrowing down inter-electrode distance and reactor volume, which led to significantly enhanced and sustained electricity generation from double chamber MFC.

16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(4): 1383-1387, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432901

RESUMO

Recurrence of amebic liver abscess (ALA), once considered unusual, is increasingly being reported, despite proper management. Realizing the endemicity of ALA in the study setup, this 2-year follow-up study was conducted to investigate the recurrent cases and study the associated factors. A total of 101 confirmed cases of ALA were followed up for a period of 2 years. Recurrent cases were studied for associated bacterial flora, presence of resistance genes (nim), level of matrix metalloproteinase 3 and MMP-9, and genotypes of Entamoeba histolytica and statistically compared with the nonrecurrent cases as controls. Recurrence rates of 8.9% (nine patients) were detected. The presence of Prevotella along with an increased level of MMP-9 in abscess fluid and large size of abscesses (11 × 10.8 cm) was found to be significantly associated with recurrence in ALA. Among the nine cases, the presence of nimE gene was detected in two (22.2%) patients. The genotyping of E. histolytica strains showed that in seven (77.7%) cases, the genotype of E. histolytica was the same in the primary and recurrent samples. This study reports a high rate of recurrence in the cases of ALA, hinting toward the gradual development of clinical resistance toward the commonly used drug. The presence of nim gene and Prevotella in abscess fluid along with increased MMP-9 levels and large abscess size could be important predictors of recurrent ALA.


Assuntos
Entamebíase/complicações , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/patogenicidade , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
17.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(1): 12-19, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372855

RESUMO

Aim: Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) can recognize the DNA fragments released from chemotherapy-treated cancer cells in tumor tissues and induce an inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the survivability benefit of TLR9 expression levels as a potential prognostic marker in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Methods: To study the expression of TLR9 in breast tumor, immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on two patient cohorts, with NACT (n = 19) and without NACT (n = 23). To corroborate the findings from the in-house cohort, we also used publicly available datasets including SurvExpress (GSE 20685) and the Kaplan-Meier plotter tool (GSE 16446) to analyze the relationship between the expression of TLR9 and overall survivability for NACT. Results: The IHC analyses of our inhouse cohort demonstrated that TLR9 was expressed in both malignant breast epithelial cancer cells as well as in the adjacent stromal cells. The IHC results also indicated that, the percentage of malignant epithelial cells (54.76%) expressing TLR9 was higher than in the adjacent stromal compartment (11.9%). We also observed an increase in the expression levels of TLR9 in the patients who were given NACT (p = 0.0379). Further, the analysis of publicly available datasets demonstrated that elevated TLR9 expression was related to increased overall survival in patients treated with NACT. Conclusions: In this study, we show for the first time that elevated TLR9 tissue expression levels in breast cancer may serve as a prognostic marker for patients treated with NACT and could potentially be used to select the neoadjuvant regime.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Mama , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Receptor Toll-Like 9/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Environ Sustain (Singap) ; 4(3): 503-513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624829

RESUMO

There have been speculations regarding rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) globally owing to indiscriminate antibiotic usage during the COVID-19 pandemic. To curb the menace through decisive policies, it is essential to assess the antibiotics, particularly the antibacterial agents. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients. A thorough systematic search was undertaken in databases like PubMed, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, World Health Organization (WHO) database and clinicaltrials.gov by two independent reviewers for articles in English published from January 1, 2019 to October 31, 2020. Studies were included if they assessed confirmed COVID-19 cases and mentioned the use of antibiotics. The primary outcome was the proportion of COVID-19 patients subjected to specific antibacterial agents. An attempt to stratify the data based on study settings and disease severity was also performed. Of the total 6012 studies screened, 40 were eligible for qualitative review and 19 for meta-analysis. Specific antibacterial agents were mentioned in 23 studies (57.5%). In the random effect meta-analysis, pooled prevalence of azithromycin use was 24.5% (95% CI 22.9-26.2%) followed by cephalosporins as 26.6% (95% CI 24.9-28.4). None of the studies clearly specified indications for antibiotic use. Ten studies (25%) mentioned empirical use of antibiotics. Bacterial co-infections/secondary infections were documented in four studies with mean prevalence of infection of 1.9% (95% CI 1.2-2.8%). There is lack of data on use of specific antibacterial agents, indications for their use based on severity of infections and microbiological evidence of bacterial co-infections.

19.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072559

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated apoptotic changes in cancer cells are well-documented, and hence, several synthetic ligands of TLR3 are being used for adjuvant therapy, but there are reports showing a contradictory effect of TLR3 signaling, which include our previous report that had shown cell proliferation following surface localization of TLR 3. However, the underlying mechanism of cell surface localization of TLR3 and subsequent cell proliferation lacks clarity. This study addresses the TLR3 ligand-mediated signaling cascade that regulates a proliferative effect in breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and T47D) challenged with TLR3 ligand in the presence of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) inhibitor. Evidences were obtained using immunoblotting, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy, immunocytochemistry, ELISA, and flow cytometry. Results had revealed that TLR3 ligand treatment significantly enhanced breast cancer cell proliferation marked by an upregulated expression of cyclinD1, but the same was suppressed by the addition of MyD88 inhibitor. Also, expression of interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1)-TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) was altered in the given TLR3-signaling pathway. Inhibition of MyD88 disrupted the downstream adaptor complex and mediated signaling through the TLR3-MyD88-NF-κB (p65)-IL-6-cyclin D1 pathway. TLR3-mediated alternative signaling of the TLR3-MyD88-IRAK1-TRAF6-TAK1-TAB1-NF-κB axis leads to upregulation of IL6 and cyclin D1. This response is hypothesized to be via the MyD88 gateway that culminates in the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Overall, this study provides first comprehensive evidence on the involvement of canonical signaling of TLR3 using MyD88-cyclin D1-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation. The findings elucidated herein will provide valuable insights into understanding the TLR3-mediated adjuvant therapy in cancer.

20.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110826, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721300

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has emerged as a new and attractive bioelectrochemical approach in the last one and a half decade that offers an alternative to conventional treatment methods to remove and recover heavy metals and organics from wastewaters with simultaneous energy production. This technique has advantage over the conventional wastewater treatment techniques, which are energy intensive, sludge producing and with little effectivity at high concentrations. Significant work has been done in the recent years on MFC principle, electrode configuration, biofilm composition, application of MFC in wastewater treatment, metal removal or recovery and energy production. Basically, metal in the cathode chamber acts as acceptor of the electrons released from the oxidation of organic matter in the anode chamber by electrogenic microbes. Literature shows that efficacy of MFCs in removal and recovery of metals and power production is significantly influenced by redox potential of the metal, initial concentration, mix metal systems, carbon source in substrate, pH, biocathode, biofilm composition, gaseous environment in cathode, electrode modification and external resistance, which have been critically reviewed for the first time in the present paper to understand the role of the determinant factors that may be explored for improvement of the MFC performance. The paper provides further insights into the techno-economic aspects of MFC technology and suggests research needs for enhanced performance and reduced costs to increase its feasibility for application at commercial level.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Metais Pesados , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
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