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1.
Nutrients ; 16(2)2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades the number of endurance events has increased, as well as the number of athletes participating in them. Adequate nutritional and water planning is essential to maintain optimal sports performance and to reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal problems. The main objective of this study is to determine the dietary intake and compliance with nutritional recommendations of athletes in two endurance competitions, as well as to assess the incidence of gastrointestinal complaints. METHODS: An observational and cross-sectional study was carried out on the consumption of liquids, food, and supplements in 42 triathletes and mountain runners (MRs) participating in a Vi-Half-Gasteiz triathlon and the Ultra Sierra de Cazorla trail run. At the completion of the trials, participants completed a validated questionnaire (NIQEC). RESULTS: The mean caloric intake during the test of the participants in this study was 192.17 kcal/h, while the mean carbohydrate intake was 43.67 g/h, the mean sodium intake was 267.43 mg/h, and the mean caffeine intake was 15.53 mg/h, with no significant differences between the two sports. The amount of liquids consumed by the participants was 421.21 mL/h, with no significant differences between the triathletes and MRs. As for gastrointestinal problems, it was observed that the participants presented gastrointestinal discomfort in 61.9% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: The intakes of energy, carbohydrates, water, sodium, and caffeine were lower than the current recommendations. There were no differences in the energy, carbohydrate, water, sodium, and caffeine intakes between the triathletes and mountain runners. Gastrointestinal problems showed a high prevalence in these athletes.


Assuntos
Cafeína , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos , Sódio , Água
2.
Nutr Rev ; 2023 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37500603

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Studies on parenting, including feeding styles and practices in general, have focused mainly on mothers. Consequently, there is a gap with respect to fathers in the scientific literature. OBJECTIVE: This study's main objective is to determine paternal feeding styles toward children aged 0 to 18 years and to identify those most commonly used by men. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases were consulted. DATA EXTRACTION: Articles that were not published in English, Spanish, or Italian were excluded, as well as those that referred to other subjects, those whose sample did not include men, or those studying children with pathologies that could influence their diet. All the articles ultimately included were assessed using the STROBE checklist. DATA ANALYSIS: A total of 183 articles were found. Of these, 13 were included in the review. No trend was found for paternal parenting style, and disparities existed among the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive styles. In terms of feeding practices, men were more likely to use coercion. The most reported feeding styles were authoritarian and permissive. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of systematic review suggest cultural and gender differences exist with respect to parenting styles and feeding styles and practices. In terms of paternal parenting styles, there is some disparity. However, when it comes to feeding, men showed a tendency toward an authoritarian feeding style and coercive feeding practices.

3.
Nutrients ; 15(8)2023 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37111186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last few years endurance sports have experienced a great increase in the number of competitions and participants. Dietary-nutritional planning is key for performing well during such competitions. To date, there is no questionnaire expressly developed to be able to analyze the consumption of liquids, foods, and supplements, as well as gastrointestinal problems in these events. This study describes the development of the Nutritional Intake Questionnaire for Endurance Competitions (NIQEC). METHODS: The study was composed in the following phases: (1) Bibliographic search for the most important nutrients, (2) focus groups (17 dietitian-nutritionists and 15 experienced athletes) and generation of items, (3) Delphi surveys, and (4) cognitive interviews. RESULTS: After an initial shaping of the questionnaire with the items that emerged in the focus groups, their relevance was evaluated by means of the Delphi survey, which showed more than 80% approval for most items. Finally, the cognitive interviews indicated that the questionnaire was simple and complete for its purpose. The final NIQEC (n = 50 items) was divided in 5 sections: Demographic data; sports data; consumption of liquids, food and supplements before, during, and after the competition; gastrointestinal complaints, and dietary-nutritional planning for the competition. CONCLUSIONS: The NICEQ is a useful tool that allows collecting information from participants on sociodemographic factors and gastrointestinal complaints, and estimating the intake of liquid, food, and supplements, for endurance competitions.


