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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 120: 105590, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574833

RESUMO

The presence of different mutations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome can be related to changes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. Besides, these viral alterations associated with factors such as massive number of positive cases, vaccination and reinfections can be important in the viral evolution process. As well as, mutations found at low frequencies may have a more neutral action and consequently be less inclined to negative selection, facilitating their spread through the population. Related to that, we aimed to present mutations that are possibly relevant in the process of viral evolution found in 115 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from samples of individuals residing in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The genome from clinical samples was sequenced using High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) and analyzed using a workflow to map reads and find variations/SNPs. The samples were separated into 3 groups considering the sample lineage. Of the total number of analyzed sequences, 35 were from the Gamma lineage, 35 from Delta and 45 from Omicron. Amino acid changes present in frequencies lower than 80% of the reads in the sequences were evaluated. 11 common mutations among the samples were found in the Gamma lineage, 1 in the ORF1ab gene, 7 in the S gene, 2 in the ORF6 gene and 1 in the ORF7a gene. While in the Delta lineage, a total of 11 mutations distributed in the ORF1ab, S, ORF7a and N genes, 2, 7, 1 and 1 mutation were found in each gene, respectively. And finally, in the Omicron, 16 mutations were identified, 2 in the ORF1ab gene, 12 in the S gene and 2 in the M gene. In conclusion, we emphasize that genomic surveillance can be a useful tool to assess how mutations play a key role in virus adaptation, and its process of susceptibility to new hosts showing the possible signs of viral evolution.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Genoma Viral , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2 , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Humanos , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Evolução Molecular
2.
Food Environ Virol ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532064

RESUMO

Bat-borne viruses may affect public health and the global economy. These mammals have a wide geographical distribution and unique biological, physiological, and immunogenic characteristics, allowing the dissemination of many known and unknown viruses. Enteric viruses, such as adeno (AdV) and rotaviruses, are recognized as the main causative agents of disease and outbreaks. In the present study, the presence of viruses from Adenoviridae and Reoviridae families was evaluated in molossid, phyllostomid, and vespertilionid bats captured in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, between September 2021 and July 2022. Sixty bat rectal swabs were analyzed by PCR. Eight (13.3%) samples were positive for adenovirus and classified as human mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C) (three samples) and HAdV-E (five samples) by sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. All samples were negative in rotavirus specific RT-PCR. This is the first study to describe the presence of HAdV in samples of Glossophaga soricina, Eptesicus brasiliensis, and Histiotus velatus. Furthermore, the presence of HAdV-E in bats was reported, which is unusual and may suggest that other HAdV genotypes, in addition to HAdV-C, may also be harbored by wild animals. The data generated in the present study reinforces the importance of eco-surveillance of viral agents related to diseases in humans and wild animals. In addition, it is essential to identify possible new hosts or reservoirs that increase the risk of spillover and dissemination of infectious pathogens, helping to prevent and control zoonotic diseases.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 193, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omicron has become the dominant variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since first reported in November 2021. From the initially detected Wuhan lineage, sublineages BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BQ, XAG, and XBB have emerged over time and are dominant in many countries. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate which variants are circulating and the clinical characteristics of inpatients infected with the Omicron variant. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study selected hospitalized patients admitted with respiratory symptoms to a hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between June and July 2022. SARS-CoV-2 results were analyzed together with clinical outcomes and vaccination status. A viral genome library was prepared and forwarded to the Illumina MiSeq Platform for sequencing. RESULTS: In total, 37 genomes were sequenced. Concerning the Omicron sublineages, our study detected: BA.1 (21 K), BA.2 (21 L), BA.4 (22A), BA.5 (22B), BA.2.12.1 (22C), BQ.1 (22E), XBB (22F), and XAG recombinant. Omicron BA.5 (30%), BA.2 (19%), and BQ.1 (19%) were the most frequent sublineages, respectively. In total, 38% of patients present hypertension, and the most common symptoms were coughing (62%). Analyzing the COVID-19 vaccination, 30% of patients were fully vaccinated, 49% had a partial vaccination status, and 21% were unvaccinated (no dose). CONCLUSIONS: BA.5 was the most prevalent sublineage in our study and surpassed the predominance of BA.2, as reported by the national genomic surveillance program. BQ.1 was diagnosed earlier in this study than it was officially reported in the state. Current data have demonstrated that the Omicron variant causes less severe infections, with the high rate of transmissibility and mutational landscape causing the rapid emergence of new sublineages.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tosse
4.
Viruses ; 15(11)2023 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005815

