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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 305-317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161556

RESUMO

In nature and agriculture, plants interact with an astonishing number of microbes, collectively referred to as the "plant microbiome." Roots are a microbial hotspot where beneficial plant-microbe interactions are established that support plant growth and provide protection against pathogens and insects. Recently, we discovered that in response to foliar pathogen attack, plant roots can recruit specific protective microbes into the rhizosphere. Root exudates play an essential role in the interaction between plant roots and rhizosphere microbiota. In order to study the chemical communication between plant roots and the rhizosphere microbiome, it is essential to study the metabolite profile of root exudates. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the collection of sterile root exudates that are secreted by Arabidopsis thaliana roots in response to inoculation of the leaves with the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(1): 392-404, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213639

RESUMO

The structure and fractal characteristics of nanopores of high-rank coal were investigated using an approach that integrates N2 adsorption and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results indicated that the high-rank coal of the Shanxi Formation has a complex pore-fracture network composed of organic matter pores, mineral-related pores, and microfractures. The pore type of high-rank coal tends to be complicated, and the main pore types are inkbottle pores and open pores, which are more conducive to methane enrichment. The Ro,max has a negative relationship with the total pore volume. In addition, the ash and inertinite contents show a positive correlation with the average pore size (APS), while the fixed carbon content exhibits a negative relationship with the APS. The pore structure of high-rank coal is controlled not only by the degree of metamorphism but also by coal composition, which leads to the variation in pore structure becoming more complicated. With the increase in coal metamorphism, high-rank coal with high amounts of fixed carbon content generally possesses a higher irregularity in pore structure. No obvious relationship was observed between D2 and the coal components, which indicates that the pore structure, ash content, moisture content and other factors controlled by the metamorphism of coal have different effects on D2 that lead to this inapparent relationship. A negative relationship exists between adsorption volume and D1, which indicates that the high irregularity of the pore structure is not conducive to methane absorption and that no obvious correlation exists between the adsorption volume and D2. In the high-rank coal, the high D1 value represents the complexity and heterogeneity of the pore structure and represents a low adsorption affinity for methane molecules; in addition, D2 has no effect on the methane adsorption capacity.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124467, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187794

RESUMO

Due to the blooming development of nanotechnology, the further understanding of nanomaterials-induced toxicity has been demanded. Following their introduction into a biological matrix, the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) is covered by protein layer, namely corona, which imparts a new biological identity to NPs. Here, we showed that fibrinogen (Fg), but not albumin (BSA) or hemoglobin (Hb), decoration on the surface of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) ameliorate their pro-autophagic activity in non-phagocytic cells. Surprisingly, this effect of Fg was compromised in phagocytic cells. Further mechanistic investigation suggested coronal Fg has dual effects on the tuning of SiO2 NPs-induced autophagic response. First, Fg decoration blocks SiO2 NPs sedimentation through stabilize SiO2 NPs suspension; secondly, Fg coverage inhibits SiO2 NPs' cellular internalization. These findings provided important insights into the understanding of NPs-corona complexes behaviors and indicate future directions for the investigation of corona-mediated biological activities.

4.
Environ Pollut ; : 115921, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187846

RESUMO

Tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCBQ) is a common metabolite of persistent organic pollutants pentachlorophenol (PCP) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Current reports on the toxicity of TCBQmainly focused on its reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity and cardiovascular toxicity. However, the possible immunotoxicity of TCBQ remains unclear. The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a recently discovered immune response mechanism, however, excess NETs play a pathogenic role in various immune diseases. In an attempt to address concerns regarding the immunotoxicity of TCBQ, we adopted primary mouse neutrophils as the research object, explored the influence of TCBQ on the formation of NETs. The results showed that TCBQ could induce NETs rapidly in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. Moreover, TCBQ promoted the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not p38 or extracellular signal related kinase (ERK) in neutrophils. Mechanistically, JNK activation enhanced the expression of NADPH oxidase enzyme 2 (NOX2), which further accelerated the generation of ROS and thus amplified the formation of NETs. The pharmacologic blockage of JNK or NOX2 effectively ameliorated TCBQ-induced ROS and NETs, implying that ROS-JNK-NOX2 positive feedback loop was involved in TCBQ-induced NETs. In conclusion, we speculated that targeting NETs formation would be a promising therapeutic strategy in modulating the immunotoxicity of TCBQ.

