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1.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 42, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group sequential designs are one of the most widely used methodologies for adaptive design in randomized clinical trials. In settings where early outcomes are available, they offer large gains in efficiency compared to a fixed design. However, such designs are underused and used predominantly in therapeutic areas where there is expertise and experience in implementation. One barrier to their greater use is the requirement to undertake simulation studies at the planning stage that require considerable knowledge, coding experience and additional costs. Based on some modest assumptions about the likely patterns of recruitment and the covariance structure of the outcomes, some simple analytic expressions are presented that negate the need to undertake simulations. METHODS: A model for longitudinal outcomes with an assumed approximate multivariate normal distribution and three contrasting simple recruitment models are described, based on fixed, increasing and decreasing rates. For assumed uniform and exponential correlation models, analytic expressions for the variance of the treatment effect and the effects of the early outcomes on reducing this variance at the primary outcome time-point are presented. Expressions for the minimum and maximum values show how the correlations and timing of the early outcomes affect design efficiency. RESULTS: Simulations showed how patterns of information accrual varied between correlation and recruitment models, and consequentially to some general guidance for planning a trial. Using a previously reported group sequential trial as an exemplar, it is shown how the analytic expressions given here could have been used as a quick and flexible planning tool, avoiding the need for extensive simulation studies based on individual participant data. CONCLUSIONS: The analytic expressions described can be routinely used at the planning stage of a putative trial, based on some modest assumptions about the likely number of outcomes and when they might occur and the expected recruitment patterns. Numerical simulations showed that these models behaved sensibly and allowed a range of design options to be explored in a way that would have been difficult and time-consuming if the previously described method of simulating individual trial participant data had been used.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Simulação por Computador
2.
BMJ ; 384: e077039, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore how the number and type of breast cancers developed after screen detected atypia compare with the anticipated 11.3 cancers detected per 1000 women screened within one three year screening round in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Observational analysis of the Sloane atypia prospective cohort in England. SETTING: Atypia diagnoses through the English NHS breast screening programme reported to the Sloane cohort study. This cohort is linked to the English Cancer Registry and the Mortality and Birth Information System for information on subsequent breast cancer and mortality. PARTICIPANTS: 3238 women diagnosed as having epithelial atypia between 1 April 2003 and 30 June 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and type of invasive breast cancers detected at one, three, and six years after atypia diagnosis by atypia type, age, and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: There was a fourfold increase in detection of atypia after the introduction of digital mammography between 2010 (n=119) and 2015 (n=502). During 19 088 person years of follow-up after atypia diagnosis (until December 2018), 141 women developed breast cancer. Cumulative incidence of cancer per 1000 women with atypia was 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.28 to 2.69), 14.2 (10.3 to 19.1), and 45.0 (36.3 to 55.1) at one, three, and six years after atypia diagnosis, respectively. Women with atypia detected more recently have lower rates of subsequent cancers detected within three years (6.0 invasive cancers per 1000 women (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 10.9) in 2013-18 v 24.3 (13.7 to 40.1) in 2003-07, and 24.6 (14.9 to 38.3) in 2008-12). Grade, size, and nodal involvement of subsequent invasive cancers were similar to those of cancers detected in the general screening population, with equal numbers of ipsilateral and contralateral cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Many atypia could represent risk factors rather than precursors of invasive cancer requiring surgery in the short term. Women with atypia detected more recently have lower rates of subsequent cancers detected, which might be associated with changes to mammography and biopsy techniques identifying forms of atypia that are more likely to represent overdiagnosis. Annual mammography in the short term after atypia diagnosis might not be beneficial. More evidence is needed about longer term risks.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Medicina Estatal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mamografia/métodos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento
3.
Br J Radiol ; 97(1154): 324-330, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265306