RESUMO

In Brazil, the state of Tocantins, located in north-central Brazil, has experienced a significant number of cases of arboviral disease, particularly Dengue virus (DENV). This study aimed to deepen the knowledge on DENV circulation within that state by conducting full genome sequencing of viral genomes recovered from 61 patients between June 2021 and July 2022. There were a total of 8807 and 20,692 cases in 2021 and 2022, respectively, as reported by the state's Secretary of Health. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed the circulation of DENV serotype 1, genotype V and DENV serotype 2, genotype III in the State. Younger age groups (4 to 43 years old) were mostly affected; however, no significant differences were detected regarding the gender distribution of cases in humans. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating viruses belong to DENV-1 genotype V American and DENV-2 genotype III Southeast Asian/American. The Bayesian analysis of DENV-1 genotype V genomes sequenced here are closely related to genomes previously sequenced in the state of São Paulo. Regarding the DENV-2 genotype III genomes, these clustered in a distinct, well-supported subclade, along with previously reported isolates from the states of Goiás and São Paulo. The findings reported here suggest that multiple introductions of these genotypes occurred in the Tocantins state. This observation highlights the importance of major population centers in Brazil on virus dispersion, such as those observed in other Latin American and North American countries. In the SNP analysis, DENV-1 displayed 122 distinct missense mutations, while DENV-2 had 44, with significant mutations predominantly occurring in the envelope and NS5 proteins. The analyses performed here highlight the concomitant circulation of distinct DENV-1 and -2 genotypes in some Brazilian states, underscoring the dynamic evolution of DENV and the relevance of surveillance efforts in supporting public health policies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Dengue/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Brasil/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Genótipo
5.
J Clin Virol ; 168: 105599, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37751628

RESUMO

Even though Brazil is a country where the dengue virus (DENV) is endemic, until recently, Southern states did not have significant viral circulation, such as Rio Grande do Sul (RS), and some municipalities were even considered dengue-free. During 2022, these places have shown a sharp increase in the incidence of the disease, apparently following a worldwide growth pattern. Therefore, in this study, we monitor and characterize the genetic diversity of DENV circulating in southern Brazil through next-generation sequencing during an outbreak in 2022. We generated 70 DENV-1 genome sequences, all characterized as genotype V, divided into two clade clusters in the L1 lineage. Furthermore, unique mutations have been described in each clade of L1 lineage. Our results are essential in managing outbreaks since these data provide important information during the emergence of DENV circulation in RS. Since the south of Brazil has a lower viral circulation when compared to other Brazilian states, RS still lacks data that can help in understanding the transmission, dissemination, and evolution of the dengue virus. Hence, genomic surveillance efforts are essential to increase the accuracy of preventive actions and to control viral dissemination.

6.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 118: e220259, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37531506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne virus that has been causing large outbreaks in the Americas since 2014. In Brazil, Asian-Caribbean (AC) and East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotypes have been detected and lead to large outbreaks in several Brazilian states. In Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, the first cases were reported in 2016. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We employed genome sequencing and epidemiological investigation to characterise the Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) burden in RS between 2017-2021. FINDINGS: We detected an increasing CHIKF burden linked to travel associated introductions and communitary transmission of distinct lineages of the ECSA genotype during this period. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Until 2020, CHIKV introductions were most travel associated and transmission was limited. Then, in 2021, the largest outbreak occurred in the state associated with the introduction of a new ECSA lineage. CHIKV outbreaks are likely to occur in the near future due to abundant competent vectors and a susceptible population, exposing more than 11 million inhabitants to an increasing infection risk.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Animais , Humanos , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Viagem , Filogenia , Mosquitos Vetores , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo
7.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37502963