Assuntos
Resistência Física , Esportes , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Ingestão de Alimentos , Atletas
4.
Nutrients ; 15(6)2023 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36986060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of sports supplements (SS) to improve sports performance is very common in athletes. In the case of triathletes, the physiological characteristics of the sport may require the use of certain SS. Although the consumption of SS is widespread in this sport, very few studies have investigated it thus far. The aim is to analyze the pattern of SS consumption by triathletes according to sex and the competitive level. METHODOLOGY: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study on the consumption and habitual use of SS of 232 Spanish-federated triathletes. Data were collected through a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, 92.2% of the athletes consumed SS, but no significant differences were found in terms of competition level or sex. Yet, significant differences were found regarding the level of competition for total SS (p = 0.021), the total number of Group A supplements from the AIS classification (p = 0.012), and for the ergogenic aids (p = 0.003). The most-consumed SS were bars, sports drinks, sports gels, and caffeine (83.6%, 74.1%, 61.2%, and 46.6%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of SS by triathletes is high, and the number of SS consumed rises from the regional to the national and international levels. The four SS most consumed were included in category A of the AIS (greatest scientific evidence).


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Atletas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of sports supplements (SS) to improve sports performance is widespread in all types of athletes, however, the specific characteristics of mountain races may require the use of certain SS. Despite being a sport where the consumption of SS seems widespread, few studies have been conducted in this regard. The objective of this study is to analyze the pattern of SS consumption of mountain runners in relation to the degree of scientific evidence, sex, and level of competition. METHODS: Descriptive and cross-sectional study on the consumption and habitual use of SS of 357 federated mountain runners in Spain. Data were collected through a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: From the total sample, 93.84% of the athletes stated that they consumed SS, with no differences observed based on the competitive level or in terms of sex; however, there were significant differences according to the competitive level in terms of the number of SS consumed, with consumption being greater at a higher competitive level (p = 0.009). The most consumed SS were sports bars (66.1%), sports drinks (60.5%), sports gels (52.9%), and caffeine (46.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of SS in mountain races is high, and the number of SS consumed is higher as the competition level increases. The four SS most consumed by the participants in this study were all included in category A in the classification of the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), this category is the one with the greatest scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Austrália , Atletas
6.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sports supplements (SS) are widely consumed by many types of athletes to improve their performance. These SS are classified according to their level of scientific evidence, by the ABCD system from the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). In open water swimming, their use may be necessary due to the physiological challenges posed by this sport discipline. However, there is currently little literature on the use of SS in open water swimmers. The aim of this work is to analyze the pattern of consumption of SS by open water swimmers, by studying the differences according to the competitive level (regional vs. national). METHODS: Descriptive and cross-sectional study on the consumption and use of SS by federated open water swimmers in Spain in the 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons. The data were collected through a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: 79.5% of the participants consumed SS, with significant differences according to their level, being higher in athletes at the national level. The most-consumed SS by the swimmers studied were sports drinks, energy bars, caffeine, vitamin C, and vitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that the consumption of SS in open water swimmers was high, and of the five most-consumed SS, four of them belonged to the category of greatest scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Natação , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Austrália , Natação/fisiologia , Atletas
7.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432438

RESUMO

Indoor team sports are characterized by matches that are shorter in duration and with frequent substitution (high-intensity intermittent). The main goal of teams is to best cover athletes' physiological demands, while meeting their dietary intake needs is critical. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the dietary intake of indoor team sports athletes and to analyze whether they comply with nutritional recommendations. A search of PubMed-MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 2008 to July 2022 was conducted and 2727 documents were identified. The studies focused on adult professional or semi-professional volleyball, basketball, handball, or futsal athletes. Two independent researchers screened and extracted the data, with 20 documents included after they met the inclusion criteria. Most of the athletes, both men and women, did not meet the official recommendations based on under-consumption (energy and carbohydrates) or over-consumption (fats). In relation to protein, 28.6% of studies met the recommendations, with 50% of those who did not meet it being due to under-consumption. Although there are references on athletes' dietary intakes, there are no references considering sexes or types of sport. More adapted recommendations are needed in order to more precisely evaluate athletes' intake to know if they meet their real nutritional requirements.


