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4.
Matern Child Health J ; 21(1): 1-8, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27514391

RESUMO

Introduction Increasing access to HIV-related care and treatment for children aged 0-18 years in resource-limited settings is an urgent global priority. In 2011-2012 the percentage increase in children accessing antiretroviral therapy was approximately half that of adults (11 vs. 21 %). We propose a model for increasing access to, and retention in, paediatric HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings. Methods Following a rapid appraisal of recent literature seven main challenges in paediatric HIV-related care and treatment were identified: (1) lack of regular, integrated, ongoing HIV-related diagnosis; (2) weak facility-based systems for tracking and retention in care; (3) interrupted availability of dried blood spot cards (expiration/stock outs); (4) poor quality control of rapid HIV testing; (5) supply-related gaps at health facility-laboratory interface; (6) poor uptake of HIV testing, possibly relating to a fatalistic belief about HIV infection; (7) community-associated reasons e.g. non-disclosure and weak systems for social support, resulting in poor retention in care. Results To increase sustained access to paediatric HIV-related care and treatment, regular updating of Policies, review of inter-sectoral Plans (at facility and community levels) and evaluation of Programme implementation and impact (at national, subnational, facility and community levels) are non-negotiable critical elements. Additionally we recommend the intensified implementation of seven main interventions: (1) update or refresher messaging for health care staff and simple messaging for key staff at early childhood development centres and schools; (2) contact tracing, disclosure and retention monitoring; (3) paying particular attention to infant dried blood spot (DBS) stock control; (4) regular quality assurance of rapid HIV testing procedures; (5) workshops/meetings/dialogues between health facilities and laboratories to resolve transport-related gaps and to facilitate return of results to facilities; (6) community leader and health worker advocacy at creches, schools, religious centres to increase uptake of HIV testing and dispel fatalistic beliefs about HIV; (7) use of mobile communication technology (m-health) and peer/community supporters to maintain contact with patients. Discussion and Conclusion We propose that this package of facility, community and family-orientated interventions are needed to change the trajectory of the paediatric HIV epidemic and its associated patterns of morbidity and mortality, thus achieving the double dividend of improving HIV-free survival.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Antirretrovirais/economia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sistemas de Identificação de Pacientes/normas
5.
J Glob Health ; 6(2): 020405, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT), defined as ≤50 infant HIV infections per 100 000 live births, is a global priority. Since 2011 policies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) shifted from maternal antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or prophylaxis contingent on CD4 cell count to lifelong maternal ARV treatment (cART). We sought to measure progress with early (4-8 weeks postpartum) MTCT prevention and elimination, 2011-2013, at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high antenatal HIV prevalence setting ( ≈ 29%), where early MTCT was 3.5% in 2010. METHODS: Two surveys were conducted (August 2011-March 2012 and October 2012-May 2013), in 580 health facilities, randomly selected after two-stage probability proportional to size sampling of facilities (the primary sampling unit), to provide valid national and sub-national-(provincial)-level estimates. Data collectors interviewed caregivers of eligible infants, reviewed patient-held charts, and collected infant dried blood spots (iDBS). Confirmed positive HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and positive total HIV nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated infant HIV exposure or infection, respectively. Weighted survey analysis was conducted for each survey and for the pooled data. FINDINGS: National data from 10 106 and 9120 participants were analyzed (2011-12 and 2012-13 surveys respectively). Infant HIV exposure was 32.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 30.7-33.6%), in 2011-12 and 33.1% (95% CI 31.8-34.4%), provincial range of 22.1-43.6% in 2012-13. MTCT was 2.7% (95% CI 2.1%-3.2%) in 2011-12 and 2.6% (95% CI 2.0-3.2%), provincial range of 1.9-5.4% in 2012-13. HIV-infected ARV-exposed mothers had significantly lower unadjusted early MTCT (2.0% [2011-12: 1.6-2.5%; 2012-13:1.5-2.6%]) compared to HIV-infected ARV-naive mothers [10.2% in 2011-12 (6.5-13.8%); 9.2% in 2012-13 (5.6-12.7%)]. Pooled analyses demonstrated significantly lower early MTCT among exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) mothers receiving >10 weeks ARV prophylaxis or cART compared with EBF and no ARVs: (2.2% [95% CI 1.25-3.09%] vs 12.2% [95% CI 4.7-19.6%], respectively); among HIV-infected ARV-exposed mothers, 24.9% (95% CI 23.5-26.3%) initiated cART during or before the first trimester, and their early MTCT was 1.2% (95% CI 0.6-1.7%). Extrapolating these data, assuming 32% EIA positivity and 2.6% or 1.2% MTCT, 832 and 384 infants per 100 000 live births were HIV infected, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although we demonstrate sustained national-level PMTCT impact in a high HIV prevalence setting, results are far-removed from EMTCT targets. Reducing maternal HIV prevalence and treating all maternal HIV infection early are critical for further progress.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , África do Sul
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