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly pathogenic virus that affects dogs, especially puppies. CPV is believed to have evolved from feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), eventually giving rise to three antigenic types, CPV-2a, 2b, and 2c. CPV-2 is recognized for its resilience in contaminated environments, ease of transmission among dogs, and pathogenicity for puppies. Despite the relevance of the virus, complete genome sequences of CPV available at GenBank, to date, are scarce. In the current study, we have developed a methodology to allow the recovery of complete CPV-2 genomes directly from clinical samples. For this, seven fecal samples from Gurupi, Tocantins, North Brazil, were collected from puppies with clinical signals of viral enteritis, and submitted to viral DNA isolation and amplification. Two multiplex PCR strategies were designed including primers targeting fragments of 400 base pairs (bp) and 1,000 bp along the complete genome. Sequencing was performed with the Nanopore® technology and results obtained with the two approaches were compared. Genome assembly revealed that the 400 bp amplicons generated larger numbers of reads, allowing a more reliable coverage of the whole genome than those attained with primers targeting the larger (1000 bp) amplicons. Nevertheless, both enrichment methodologies were efficient in amplification and sequencing. Viral genome sequences were of high quality and allowed more precise typing and subtyping of viral genomes compared to the commonly employed strategy relying solely on the analysis of the VP2 region, which is limited in scope. The CPV-2 genomes recovered in this study belong to the CPV2a and CPV-2c subtypes, closely related to isolates from the neighboring Amazonian region. In conclusion, the technique reported here may contribute to increase the number of full CPV genomes available, which is essential for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying the evolution and spread of CPV-2.

8.
J Virol Methods ; 320: 114785, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37516368

RESUMO

Seroprevalence of bovine alphaherpesvirus type 1 (BoAHV1) infections may be contaminated by crossreactive antibodies to bovine alphaherpesvirus type 5 (BoAHV5). To avoid such crossreactivity, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay prepared with a recombinant glycoprotein C (gC) antigen (ELISA-gC1) was developed, aiming the detection of antibodies to BoAHV1, with no crossreactivity with BoAHV5 antibodies. The antigen for the ELISA-gC1 was the product of the expression of 219 bp from the N-terminal portion of the BoAHV1 gC gene, which bears low homology between the two virus types. The test was validated on 131 bovine serum samples, including 26 sera from BoAHV1-experimentally immunized, 38 sera from BoAHV5-experimentally infected or immunized calves, and 67 sera from calves seronegative for both BoAHV1 and BoAHV5, as determined by serum neutralization (SN). When compared to SN for BoAHV1, the ELISA-gC1 presented 100% sensitivity, 95.5 % specificity, 100 % negative predictive value, 89.6 % positive predictive value, 98.8 % precision, and a kappa correlation coefficient (κ) 0.95. None of the 38 BoAHV5-seropositive calves was detected by the ELISA-gC1. The ELISA-gC1 proved highly effective for the identification of BoAHV1-positive sera, with no crossreactivity with anti-BoAHV5 antibodies, thus able to distinguish serological responses from BoAHV1- and BoAHV5-seropositive cattle. Its capacity to detect BoAHV1-specific antibodies should allow the determination of the actual BoAHV1 prevalence in herds, which cannot be serologically determined in countries where BoAHV5 is also prevalent due to antibody crossreactivity. Apart from recognizing exclusively BoAHV1-infected cattle, the ELISA-gC1 may also be used in support of BoAHV5 epidemiological studies by allowing the exclusion of BoAHV1-seropositive animals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Herpesvirus Bovino 1 , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Braz J Microbiol ; 54(3): 1847-1851, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37269428

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, studies on the variants and sublineages stand out, mainly in the cases of reinfection in a short period. In this study, we describe a case of infection by BA.1.1 sublineage in an individual from Southern Brazil. The same patient acquired reinfection with sublineage BA.2 within 16 days after the first detection. The viral extraction and RT-qPCR were performed on the samples LMM72045 (collected in May 2022) and LMM72044 (collected in June 2022). After the confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we conducted the sequencing and viral genome analysis. This case of reinfection affected a 52-year-old male patient, without comorbidities, with three doses of vaccines against COVID-19, showing symptoms on May 19. These symptoms lasted for approximately six days. The patient returned to work activities on May 30. However, on June 4, the patient felt a new round of clinical signs that lasted for approximately seven days. Analysis of the viral genomes recovered from patients' clinical samples revealed that the two COVID-19 episodes were related to two divergent VOC Omicron sublineages, namely, BA.1.1 for the first round of symptoms and BA.2 for the second infection. Based on our findings, we can say that the present case of reinfection is the shortest described so far.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Reinfecção , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Brasil/epidemiologia
10.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36992374