Assuntos
Atletas , Basquetebol , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Ingestão de Alimentos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Nutrientes
8.
Nutr. hosp ; 39(6): 1341-1348, nov.-dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214842

RESUMO

Introduction: sports supplements (SS) are widely used by all types of athletes to improve their performance. These SS are classified according to the ABCD system of the Australian Institute of Sports (AIS) from higher to lower scientific evidence. In mountain runners, their use could be necessary due to the physiological demands required by this sport. However, the literature on the use of SS by mountain runners is scarce. Objective: to analyze the pattern of SS consumption in mountain runners by studying differences according to sex and competitive level (regional vs national). Methodology: this was a descriptive and cross-sectional study on the consumption and use of SS by mountain runners participating in the Alcoy Solidarity Trail. Data were collected through a validated questionnaire based on content, applicability, structure, and presentation. This questionnaire was completed online by the athletes, who could fill it out voluntarily and at their convenience, as well as anonymously. Results: the results showed that 87.5 % of participants reported consuming SS, with no significant differences observed with respect to competitive level, although differences were found with respect to sex (92.7 % in men vs 70.6 % in women; p = 0.029), with a higher consumption found in men compared to women. The most consumed SS were sports bars (81.9 %), sports drinks (75.0 %), caffeine (48.6 %), magnesium (38.9 %), and electrolytes (27.8 %). Conclusions: among mountain runners consumption of SS is high, and 4 of the 5 most habitually consumed SS belong in the category of greater scientific evidence. (AU)


Introducción: los suplementos deportivos (SS) son muy utilizados por todo tipo de deportistas para mejorar su rendimiento. Estos SS se clasifican según el sistema ABCD del Australian Institute of Sports (AIS) de mayor a menor evidencia científica. En corredores de montaña, su uso podría ser necesario debido a las exigencias fisiológicas de este deporte. Sin embargo, la literatura sobre el uso de SS por corredores de montaña es escasa. Objetivo: analizar el patrón de consumo de SS en corredores de montaña, estudiando las diferencias según el sexo y el nivel competitivo (autonómico vs. nacional). Metodología: se trata de un estudio descriptivo y transversal sobre el consumo y uso de SS por parte de los corredores de montaña participantes en el Trail Solidario de Alcoy. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de un cuestionario validado en base al contenido, la aplicabilidad, la estructura y la presentación. El cuestionario fue completado de manera online por los atletas que pudieron rellenarlo voluntariamente y a conveniencia, y de manera anónima. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que el 87,5 % de los participantes reportaron consumir SS, no observándose diferencias significativas con respecto al nivel competitivo, aunque sí se encontraron diferencias con respecto al sexo (92,7 % en hombres y 70,6 % en mujeres; p = 0,029), donde los hombres tenían un mayor consumo en comparación con las mujeres. Los SS más consumidos fueron las barritas deportivas (81,9 %), las bebidas deportivas (75,0 %), la cafeína (48,6 %), el magnesio (38,9 %) y los electrólitos (27,8 %). Conclusiones: entre los corredores de montaña, el consumo de SS es alto y 4 de los 5 SS más consumidos pertenecen a la categoría de mayor evidencia científica. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Esportes , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Corrida , Espanha
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078716

RESUMO

CrossFit® is a high-intensity sport that combines weightlifting, gymnastic skills, and cardiovascular exercises. To find the anthropometric references that define the optimal body composition, it is essential to first find an optimal body composition for one's physical preparation. The objective of this study is to describe the anthropometric characteristics of 27 Spanish CrossFit® athletes, 19 males aged 39 years old (24-44) and 8 females aged 28 years old (23-40), and how these characteristics influenced their performance. The athletes performed the Fran, Cindy, and Kelly workouts, establishing minimum marks, and the CrossFit Total workout to assess maximum strength. Significant differences were not found in time and repetitions between sexes in skill training, although there was a positive correlation r = 0.876 (p < 0.001) between muscle mass and the Total CrossFit result. We can conclude that the CrossFit® athlete has a low amount of fat mass and a small relative size, which is an advantage when training with bodyweight exercises, and a high muscle mass that provide benefits when strength training. In addition, despite executing movements from a multitude of disciplines, the physical demands for lifting heavy loads resulted in the anthropometric values of athletes being more similar to elite weightlifting athletes than in other sports.