RESUMO

Evidence-based clinical guidelines are essential to maximize patient benefit and to reduce clinical uncertainty and inconsistency in clinical practice. Gaps in the evidence base can be addressed by data acquired in routine practice. At present, there is no international consensus on management of women diagnosed with atypical lesions in breast screening programmes. Here, we describe how routine NHS breast screening data collected by the Sloane atypia project was used to inform a management pathway that maximizes early detection of cancer and minimizes over-investigation of lesions with uncertain malignant potential. A half-day consensus meeting with 11 clinical experts, 1 representative from Independent Cancer Patients' Voice, 6 representatives from NHS England (NHSE) including from Commissioning, and 2 researchers was held to facilitate discussions of findings from an analysis of the Sloane atypia project. Key considerations of the expert group in terms of the management of women with screen detected atypia were: (1) frequency and purpose of follow-up; (2) communication to patients; (3) generalizability of study results; and (4) workforce challenges. The group concurred that the new evidence does not support annual surveillance mammography for women with atypia, irrespective of type of lesion, or woman's age. Continued data collection is paramount to monitor and audit the change in recommendations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Consenso , Incerteza , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Mamografia/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia
4.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 32(5): 963-977, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36919403

RESUMO

Master protocol designs allow for simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments or disease subgroups. Master protocols can also be designed as seamless studies, in which two or more clinical phases are considered within the same trial. They can be divided into two categories: operationally seamless, in which the two phases are separated into two independent studies, and inferentially seamless, in which the interim analysis is considered an adaptation of the study. Bayesian designs are scarcely studied. Our aim is to propose and compare Bayesian operationally seamless Phase II/III designs using a binary endpoint for the first stage and a time-to-event endpoint for the second stage. At the end of Phase II, arm selection is based on posterior (futility) and predictive (selection) probabilities. The results of the first phase are then incorporated into prior distributions of a time-to-event model. Simulation studies showed that Bayesian operationally seamless designs can approach the inferentially seamless counterpart, allowing for an increasing simulated power with respect to the operationally frequentist design.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador
5.
Trials ; 24(1): 29, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MND-SMART is a platform, multi-arm, multi-stage, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial recruiting people with motor neuron disease. Initially, the treatments memantine and trazodone will each be compared against placebo, but other investigational treatments will be introduced into the trial later. The co-primary outcomes are the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale Revised (ALS-FRS-R) functional outcome, which is assessed longitudinally, and overall survival. METHODS: Initially in MND-SMART, participants are randomised 1:1:1 via a minimisation algorithm to receive placebo or one of the two investigational treatments with up to 531 to be randomised in total. The comparisons between each research arm and placebo will be conducted in four stages, with the opportunity to cease further randomisations to poorly performing research arms at the end of stages 1 or 2. The final ALS-FRS-R analysis will be at the end of stage 3 and final survival analysis at the end of stage 4. The estimands for the co-primary outcomes are described in detail. The primary analysis of ALS-FRS-R at the end of stages 1 to 3 will involve fitting a normal linear mixed model to the data to calculate a mean difference in rate of ALS-FRS-R change between each research treatment and placebo. The pairwise type 1 error rate will be controlled, because each treatment comparison will generate its own distinct and separate interpretation. This publication is based on a formal statistical analysis plan document that was finalised and signed on 18 May 2022. DISCUSSION: In developing the statistical analysis plan, we had to carefully consider several issues such as multiple testing, estimand specification, interim analyses, and statistical analysis of the repeated measurements of ALS-FRS-R. This analysis plan attempts to balance multiple factors, including minimisation of bias, maximising power and precision, and deriving clinically interpretable summaries of treatment effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number, 2019-000099-41. Registered 2 October 2019, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=mnd-smart ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04302870 . Registered 10 March 2020.