RESUMO

Non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viral infections, such as influenza virus (FluV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), have contributed considerably to the burden of infectious diseases in the non-COVID-19 era. While the rates of co-infection in SARS-CoV-2-positive group (SCPG) patients have been determined, the burden of other respiratory viruses in the SARS-CoV-2-negative group (SCNG) remains unclear. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study (São José do Rio Preto county, Brazil), and we collected our data using a meta-analysis to evaluate the pooled prevalence of FluV and RSV among SCNG patients. Out of the 901 patients suspected of COVID-19, our molecular results showed positivity of FluV and RSV in the SCNG was 2% (15/733) and 0.27% (2/733), respectively. Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and FluV, or RSV, was identified in 1.7% of the patients (3/168). Following our meta-analysis, 28 studies were selected (n = 114,318 suspected COVID-19 patients), with a pooled prevalence of 4% (95% CI: 3-6) for FluV and 2% (95% CI: 1-3) for RSV among SCNG patients were observed. Interestingly, FluV positivity in the SCNG was four times higher (OR = 4, 95% CI: 3.6-5.4, p < 0.01) than in the SCPG. Similarly, RSV positivity was significantly associated with SCNG patients (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 2-4, p < 0.01). For subgroup analysis, cold-like symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, headache, myalgia, diarrhea, and nausea/vomiting, were positively associated (p < 0.05) with the SCPG. In conclusion, these results show that the pooled prevalence of FluV and RSV were significantly higher in the SCNG than in the SCPG during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Humanos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 3(2): 100134, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36742065

RESUMO

In December 2019, the Chinese Center for Disease Control (CDC of China) reported an outbreak of pneumonia in the city of Wuhan (Hubei province, China) that haunted the world, resulting in a global pandemic. This outbreak was caused by a betacoronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several of these cases have been observed in healthcare professionals working in hospitals and providing care on the pandemic's frontline. In the present study, nasopharyngeal swab samples of healthcare workers were used to assess the performance of the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay and subsequently compared with the real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) method. Thus, in this study, we validated a method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 based on RT-LAMP that can be used to diagnose these workers. The methodology used was based on analyzing the sensitivity, specificity, evaluation of the detection limit, and cross-reaction with other respiratory viruses. The agreement was estimated using a dispersion diagram designed using the Bland-Altman method. A total of 100 clinical specimens of nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic healthcare workers in Pelotas, Brazil, during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. RT-LAMP assay, it was possible to detect SARS-CoV-2 in 96.7% of the healthcare professionals tested using the E gene and N gene primers approximately and 100% for the gene of human ß-actin. The observed agreement was considered excellent for the primer set of the E and N genes (k = 0.957 and k = 0.896), respectively. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was positive for the primer set of the E gene, detected to approximately 2 copies per reaction. For the primer set of the N gene, the assay was possible to verify an LoD of approximately 253 copies per reaction. After executing the RT-LAMP assay, no positive reactions were observed for any of the virus respiratory tested. Therefore, we conclude that RT-LAMP is effective for rapid molecular diagnosis during the COVID-19 outbreak period in healthcare professionals.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651466

RESUMO

New viruses of the Picornavirales order have been discovered with the increase in the number of sequences obtained by high-throughput sequencing, as well as human stool-associated RNA virus (husavirus [HuV]), found in human stool samples. However, there is much to be clarified about HuV. Its cellular host, evolutionary history, and other biological characteristics are still unknown. Therefore, samples collected from human beings and environmental samples in a watershed in Southern Brazil were processed for the metagenomic library. Upon metagenomic analysis, we identified a HuV (husavirus LMM_67754 OP019707) genome with 8,846 bp, which was reported for the first time in Southern Brazil. The new genome presents only 37% of nucleotide identity with Brazilian strains and more than 90% with genomes from China, Vietnam, Venezuela, and the Netherlands. The HuV phylogeny presents significant differences among genomes, probably because multiple introductions of the virus may have occurred. Many questions still need to be answered about HuV. Therefore, more sequences and studies on this virus are necessary to improve the comprehension of the unknown origin of Picornavirales.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Vírus de RNA , Humanos , Brasil , Genoma Viral/genética , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/genética
13.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28446, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579775