Assuntos
Atletas , Composição Corporal , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Ginástica , Humanos , Masculino , Levantamento de Peso
10.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836377

RESUMO

People's eating habits and lifestyle can have a negative impact on health. In situations of difficulty or socioeconomic crisis, these habits tend to be modified, leading to unhealthy dietary patterns that result in an increase of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Previous studies have indicated that, due to the state of alarm imposed in Spain to combat the spread of COVID-19, an increase in the purchase of non-core products occurred, along with a decrease in the daily physical activity of the population. This could be a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. The objective of this observational study was to analyze the dietary pattern of the Spanish population during home confinement and to compare it with the pattern of habitual consumption collected in the last National Health Survey, analyzing the possible changes. More than half of the respondents in the sample increased their consumption of sweets and snacks during confinement, while the consumption of fresh products decreased. Most claimed to be emotionally hungry, leading to an increase in their daily energy intake. The stress and anxiety generated by confinement could be the cause of the increased consumption of products rich in sugars and saturated fats, which are associated with greater stress and anxiety.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 14(3): 181-185, 2021-09-02. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-227411

RESUMO

Introducción: El uso de suplementos deportivos (SD) es muy común entre los atletas y durante los últimos años la prevalencia de su consumo ha ido aumentando. Sin embargo, no todos los SD proporcionan los beneficios que se busca cuando se decide consumir este tipo de sustancias. Es por ello que las entidades científicas han puesto su foco en la evaluación de SD y se han creado clasificaciones en función de la evidencia científica, como la que ha propuesto el Instituto Australiano del Deporte (AIS). Los remeros de élite realizan sesiones de entrenamiento centradas en el desarrollo de la capacidad aeróbica y anaeróbica, así como entrenamientos defuerza, por lo que la utilización de SD adecuados puede mejorar el rendimiento de estos deportistas.Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de consumo de SD en remeros de élite universitarios y evaluar el grado de evidencia del SD consumido.Método: Estudio descriptivo y transversal en el que han participado 14 remeros del equipo de remo de la Universidad de Alicante. Se utilizó un cuestionario, previamente validado, para recoger los datos pertinentes al consumo de SD.Resultados: Los SD más consumidos fueron: cafeína (81%), proteína de suero (75%), creatina monohidrato (62,5%), barritas energéticas (56,3%), bebida isotónica (50%) y BCAA (43,7%). La finalidad principal de su uso fue para mejorar el rendimiento deportivo y solo un 33% estaba asesorado por un dietista-nutricionista.Conclusión: La mayoría de los SD utilizados por los remeros tienen respaldo científico. Por lo que sería interesante que se llevasen a cabo más investigaciones en esta población. (AU)


Introduction: The use of sports supplements (SD) is very common among athletes. In recent years the prevalence of consumption has been increasing. However, not all SD provide the benefits that we are find when we deciding to use this type of substance. That is why scientific entities have been its focus in the evaluation of SD and classifications have been created for scientific evidence, as well as in the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). The elite rowers training activities focused on the development of aerobic and anaerobic capacity and strength traininig, so the use of suitable SD could improve the performance of these athletes.Objective: Determine the prevalence of SD consumption in university rowers and to evaluate the grade of evidence of SD consumption.Method: Descriptive and transversal study in which have participated 14 rowers that shape the University of Alicante’s rower team. A previously validated questionnaire was applied to collect the data about SD consumption.Results: The SD most consumed were: caffeine (81%), whey protein (75%), creatine monohydrate (62.5%), energy bars (56.3%), isotonic drink (50%) and BCAA (43, 7%). The main purpose of its use was to improve athletic performance, and only 33% were advised by a dietitian-nutritionist.Conclusion: Most SD that rowers used have scientific support. So, it would be interesting if more research were carried out in this population. (AU)