5.
Int J Radiat Biol ; : 1-9, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164600

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radioresistance is highly correlated with radiotherapy failure in clinical cancer treatment. In the current study, we sought to examine the efficacy of Celecoxib and Afatinib co-treatment as radiosensitizers in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Generally, A549 cells were cultured with the treatment of Celecoxib and/or Afatinib for 24 h. Then, the cells were exposed to irradiation at 2 Gy/min for 1 min. After the end of treatment, cell viability, clonogenic survival, apoptosis and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) Elisa assays were performed. Transcriptional levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) affected by Celecoxib and/or Afatinib were measured by RT-qPCR. Posttranscriptional level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-related gene was measured by Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: Here, we, for the first time, reported that the co-treatment of Celecoxib and Afatinib regulates the resistance of NSCLC A549 cells to radiation. The co-treatment of Celecoxib and Afatinib sensitized radiotherapy through the radiation-induced loss of cell viability and colony formation, as well as apoptosis. Mechanistically, Celecoxib and Afatinib-treated cells showed the inhibition of COX-2 and EGFR expression, which may be responsible for the A549 cells' increased resistance to radiation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that Celecoxib and Afatinib regulate cell sensitivity to apoptosis, and thus modulate the resistance of NSCLC to radiation.

6.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(10): 617-623, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been widely used for alleviating pain. However, its mechanisms remain largely enigmatic. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we focused on whether the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture is related to its regulation on adenosine and substance P expression. METHODS: We established chronic inflammatory pain model in rats through a single injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant, and then we treated animals using daily electroacupuncture. We applied seven bilateral sessions of electroacupuncture (ST36 and BL60, 0.5 to 1.5 mA, initial strength of 0.5 mA, increased by 0.5 mA every 10 minutes, for 30 minutes per session, one section per day) to Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats for seven days. The analgesic effect of electroacupuncture was evaluated by measuring paw withdrawal threshold in rats that received mechanical and thermal stimulation. RESULTS: Daily electroacupuncture stimulation effectively increased paw withdrawal threshold in Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats. Electroacupuncture increased the adenosine level in zusanli. A further study showed that electroacupuncture could decrease substance P, neurokinin-1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6 and CD68 levels in dorsal root ganglion. Interestingly, direct injection of adenosine A1 or substance P receptor antagonists, or dorsal nerve root transection could significantly impair electroacupuncture induced analgesic actions in Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats could and reduce the levels of substance P, neurokinin-1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6 and CD68. Finally, we confirmed that direct injection of adenosine A1 receptor agonist replicated the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate regulation of adenosine-mediated substance P secretion. Substance P-mediated pathway may be involved in the analgesia process by electroacupuncture in rats.

7.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129957

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prevalent human malignancy with high morbidity worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of newly discovered molecules, have been revealed as essential regulators in the development of HCC. HCC-associated lncRNAs affect multiple malignant phenotypes by modulating gene expression or protein activity. Moreover, the dysregulation of lncRNAs in the liver is also associated with diseases predisposing to HCC, such as chronic viral infection, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. A deeper understanding of the lncRNA regulatory network in the multistep processes of HCC development will provide new insights into the diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In this review, we introduce the biogenesis and function of lncRNAs and summarize recent knowledge on how lncRNAs regulate the malignant hallmarks of HCC, such as uncontrolled cell proliferation, resistance to cell death, metabolic reprogramming, immune escape, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We also review emerging insights into the role of lncRNAs in HCC-associated liver diseases. Finally, we discuss the potential applications of lncRNAs as early diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