Assuntos
Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica , Doença dos Neurônios Motores , Humanos , Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica/diagnóstico , Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/diagnóstico , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/tratamento farmacológico , Terapias em Estudo , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
6.
Stat Med ; 42(2): 146-163, 2023 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419206

RESUMO

Phase II/III clinical trials are efficient two-stage designs that test multiple experimental treatments. In stage 1, patients are allocated to the control and all experimental treatments, with the data collected from them used to select experimental treatments to continue to stage 2. Patients recruited in stage 2 are allocated to the selected treatments and the control. Combined data of stage 1 and stage 2 are used for a confirmatory phase III analysis. Appropriate analysis needs to adjust for selection bias of the stage 1 data. Point estimators exist for normally distributed outcome data. Extending these estimators to time to event data is not straightforward because treatment selection is based on correlated treatment effects and stage 1 patients who do not get events in stage 1 are followed-up in stage 2. We have derived an approximately uniformly minimum variance conditional unbiased estimator (UMVCUE) and compared its biases and mean squared errors to existing bias adjusted estimators. In simulations, one existing bias adjusted estimator has similar properties as the practically unbiased UMVCUE while the others can have noticeable biases but they are less variable than the UMVCUE. For confirmatory phase II/III clinical trials where unbiased estimators are desired, we recommend the UMVCUE or the existing estimator with which it has similar properties.


Assuntos
Seleção de Pacientes , Humanos , Viés , Viés de Seleção
7.
Biometrics ; 79(1): 9-19, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174875

RESUMO

A popular design for clinical trials assessing targeted therapies is the two-stage adaptive enrichment design with recruitment in stage 2 limited to a biomarker-defined subgroup chosen based on data from stage 1. The data-dependent selection leads to statistical challenges if data from both stages are used to draw inference on treatment effects in the selected subgroup. If subgroups considered are nested, as when defined by a continuous biomarker, treatment effect estimates in different subgroups follow the same distribution as estimates in a group-sequential trial. This result is used to obtain tests controlling the familywise type I error rate (FWER) for six simple subgroup selection rules, one of which also controls the FWER for any selection rule. Two approaches are proposed: one based on multivariate normal distributions suitable if the number of possible subgroups, k, is small, and one based on Brownian motion approximations suitable for large k. The methods, applicable in the wide range of settings with asymptotically normal test statistics, are illustrated using survival data from a breast cancer trial.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Feminino , Biomarcadores
9.
Pharm Stat ; 22(1): 96-111, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054079

RESUMO

Two significant pivotal trials are usually required for a new drug approval by a regulatory agency. This standard requirement is known as the two-trial paradigm. However, several authors have questioned why we need exactly two pivotal trials, what statistical error the regulators are trying to protect against, and potential alternative approaches. Therefore, it is important to investigate these questions to better understand the regulatory decision-making in the assessment of drugs' effectiveness. It is common that two identically designed trials are run solely to adhere to the two-trial rule. Previous work showed that combining the data from the two trials into a single trial (one-trial paradigm) would increase the power while ensuring the same level of type I error protection as the two-trial paradigm. However, this is true only under a specific scenario and there is little investigation on the type I error protection over the whole null region. In this article, we compare the two paradigms by considering scenarios in which the two trials are conducted in identical or different populations as well as with equal or unequal size. With identical populations, the results show that a single trial provides better type I error protection and higher power. Conversely, with different populations, although the one-trial rule is more powerful in some cases, it does not always protect against the type I error. Hence, there is the need for appropriate flexibility around the two-trial paradigm and the appropriate approach should be chosen based on the questions we are interested in.