Introdução: O uso de suplementos esportivos (DS) é muito comum entre atletas e nos últimos anos a prevalência de seu consumo vem aumentando. No entanto, nem todos os DSs fornecem os benefícios que se buscam ao decidir consumir esses tipos de substâncias. É por isso que as entidades científicas têm se voltado para a avaliação do DS e têm sido criadas classificações com base em evidências científicas, como a proposta pelo Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). Os remadores de elite realizam sessões de treinamento com foco no desenvolvimento da capacidade aeróbia e anaeróbia, além do treinamento de força, de forma que o uso de DS adequado pode melhorar o desempenho desses atletas.Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência do consumo de DS em remadores universitários de elite e avaliar o grau de evidência do consumo de DS.Método: Estudo descritivo e transversal do qual participaram 14 remadores da equipe de remo da Universidade de Alicante. Um questionário previamente validado foi usado para coletar dados pertinentes ao consumo de SD.Resultados: Os DSs mais consumidos foram: cafeína (81%), proteína de soro de leite (75%), creatina monohidratada (62,5%), barras energéticas (56,3%), bebida isotônica (50%) e BCAA (43,7%). O principal objetivo de seu uso era melhorar o rendimento esportivo e apenas 33% foram orientados por nutricionista-nutricionista.Conclusão: A maioria dos DSs utilizados pelos remadores possuem respaldo científico. Portanto, seria interessante se mais pesquisas fossem realizadas nesta população. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Atletas , Esportes Aquáticos , Apoio Nutricional , Suplementos Nutricionais , Espanha
12.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917477

RESUMO

Caffeine is a food supplement widely consumed by athletes, but it has not been established. So far, the veracity of their labeling in terms of the dosage and cause/effect relationship aimed at the consumer. The aim is to analyze the health claims and the dosage presented on the labeling of caffeine supplements and to evaluate if they follow the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and international criteria. A descriptive cross-sectional study of a sample of caffeine supplements was carried out. The search was done through the Amazon and Google Shopping web portals. In order to assess the adequacy of the health claims, the guidelines of reference established by European Food Safety Authority were compared to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, International Olympic Committee, and Australian Institute of Sport guidelines; in addition, recent systematic reviews were addressed. A review of labels of 42 caffeine supplements showed that, in less than 3% of the products were the health claims supported by the recommendations and by the labeled quantity of caffeine. The claims that fully complied the recommendations were, "improves or increases endurance performance", "improves strength performance", or "improves short-term performance". In most cases, the recommended dosage was 200 mg/day for these products, which is the minimum for the caffeine effects to be declared. The rest of the health claims were not adequate or need to be modified. Most of the health claims identified indicated an unproven cause and effect, which constitutes consumer fraud, and so must be modified or eliminated.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saúde , Internacionalidade , Ciência , Esportes , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
13.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the information on health claims present in the labelling of creatine monohydrate (CM) products. DESIGN: A descriptive study of a selection of products marketed as CM, with health claims, and that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, was conducted using the Amazon and Google Shopping websites. The adequacy and compliance of the health claims were evaluated with the European legislative requirements (European Food Safety Authority and European Commission). The results were discussed with scientific evidence criteria from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, International Olympic Committee, and International Society of Sports Nutrition, as well as the systematic review carried out by Mielgo-Ayuso in 2019. SETTING: Health claims in the commercial communications of a sample of CM supplements, in relation to current legislation and scientific knowledge. PARTICIPANT: A total of 554 CM products were obtained. RESULTS: Of the total sample, only 167 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of these, 30·5 % recommended a CM dose of 5·0-5·9 g/d, while 29·9 % recommended 3·0 to 3·9 g/d. As for the health claims, 'Enhances physical performance' appeared in 73·1 % of the supplements, in most cases referring to a dosage of 3·0 to 3·9 g/d for these products. The rest of the declarations were not adequate or needed to be modified. CONCLUSION: Only 25 % of the health claims complied with the criteria established by the scientific reference documents. Most of the declarations must be modified or eliminated, as they could be considered fraudulent and/or misleading for the consumer.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796764

RESUMO

Food exchange lists have been widely used in dietary practice in health and disease situations, but there are still no exchange lists for sports foods. The aim of this study was to apply a previous published methodology to design food exchange lists to the development of a sports food exchange list, with sport products available in Spain. A cross-sectional study of the nutritional composition of sports foods, regarding macronutrients and energy, was carried out. A total of 322 sports foods from 18 companies were selected, taking into account their interest in sports practice and with nutritional data provided by companies. Sports foods were divided into seven groups: sports drinks; sports gels; sports bars; sports confectionery; protein powders; protein bars; and liquid meals. A sports food composition database based on portion size usually consumed by athletes and/or recommended in commercial packaging was created. Within each sports foods group, different subgroups were defined due to differences in the main and/or secondary macronutrient. The definition of each exchange list with the amounts-in grams-of each sports food within each group and subgroup, was done using statistical criteria such as mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and Z value. Final exchange values for energy and macronutrient have been established for each group and subgroup using a methodology to design food exchange lists previously published by the authors. In addition, those products with high Z values that can provide greater variability in dietary planning were included. The usefulness of sport foods lists as well as the use of an exchange system in the dietary practice of sports nutrition is discussed, and examples of how to use them with athletes are presented. This first sport foods exchange list showed in this study, with commercial sports products available in Spain, can be a novel tool for dietetic practice and also can allow sport nutrition professionals to develop another sport food list using the methodology described in this paper. Its management would allow dietitians to adapt dietary plans more precisely to the training and/or competition of the athlete.