RESUMO

The hospital environment can be considered a high risk for the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission outbreaks, either for health professionals who are directly involved in the care of suspected or confirmed cases of the disease, or for patients, for being in an environment more vulnerable to the acquisition of nosocomial infections. In this molecular epidemiology study, we aimed to analyze the occurrence and transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in outbreaks and local chains of transmission in a large tertiary teaching hospital in southern Brazil, in addition to verifying circulating strains and their epidemiological relation in the local context, from September 21, 2020 to October 5, 2021. Positive samples involved in COVID-19 clusters or outbreaks were analyzed using clinical, epidemiological and genomic data. Different lineages and sublineages among patients in the same room were observed. Most patients had their first clinical manifestation, evidence of suspicion, and diagnostic confirmation within 7-14 days or >14 days after hospital admission. The patients who have contact with confirmed cases of COVID-19 spent, on average, 6.28 days in the same environment until the positive test. There was a significant association between the outcome and the number of vaccine doses (p < 0.05), where those who received two doses presented a lower occurrence of death. There was a total replacement of variant of concern (VOC) Gamma by VOC Delta from August 2021 at the study site. Although the epidemiological analysis indicates nosocomial infections, through genomic sequencing, it was established that most of the hospital outbreaks had different origins. These findings highlight the utility of integrating epidemiological and genomic data to identify possible routes of viral entry and dissemination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção Hospitalar , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 118: e220259, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne virus that has been causing large outbreaks in the Americas since 2014. In Brazil, Asian-Caribbean (AC) and East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotypes have been detected and lead to large outbreaks in several Brazilian states. In Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, the first cases were reported in 2016. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS We employed genome sequencing and epidemiological investigation to characterise the Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) burden in RS between 2017-2021. FINDINGS We detected an increasing CHIKF burden linked to travel associated introductions and communitary transmission of distinct lineages of the ECSA genotype during this period. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Until 2020, CHIKV introductions were most travel associated and transmission was limited. Then, in 2021, the largest outbreak occurred in the state associated with the introduction of a new ECSA lineage. CHIKV outbreaks are likely to occur in the near future due to abundant competent vectors and a susceptible population, exposing more than 11 million inhabitants to an increasing infection risk.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422787

RESUMO

ABSTRACT New viruses of the Picornavirales order have been discovered with the increase in the number of sequences obtained by high-throughput sequencing, as well as human stool-associated RNA virus (husavirus [HuV]), found in human stool samples. However, there is much to be clarified about HuV. Its cellular host, evolutionary history, and other biological characteristics are still unknown. Therefore, samples collected from human beings and environmental samples in a watershed in Southern Brazil were processed for the metagenomic library. Upon metagenomic analysis, we identified a HuV (husavirus LMM_67754 OP019707) genome with 8,846 bp, which was reported for the first time in Southern Brazil. The new genome presents only 37% of nucleotide identity with Brazilian strains and more than 90% with genomes from China, Vietnam, Venezuela, and the Netherlands. The HuV phylogeny presents significant differences among genomes, probably because multiple introductions of the virus may have occurred. Many questions still need to be answered about HuV. Therefore, more sequences and studies on this virus are necessary to improve the comprehension of the unknown origin of Picornavirales.

16.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 248(22): 2030-2038, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230520

RESUMO

Arboviral diseases comprise a group of important infectious diseases imposing a heavy burden to public health in many locations of the world. Orthoflaviviruses are viruses belonging to the genus Orthoflavivirus; this genus includes some of the most relevant arboviruses to human health. Orthoflaviviruses can infect several different hosts, with some species being transmitted in cycles involving birds and anthropophilic mosquitoes and others transmitted between mammals and mostly Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Some of the most important sylvatic reservoirs of orthoflaviviruses are non-human primates (NHPs). Many flaviviruses that infect NHPs in nature have the potential to cause epidemics in humans, as has been observed in the cases of Orthoflavivirus denguei (dengue virus - DENV), Orthoflavivirus flavi (yellow fever virus - YFV), and Orthoflavivirus zikaense (Zika virus - ZIKV). In this minireview, we discuss important aspects regarding history, ecology involving NHP, distribution, disease outcome, and pathogenesis of these three major orthoflaviviruses that affect humans and NHP and relate this information to the potential of using NHP as experimental models. In addition, we suggest some orthoflaviviruses that could be better investigated, both in nature and in experimental studies, in light of the recent revolution in molecular biology.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Primatas , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Mamíferos
17.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366431