10.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 256, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the long term effects of many surgical interventions tested in pragmatic RCTs may require extended periods of participant follow-up to assess effectiveness and use patient-reported outcomes that require large sample sizes. Consequently the RCTs are often perceived as being expensive and time-consuming, particularly if the results show the test intervention is not effective. Adaptive, and particularly group sequential, designs have great potential to improve the efficiency and cost of testing new and existing surgical interventions. As a means to assess the potential utility of group sequential designs, we re-analyse data from a number of recent high-profile RCTs and assess whether using such a design would have caused the trial to stop early. METHODS: Many pragmatic RCTs monitor participants at a number of occasions (e.g. at 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery) during follow-up as a means to assess recovery and also to keep participants engaged with the trial process. Conventionally one of the outcomes is selected as the primary (final) outcome, for clinical reasons, with others designated as either early or late outcomes. In such settings, novel group sequential designs that use data from not only the final outcome but also from early outcomes at interim analyses can be used to inform stopping decisions. We describe data from seven recent surgical RCTs (WAT, DRAFFT, WOLLF, FASHION, CSAW, FIXDT, TOPKAT), and outline possible group sequential designs that could plausibly have been proposed at the design stage. We then simulate how these group sequential designs could have proceeded, by using the observed data and dates to replicate how information could have accumulated and decisions been made for each RCT. RESULTS: The results of the simulated group sequential designs showed that for two of the RCTs it was highly likely that they would have stopped for futility at interim analyses, potentially saving considerable time (15 and 23 months) and costs and avoiding patients being exposed to interventions that were either ineffective or no better than standard care. We discuss the characteristics of RCTs that are important in order to use the methodology we describe, particularly the value of early outcomes and the window of opportunity when early stopping decisions can be made and how it is related to the length of recruitment period and follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The results for five of the RCTs tested showed that group sequential designs using early outcome data would have been feasible and likely to provide designs that were at least as efficient, and possibly more efficient, than the original fixed sample size designs. In general, the amount of information provided by the early outcomes was surprisingly large, due to the strength of correlations with the primary outcome. This suggests that the methods described here are likely to provide benefits more generally across the range of surgical trials and more widely in other application areas where trial designs, outcomes and follow-up patterns are structured and behave similarly.


Assuntos
Futilidade Médica , Registros , Coleta de Dados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e064173, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Motor neuron disease (MND) is a rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease. Despite decades of research and clinical trials there remains no cure and only one globally approved drug, riluzole, which prolongs survival by 2-3 months. Recent improved mechanistic understanding of MND heralds a new translational era with many potential targets being identified that are ripe for clinical trials. Motor Neuron Disease Systematic Multi-Arm Adaptive Randomised Trial (MND-SMART) aims to evaluate the efficacy of drugs efficiently and definitively in a multi-arm, multi-stage, adaptive trial. The first two drugs selected for evaluation in MND-SMART are trazodone and memantine. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Initially, up to 531 participants (177/arm) will be randomised 1:1:1 to oral liquid trazodone, memantine and placebo. The coprimary outcome measures are the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale Revised (ALSFRS-R) and survival. Comparisons will be conducted in four stages. The decision to continue randomising to arms after each stage will be made by the Trial Steering Committee who receive recommendations from the Independent Data Monitoring Committee. The primary analysis of ALSFRS-R will be conducted when 150 participants/arm, excluding long survivors, have completed 18 months of treatment; if positive the survival effect will be inferentially analysed when 113 deaths have been observed in the placebo group. The trial design ensures that other promising drugs can be added for evaluation in planned trial adaptations. Using this novel trial design reduces time, cost and number of participants required to definitively (phase III) evaluate drugs and reduces exposure of participants to potentially ineffective treatments. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: MND-SMART was approved by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee on 2 October 2019. (REC reference: 19/WS/0123) Results of the study will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and a summary provided to participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: European Clinical Trials Registry (2019-000099-41); NCT04302870.


Assuntos
Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica , Doença dos Neurônios Motores , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Trazodona , Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Memantina/uso terapêutico , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/tratamento farmacológico , Riluzol/uso terapêutico , Trazodona/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac266, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854983

RESUMO

In traditional phase 3 trials confirming safety and efficacy of new treatments relative to a comparator, a 1-sided type I error rate of 2.5% is traditionally used and typically leads to minimum sizes of 300-600 subjects per study. However, for rare pathogens, it may be necessary to work with data from as few as 50-100 subjects. For areas with a high unmet need, there is a balance between traditional type I error and power and enabling feasible studies. In such cases, an alternative 1-sided alpha level of 5% or 10% should be considered, and we review herein the implications of such approaches. Resolving this question requires engagement of patients, the medical community, regulatory agencies, and trial sponsors.