Assuntos
Dietética/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Planejamento de Cardápio/métodos , Nutrientes/análise , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Espanha , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521666

RESUMO

During the last few years, the numbers of competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities have increased significantly. This type of competition is an extreme challenge for athletes. Therefore, they have an increased the risk of developing medical and nutritional problems. The aim of the work is to estimate the incidence of nutrition-related adverse outcomes in endurance and ultra-endurance sports, considering the variables that influence them. A critical review was carried out based on the PubMed database, by means of a search strategy based on keywords separated by Boolean connectors. For all the results obtained in a period from 2008 to 2019, a series of inclusion/exclusion criteria was applied to select only the studies that fitted the objective of the present study. Results and discussion: Of the 871 publications identified, 33 met the inclusion criteria. The adverse outcomes found included exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), heat stroke by exertion (EHS), gastrointestinal (GI) problems, dehydration, and hypothermia; the provision of misinformation to athletes about nutrient intake and hydration during competition was identified as the main cause. Conclusions: The main adverse outcomes in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities are EAH, GI inconveniences, and EHS. These problems can affect the performance and health status of the athlete during and post-competition. Several nutritional guidelines have been suggested that can prevent these adverse outcomes, and it is essential to individualize and adjust the nutritional intake and hydration status according to the characteristics of each competition.


Assuntos
Resistência Física , Esportes , Atletas , Humanos , Incidência , Estado Nutricional
16.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 47: e65-e74, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130342

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a new questionnaire assessing feeding styles in toddlers, the Toddler Feeding Style Questionnaire (TFSQ). DESIGN AND METHODS: An instrumental design was used in this study. A convenience sample of 546 Spanish mothers of a toddler (12-24 months-old) completed the TFSQ and a web-based survey to obtain data on feeding styles, sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, weaning and attachment style. Items were developed and classified into two content domains: responsiveness and demandingness. For the construct validity analysis, the sample was randomly divided into two halves used to the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. Validation hypotheses about the differences in the TFSQ scores were suggested. RESULTS: The factorial analysis revealed a responsiveness scale and a demandingness scale. The McDonald's Omega and Cronbach's alpha values coincided in both scales, being 0.84 and 0.75, respectively. A high responsiveness and demandingness feeding styles degree of agreement showed a statistically significant association with the correspondent scale (p < .01). The 33.3% of children who are overweight or obese have mothers who classify themselves as neglectful. Both scales were related to the mothers' attachment styles, toddler's age and the time of weaning at 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The TFSQ provides a valid and reliable Responsiveness and Demandingness scale to evaluate feeding styles in toddlers. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Parental feeding styles influence future eating behavior and children's weight. There is a lack of validated instruments used to evaluate feeding styles in toddlerhood based on the two theoretical dimensions of responsiveness and demandingness.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Poder Familiar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Antropometria , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Espanha , Desmame
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108986

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a set of permanent disorders that limit physical activity and increase the risk of developing other diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MS). Adequate nutrition can contribute to the prevention of associated symptoms. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the nutritional status and the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with CP and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels between IV and V. Materials and Methods: A sample of 41 adults with CP and GMFCS levels from IV to V were studied. The variables used in the study were age, sex, weight, height, mean age, and GMFCS level range. To evaluate nutritional status, body mass index and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), a nutritional screening tool, were used. To assess cardiometabolic risk, data on obesity, central obesity, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected. Results: More than 80% of the population studied was malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, according to the MNA tool classification ranges, and around 35% of the studied population was within the underweight range. Regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, only one adult with CP was diagnosed with MS. Conclusions: The studied population of adults with CP and GMFCS levels between IV and V is not a population at risk of MS; however, the high prevalence of malnutrition, as well as some of the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, should be taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Institucionalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
18.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 70(2): 232-239, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058397