8.
Orthopedics ; : 1-7, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141235

RESUMO

The use of dynamic finite element analysis to investigate the biomechanical behavior of the knee joint is mainly based on movement of the joint. Challenges are associated with simulation of knee joint flexion-extension activity. This study investigated changes in the length and stress state of ligaments during lunge with a displacement controlled finite element analysis of the knee joint based on in vivo fluoroscopic kinematic data. The geometric center axis (GCA) was used to represent knee kinematics to quantify femoral motion relative to the tibia. Because the GCA was considered as a functional flexion axis, 2 degrees of freedom could be reduced. Published data on the in vivo fluoroscopic kinematic features of the GCA were used to establish the equations for degrees of freedom. Data for 4 degrees of freedom were obtained simultaneously at every 5° of knee flexion. Displacement and rotation were applied to the femur and tibia to produce relative displacement, and the elongation and stress state of the knee ligaments were computed. The predictions confirmed that lunge affected the biomechanical behavior of ligaments. Displacement controlled finite element analysis of knee flexion can be simulated on the basis of fluoroscopic kinematic data to achieve physiologic movement. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(x):xx-xx.].

9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-28, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161824

RESUMO

Excretion of SARS-CoV-2 through faecal specimens Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic with increasing numbers of cases worldwide. SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus of COVID-19, is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets or through direct and indirect contact with an infected person. The possibility of potential faecal-oral transmission was investigated in this study. We collected 258 faecal specimens from nine provinces in China and detected the nucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2 using real-time RT-PCR. Vero cells were used to isolate the virus from SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive samples, after which sequencing of Spike gene in eight samples was performed. In all, 93 of 258 (36%) stool samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The positive rates of critical, severe, moderate, and mild patients were 54.4%, 56.1%, 30.8%, and 33.3%, respectively. The content of nucleic acid increased within 2 weeks after the onset of the disease. From the perspective of clinical typing, the nucleic acid can be detected in the faeces of critical patients within two weeks and until four to five weeks in the faeces of severe and mild patients. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from stool specimens of two severe patients. Four non-synonymous mutations in Spike gene were newly detected in three stool samples. A small number of patients had strong faecal detoxification ability. The live virus in faeces could be an important source of contamination, which may lead to infection and further spread in areas with poor sanitary conditions. The findings of this study have public health significance and they should be considered when formulating disease control strategies.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 107135, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189609

RESUMO

Tumour mutation burden (TMB) and the immune microenvironment (IME) are reportedly associated with immunotherapy responses, but this relationship remains unclear in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We classified HCC patients in the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas into low- and high-TMB groups and evaluated differences in immune infiltrates. Additionally, differentially expressed genes in the low- and high-TMB groups were identified, and functional analyses were conducted. A risk score model was constructed based on three differentially expressed immune genes (DEIGs). The Tumor Immune Estimation Resource database was utilized to analyse how the IME was affected by the three hub DEIGs. Finally, a prognostic nomogram combining risk scores and stages was established and externally validated with the International Cancer Genome Consortium and GSE14520 cohorts. High-TMB (top 20%) patients exhibited a worse prognosis (P = 0.017). Follicular helper cells (P = 0.001) and activated natural killer cells (P = 0.003) were enriched in high-TMB patients, while resting dendritic cells (P = 0.002) were enriched in low-TMB samples. A risk score model was generated with three hub DEIGs (CCR7, STC2 and S100A9) to predict overall survival in HCC cohorts. Moreover, copy number variations mainly reduced infiltration levels. The nomogram performed better than the risk score model in the training and validation datasets. Higher TMB was associated with IME diversification and worse prognosis in HCC. Mutations in three hub TMB-associated DEIGs correlated with lower immune cell infiltration.