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a tool involving the analysis of wastewater for chemicals and pathogens at the community level. WBE has been shown to be an effective surveillance system for SARS-CoV-2, providing an early-warning-detection system for disease prevalence in the community via the detection of genetic materials in the wastewater. In numerous nation-states, studies have indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Herein, we report the primary time-course monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater samples in São José do Rio Preto-SP/Brazil in order to explain the dynamics of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA during one year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and analyze possible relationships with other environmental parameters. We performed RNA quantification of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR using N1 and N2 targets. The proportion of positive samples for every target resulted in 100% and 96.6% for N1 and N2, respectively. A mean lag of -5 days is observed between the wastewater signal and the new SARS-CoV-2-positive cases reported. A correlation was found between the air and wastewater temperatures and therefore between the SARS-CoV-2 viral titers for N1 and N2 targets. We also observed a correlation between SARS-CoV-2 viral titers and media wastewater flow for the N1 target. In addition, we observed higher viral genome copies within the wastewater samples collected on non-rainy days for the N1 target. Thus, we propose that, based on our results, monitoring raw wastewater may be a broadly applicable strategy that might contribute to resolving the pressing problem of insufficient diagnostic testing; it may represent an inexpensive and early-warning method for future COVID-19 outbreaks, mainly in lower- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(12): 3510-3514, 2022 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The HIV-1 genetic diversity and the presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) against integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) were assessed sequencing samples of antiretroviral (ARV)-naive HIV-1-infected individuals from South Brazil. METHODS: Viral RNA from 42 ART-naive individuals was submitted to complete HIV-1 integrase gene amplification by RT-PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Viral strains carrying TDRMs against INSTIs were not detected in the present study. However, the polymorphisms L74M and L74I were each observed in 4.8% of the individuals. These accessory mutations have been reported as putative causes of TDRMs in ART with raltegravir, but only when associated with additional major mutations. When submitted to HIV-1 subtyping, 50% were classified as subtype C, 21% as recombinant BC, 19% as subtype B, 4.8% as subtype F1 and 4.8% as recombinant CF1. CONCLUSIONS: All 42 ARV-naive individuals were apparently susceptible to INSTIs, included in the Brazilian therapeutic guideline since 2009. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate TDRMs against INSTIs in Brazil. The most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes were subtype C, followed by the recombinant BC and subtype B, which is in agreement with previous studies. However, the presence of subtype F1 and recombinant CF1 reported herein was not observed in previous studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV , Integrase de HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Adulto , Humanos , HIV-1/genética , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/farmacologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Integrase de HIV/genética , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Genótipo
19.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298867

RESUMO

The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Togaviridae transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. In Brazil, imported cases have been reported since June 2014 through two independent introductions, one caused by Asian Lineage in Oiapoque, Amapá state, North Region, and another caused by East/Central/South African (ECSA) in Feira de Santana, Bahia state, Northeast Region. Moreover, there is still limited information about the genomic epidemiology of the CHIKV from surveillance studies. The Tocantins state, located in Northern Brazil, reported an increase in the number of CHIKV cases at the end of 2021 and the beginning of 2022. Thus, to better understand the dispersion dynamics of this viral pathogen in the state, we generated 27 near-complete CHIKV genome sequences from four cities, obtained from clinical samples. Our results showed that the newly CHIKV genomes from Tocantins belonged to the ECSA lineage. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that Tocantins' strains formed a single well-supported clade, which appear to be closely related to isolates from the Rio Grande do Norte state (Northeast Brazil) and the Rio de Janeiro state (Southeast Brazil), that experienced an explosive ECSA epidemic between 2016-2019. Mutation analyses showed eleven frequent non-synonymous mutations in the structural and non-structural proteins, indicating the autochthonous transmission of the CHIKV in the state. None of the genomes recovered within the Tocantins samples carry the A226V mutation in the E1 protein associated with increased transmission in A. albopictus. The study presented here highlights the importance of continued genomic surveillance to provide information not only on recording mutations along the viral genome but as a molecular surveillance tool to trace virus spread within the country, to predict events of likely occurrence of new infections, and, as such, contribute to an improved public health service.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Animais , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Filogenia , África do Sul , Genômica , Genótipo , Surtos de Doenças
20.
Virus Res ; 321: 198907, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055471

RESUMO

Recently, SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was first identified in Botswana in November 2021. In a short period of time, this highly mutated variant replaced the previous dominant Delta variant, causing an exponential increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, resulting in a new wave of pandemic. This current research article aims to analyze and summarize information about the genetic characteristics, amino acid mutations and epidemiological data providing scientific findings to enrich the SARS-CoV-2 knowledge. More importantly, we describe here, for the first time, the identification of a new Omicron variant of concern: Omicron-L452R in Brazil.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aminoácidos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Genômica , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética
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