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate how socio-economic changes have modified body mass index values and dietary patterns in the Spanish population. A comparative cross-sectional analysis of the last two iterations of the Spanish National Health Survey (SNSH) was done. The independent variables were sex, age, education level, employment situation, and social class. Outcome variables were: poor diet quality and obesity. Economic crisis increases the probability to become obese and to have a poor diet and employment situation is the variable that showed the greatest differences between years. While in 2006 to be unemployed did not represent a risk to have a poor diet [odds ratio (OR): 0.74; p<.005], in 2012 it did (OR: 1.27; p<.005). Economic changes can modify diet quality and nutritional status, increasing the risk to have a poor diet or to be obese.


Assuntos
Dieta/economia , Recessão Econômica , Emprego , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/normas , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 35(6): 1401-1415, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the Valencian Network of Healthy Public Universities (RVUPS) is part of the healthy environments of the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of the network is to achieve healthier universities through different lines of action, emphasizing the promotion of physical activity and sports. AIM: the purpose of this study was to analyze and review the activities developed by the RVUPS on the promotion of FA and to assess, through key informants, the need to implement an AF service within the university context. METHODS: on the one hand, an analysis and review of the activities and services developed to promote FA and sports that are included in the "Healthy University" section of each of the universities that make up the RVUPS (n = 5) was carried out. In addition, a qualitative study was developed interviewing key informants from the University of Alicante (n = 16), with the aim to know their perception about the utility of implementing a physical activity service within the university context. RESULTS: currently, Valencian universities do not cover all the needs to achieve an adequate well-being state. In response, some universities from RVUPS offer individualized activities to prevent and treat some of the chronic pathologies that currently have a highest incidence in population. In addition, new services are being implemented, which integrate all health professionals in order to achieve a more comprehensive service to their population. The qualitative study revealed that interviewees also perceive such needs and, therefore, support these initiatives, considering that a physical activity and nutrition service would be an interesting option for implementation into universities. CONCLUSION: it is necessary to strengthen the promotion of the practice of physical activity within university population, through healthy breaks, and also with the implementation of a back pain prevention and rehabilitation service. The integration of physical activity and nutrition services could affect the improvement of the health of the university population, and would increase the physical practice, carrying out an assessment of physical fitness and a proper prescription of exercise, according to the personal health conditions of each member of the university population.


INTRODUCCIÓN: la Red Valenciana de Universidades Públicas Saludables (RVUPS) se enmarca en los entornos saludables de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Su objetivo es conseguir universidades más saludables a través de diferentes líneas de actuación, destacando entre ellas la de la promoción de la actividad física (AF) y el deporte. OBJETIVO: este estudio tiene por objeto analizar y revisar las actividades desarrolladas por la RVUPS sobre promoción de la AF y valorar mediante informadores clave la necesidad de implantar un servicio de AF dentro del ámbito universitario. MÉTODOS: por una parte, se realizó un análisis y estudio de las actividades y servicios que se desarrollan para promocionar la AF y el deporte y que están incluidos en la sección de "Universidad Saludable" de cada una de las universidades que conforman la RVUPS (n = 5). Además, se realizó por otra parte un estudio cualitativo a informadores clave de la Universidad de Alicante (n = 16) para conocer la percepción de cada uno de ellos sobre la utilidad de implantar un servicio de actividad física dentro del ámbito universitario. RESULTADOS: actualmente, las universidades valencianas no cubren todas las necesidades para alcanzar un adecuado estado de bienestar. Como respuesta, algunas universidades ofrecen actividades individualizadas para prevenir y tratar alguna de las patologías que mayor incidencia tienen en la actualidad. Además, se están implantando nuevos servicios que integran a todos los profesionales de la salud a fin de conseguir un servicio más completo e integral a su comunidad. El estudio cualitativo reveló que entrevistados también perciben tales necesidades y, por tanto, apoyan estas iniciativas, considerando que un servicio de AF y nutrición sería una interesante opción de implantación en las universidades. CONCLUSIONES: es necesario reforzar el fomento de la práctica de AF dentro de la comunidad universitaria, a través de pautas saludables y con la implantación de un servicio de prevención del dolor de espalda. La integración de servicios de AF y nutrición podría incidir en la mejora de la salud de la comunidad universitaria, a la vez que aumentaría la práctica de AF, realizando una valoración de la condición física y una prescripción de ejercicio físico acorde a las condiciones de salud de cada persona.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Universidades , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Setor Público , Espanha
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(6): 1401-1415, nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181483