11.
Environ Pollut ; : 115606, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190980

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most refractory organic environmental pollutants that ubiquitous existence in nature. Due to the polymorphism of their metabolic pathway and corresponding downstream metabolites, PCBs' toxicities are complicated and need extended investigation. In the present study, we discovered a novel regulatory mechanism of PCB quinone metabolite-driven programmed cell death (PCD), namely, necroptosis. We first confirmed that PCB quinone induces cancerous HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells necroptosis via the phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like MLKL (p-MLKL). Then, we found that PCB quinone-stimulated p-MLKL enhances exosome biogenesis and secretion. Exosome interacts with p-MLKL and releases p-MLKL to the outside of the cell, and ultimately alleviating PCB quinone-induced necroptosis. The inhibition of exosome secretion by GW4869 significantly elevated necroptotic level, indicating the establishment of a short negative feedback loop of MLKL-exosome secretion upon PCB quinone challenge. Since exosome-mediated signaling showed great implications in various human diseases, this work may provide a new mechanism for PCBs-associated toxicity.

12.
Cell Rep ; 33(4): 108270, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113371

RESUMO

The exact mechanisms underlying the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate, using a combination of direct and indirect calorimetry, an increase in total resting metabolic rate (RMR) and specifically anaerobic RMR after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but not sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We also show an RYGB-specific increase in splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity and "browning" of visceral mesenteric fat. Consequently, selective splanchnic denervation abolishes all beneficial metabolic outcomes of gastric bypass that involve changes in the endocannabinoid signaling within the small intestine. Furthermore, we demonstrate that administration of rimonabant, an endocannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) inverse agonist, to obese mice mimics RYGB-specific effects on energy balance and splanchnic nerve activity. On the other hand, arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), a CB1 agonist, attenuates the weight loss and metabolic signature of this procedure. These findings identify CB1 as a key player in energy regulation post-RYGB via a pathway involving the sympathetic nervous system.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 404(Pt A): 124123, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049639

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish a method allowing the safe use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils through the combination of biochar applications and different cropping systems. The impact of biochar applications under different cropping systems on the human health risks of PAHs and soil microbiology was elucidated. The residual PAHs were the lowest in rhizosphere soils amended with 2% corn straw-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 300 °C (CB300) under the paddy-upland rotation cropping (PURC) system. Human health risks resulting from the ingestion of PAH-contaminated carrot roots / rice grains under the PURC system were significantly lower than those under continuous upland cropping systems. The greatest diversity, richness and network complexity of soil microbial communities occurred under the PURC system combined with the 2% CB300 treatment. Soil microbial functions associated with soil health and PAH biodegradation were enhanced under this strategy, while the pathogen group was inhibited. Primarily owing to its high sorption capacity, bamboo-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 700 °C realized in the reduction of PAHs, but weakly influenced shifts in soil microbial communities. Overall, the combination of PURC systems and low-temperature-pyrolyzed nutrient-rich biochar could efficiently reduce the human health risks of PAHs and improve soil microbial ecology in agricultural fields.

14.
Anal Chem ; 92(22): 14990-14998, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104346

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based sensors have been extensively applied for sensing or imaging. It is known that a protein shell named protein corona (PC) formed around the nanomaterials could not only block the desired function of nanomaterials but also affect their behavior, which is a hot and important issue needing consideration. Therefore, we hypothesize that the formation of PC around AuNPs could inevitably affect the AuNP-based target assay. In this work, the effects of PC on the detection results in sensors based on AuNPs were studied. Three types of noncovalent molecule-AuNP sensors including AuNP-dichlorofluorescein, AuNP-aptamer, and AuNP-antibody-DNA were constructed, and several typical proteins (bovine serum albumin, fibrinogen, hemoglobin, and ß-lactoglobulin), milk, and fetal bovine serum were selected as models for the formation of PCs. This study shows that the PC could cause the loss of detection signals (up to 80%) and result in positive deviation of the measuring value compared with the true value. Moreover, the loss of detection signals could also increase the limits of detection (almost 10 times), decreasing the sensitivity of the three types of sensors, as proposed in this work compared to that without PC. Moreover, the polyethylene glycol backfilling strategy could not resolve the negative effects of PC on noncovalent molecule-AuNP sensors. The impacts of PC on detection results from noncovalent molecule-AuNP sensors would cause misdiagnosis or wasted production, which needs careful reconsideration of the AuNP-based detection in application fields like clinic diagnosis, food safety control, and so forth.