RESUMO

Introducción: la Red Valenciana de Universidades Públicas Saludables (RVUPS) se enmarca en los entornos saludables de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Su objetivo es conseguir universidades más saludables a través de diferentes líneas de actuación, destacando entre ellas la de la promoción de la actividad física (AF) y el deporte. Objetivo: este estudio tiene por objeto analizar y revisar las actividades desarrolladas por la RVUPS sobre promoción de la AF y valorar mediante informadores clave la necesidad de implantar un servicio de AF dentro del ámbito universitario. Métodos: por una parte, se realizó un análisis y estudio de las actividades y servicios que se desarrollan para promocionar la AF y el deporte y que están incluidos en la sección de "Universidad Saludable" de cada una de las universidades que conforman la RVUPS (n = 5). Además, se realizó por otra parte un estudio cualitativo a informadores clave de la Universidad de Alicante (n = 16) para conocer la percepción de cada uno de ellos sobre la utilidad de implantar un servicio de actividad física dentro del ámbito universitario. Resultados: actualmente, las universidades valencianas no cubren todas las necesidades para alcanzar un adecuado estado de bienestar. Como respuesta, algunas universidades ofrecen actividades individualizadas para prevenir y tratar alguna de las patologías que mayor incidencia tienen en la actualidad. Además, se están implantando nuevos servicios que integran a todos los profesionales de la salud a fin de conseguir un servicio más completo e integral a su comunidad. El estudio cualitativo reveló que entrevistados también perciben tales necesidades y, por tanto, apoyan estas iniciativas, considerando que un servicio de AF y nutrición sería una interesante opción de implantación en las universidades. Conclusiones: es necesario reforzar el fomento de la práctica de AF dentro de la comunidad universitaria, a través de pautas saludables y con la implantación de un servicio de prevención del dolor de espalda. La integración de servicios de AF y nutrición podría incidir en la mejora de la salud de la comunidad universitaria, a la vez que aumentaría la práctica de AF, realizando una valoración de la condición física y una prescripción de ejercicio físico acorde a las condiciones de salud de cada persona


Background: the Valencian Network of Healthy Public Universities (RVUPS) is part of the healthy environments of the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of the network is to achieve healthier universities through different lines of action, emphasizing the promotion of physical activity and sports. Aim: the purpose of this study was to analyze and review the activities developed by the RVUPS on the promotion of FA and to assess, through key informants, the need to implement an AF service within the university context. Methods: on the one hand, an analysis and review of the activities and services developed to promote FA and sports that are included in the "Healthy University" section of each of the universities that make up the RVUPS (n = 5) was carried out. In addition, a qualitative study was developed interviewing key informants from the University of Alicante (n = 16), with the aim to know their perception about the utility of implementing a physical activity service within the university context. Results: currently, Valencian universities do not cover all the needs to achieve an adequate well-being state. In response, some universities from RVUPS offer individualized activities to prevent and treat some of the chronic pathologies that currently have a highest incidence in population. In addition, new services are being implemented, which integrate all health professionals in order to achieve a more comprehensive service to their population. The qualitative study revealed that interviewees also perceive such needs and, therefore, support these initiatives, considering that a physical activity and nutrition service would be an interesting option for implementation into universities. Conclusion: it is necessary to strengthen the promotion of the practice of physical activity within university population, through healthy breaks, and also with the implementation of a back pain prevention and rehabilitation service. The integration of physical activity and nutrition services could affect the improvement of the health of the university population, and would increase the physical practice, carrying out an assessment of physical fitness and a proper prescription of exercise, according to the personal health conditions of each member of the university population


Assuntos
Humanos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Aptidão Física , Setor Público , Espanha , Universidades
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