15.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 229, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is responsible for cancer initiation and development, positioning lncRNAs as not only biomarkers but also promising therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. A growing number of lncRNAs have been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but their functional and mechanistic roles remain unclear. METHODS: Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was used to investigate the molecular mechanism of UPK1A antisense RNA 1 (UPK1A-AS1). Cell Counting Kit-8 assays, EdU assays, flow cytometry, western blotting, and xenograft assays were used to confirm the role of UPK1A-AS1 in the proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatics analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to explore the interplay between UPK1A-AS1 and enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2). RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pull-down assays, western blotting, and qRT-PCR were conducted to confirm the interaction between UPK1A-AS1 and EZH2. The interaction between UPK1A-AS1 and miR-138-5p was examined by luciferase reporter and RIP assays. Finally, the expression level and prognosis value of UPK1A-AS1 in HCC were analyzed using RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. RESULTS: We showed that UPK1A-AS1, a newly identified lncRNA, promoted cellular proliferation and tumor growth by accelerating cell cycle progression. Cell cycle-related genes, including CCND1, CDK2, CDK4, CCNB1, and CCNB2, were significantly upregulated in HCC cells overexpressing UPK1A-AS1. Furthermore, overexpression of UPK1A-AS1 could protect HCC cells from cis-platinum toxicity. Mechanistically, UPK1A-AS1 interacted with EZH2 to mediate its nuclear translocation and reinforce its binding to SUZ12, leading to increased H27K3 trimethylation. Targeting EZH2 with specific small interfering RNA impaired the UPK1A-AS1-mediated upregulation of proliferation and cell cycle progression-related genes. Moreover, miR-138-5p was identified as a direct target of UPK1A-AS1. Additionally, UPK1A-AS1 was significantly upregulated in HCC, and the upregulation of UPK1A-AS1 predicted poor prognosis for patients with HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that UPK1A-AS1 promotes HCC development by accelerating cell cycle progression through interaction with EZH2 and sponging of miR-138-5p, suggesting that UPK1A-AS1 possesses substantial potential as a novel biomarker for HCC prognosis and therapy.

16.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 7656031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029256

RESUMO

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most fatal malignancies worldwide. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway is involved in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis. However, the prognostic value of JAK2 expression in resectable PDAC is unclear. Method: In this study, we performed a clinicopathological analysis of 62 resectable PDAC cases with a primary focus on survival. JAK2 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between JAK2 expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed. Results: Survival curve analyses revealed that high levels of JAK2 expression predict a poor prognosis in resectable PDAC patients. Multivariate analysis confirmed that JAK2 expression can predict the prognosis of PDAC. Conclusions: Assessment of JAK2 protein expression may be a promising method to predict prognosis in patients with resectable PDAC.

17.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128413, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017703

RESUMO

Halogenated quinones are representative metabolites of persistent organic pollutants. Tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCBQ) is a reactive metabolite of the widely used fungicide hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and wood preservative pentachlorophenol (PCP). Our previous studies have demonstrated that TCBQ induced neuron-like cell apoptosis in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. Here, we found that TCBQ caused lipid peroxidation and cellular morphological changes including shrinked mitochondrial size, suggesting the involvement of a recently uncovered form of programmed cell death (PCD), ferroptosis. Indeed, we then identified that ferroptosis is a novel PCD driven by TCBQ, which was correlated with a decrease in glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) level and iron accumulation by altering iron metabolism. Notably, nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a negative regulator in modulating the outcomes of ferroptosis as an adaptive cellular defense response. Nrf2 activation enhanced iron storage capacity and GPX4 activity by elevating ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1) expression and glutathione (GSH) level, respectively. On the contrary, Nfe2l2 (Nrf2) deficiency enhanced PC12 cells susceptibility to ferroptosis.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102246

RESUMO

The subgenotype B5 of EV-A71 is a widely circulating subgenotype that frequently spreads across the globe. Several outbreaks have occurred in nations, such as Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Japan. Appearing first in Taiwan, China, the subgenotype has been frequently reported in mainland of China even though no outbreaks have been reported so far. The current study reconstructed the migration of the B5 subgenotype of EV-A71 in China via phylogeographical analysis. Furthermore, we investigated its population dynamics in order to draw more credible inferences. Following a dataset cleanup of B5 subgenotype of EV-A71, we detected earlier B5 subgenotypes of EV-A71 sequences that had been circulating in Malaysia and Singapore since the year 2000, which was before the 2003 outbreak that occurred in Sarawak. The Bayesian inference indicated that the most recent common ancestor of B5 subgenotype EV-A71 appeared in September, 1994 (1994.75). With respect to the overall prevalence, geographical reconstruction revealed that the B5 subgenotype EV-A71 originated singly from single-source cluster and subsequently developed several active lineages. Based on a large amount of data that was accumulated, we conclude that the appearance of the B5 subgenotype of EV-A71 in mainland of China was mainly due to multiple migrations from different origins.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22231, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), at present, accumulative attention has been paid to COVID-19 due to its global prevalence. Acupuncture may play a beneficial role in patients who suffer from COVID-19. In China and East Asia, acupuncture has been widely used to treat diverse diseases for thousands of years, as an important method of treatment now, it plays an indispensable role in the treatment of respiratory diseases in China. This study is designed to determine the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in COVID-19. METHODS: We will search the following sources for the Randomized controlled trials (RCT): The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Chinese Science, and the Wanfang Database. All the above databases will be searched from the available date of inception until the latest issue. No language or publication restriction will be used. Primary outcomes will include chest CT and nucleic acid detection of respiratory samples. RESULTS: The results will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence for researchers in this subject area. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our study will provide evidence to evaluate whether acupuncture is an effective treatments for patients suffering from COVID-19. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020180875.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pandemias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 920, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) clinical guidelines offer evidence-based recommendations to improve quality of healthcare for patients with or at risk of BC. Suboptimal adherence to recommendations has the potential to negatively affect population health. However, no study has systematically reviewed the impact of BC guideline adherence -as prognosis factor- on BC healthcare processes and health outcomes. The objectives are to analyse the impact of guideline adherence on health outcomes and on healthcare costs. METHODS: We searched systematic reviews and primary studies in MEDLINE and Embase, conducted in European Union (EU) countries (inception to May 2019). Eligibility assessment, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted by one author and crosschecked by a second. We used random-effects meta-analyses to examine the impact of guideline adherence on overall survival and disease-free survival, and assessed certainty of evidence using GRADE. RESULTS: We included 21 primary studies. Most were published during the last decade (90%), followed a retrospective cohort design (86%), focused on treatment guideline adherence (95%), and were at low (80%) or moderate (20%) risk of bias. Nineteen studies (95%) examined the impact of guideline adherence on health outcomes, while two (10%) on healthcare cost. Adherence to guidelines was associated with increased overall survival (HR = 0.67, 95%CI 0.59-0.76) and disease-free survival (HR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.15-0.82), representing 138 more survivors (96 more to 178 more) and 336 patients free of recurrence (73 more to 491 more) for every 1000 women receiving adherent CG treatment compared to those receiving non-adherent treatment at 5 years follow-up (moderate certainty). Adherence to treatment guidelines was associated with higher costs, but adherence to follow-up guidelines was associated with lower costs (low certainty). CONCLUSIONS: Our review of EU studies suggests that there is moderate certainty that adherence to BC guidelines is associated with an improved survival. BC guidelines should be rigorously implemented in the clinical setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO ( CRD42018092884 ).

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