13.
Soc Sci Med ; 308: 115218, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870299

RESUMO

RATIONAL/OBJECTIVE: Mandating vaccinations can harm public trust, and informational interventions can backfire. An alternative approach could align pro-vaccination messages with the automatic moral values and intuitions that vaccine-hesitant people endorse. The current study evaluates the relationships between six automatic moral intuitions and vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was designed using Qualtrics (2020) software and conducted online from April 6th to April 13, 2021. A representative sample of 1201 people living in Great Britain took part, of which 954 (514 female) passed the attention check items. Participants responded to items about their automatic moral intuitions, vaccination behaviours or intentions related to COVID-19 vaccines, and general vaccine hesitancy. Regressions (with and without adjustments for age, gender, and ethnicity) were performed assessing the association between endorsement of each automatic intuition and self-reported uptake of COVID-19 vaccines, and between each automatic intuition and general vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: People who endorsed the authority foundation and those who more strongly endorsed the liberty foundation tended to be more vaccine hesitant. This pattern generalises across people's self-reported uptake of COVID-19 vaccines and people's hesitancy towards vaccines in general. To a lesser extent people who expressed less need for care and a greater need for sanctity also displayed greater hesitancy towards vaccines in general. The results were consistent across the adjusted and non-adjusted analyses. Age and ethnicity significantly contributed to some models but gender did not. CONCLUSION: Four automatic moral intuitions (authority, liberty, care, and sanctity) were significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy. Foundation-aligned messages could be developed to motivate those people who may otherwise refuse vaccines, e.g., messages that strongly promote liberty or that de-emphasize authority voices. This suggestion moves away from mandates and promotes the inclusion of a more diverse range of voices in pro-vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Pandemias , Pais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Hesitação Vacinal
14.
Lancet ; 399(10339): 1954-1963, 2022 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New surgical procedures can expose patients to harm and should be carefully evaluated before widespread use. The InSpace balloon (Stryker, USA) is an innovative surgical device used to treat people with rotator cuff tears that cannot be repaired. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the InSpace balloon for people with irreparable rotator cuff tears. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, group-sequential, adaptive randomised controlled trial in 24 hospitals in the UK, comparing arthroscopic debridement of the subacromial space with biceps tenotomy (debridement only group) with the same procedure but including insertion of the InSpace balloon (debridement with device group). Participants had an irreparable rotator cuff tear, which had not resolved with conservative treatment, and they had symptoms warranting surgery. Eligibility was confirmed intraoperatively before randomly assigning (1:1) participants to a treatment group using a remote computer system. Participants and assessors were masked to group assignment. Masking was achieved by using identical incisions for both procedures, blinding the operation note, and a consistent rehabilitation programme was offered regardless of group allocation. The primary outcome was the Oxford Shoulder Score at 12 months. Pre-trial simulations using data from early and late timepoints informed stopping boundaries for two interim analyses. The primary analysis was on a modified intention-to-treat basis, adjusted for the planned interim analysis. The trial was registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN17825590. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2018, and July 30, 2020, we assessed 385 people for eligibility, of which 317 were eligible. 249 (79%) people consented for inclusion in the study. 117 participants were randomly allocated to a treatment group, 61 participants to the debridement only group and 56 to the debridement with device group. A predefined stopping boundary was met at the first interim analysis and recruitment stopped with 117 participants randomised. 43% of participants were female, 57% were male. We obtained primary outcome data for 114 (97%) participants. The mean Oxford Shoulder Score at 12 months was 34·3 (SD 11·1) in the debridement only group and 30·3 (10·9) in the debridement with device group (mean difference adjusted for adaptive design -4·2 [95% CI -8·2 to -0·26];p=0·037) favouring control. There was no difference in adverse events between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: In an efficient, adaptive trial design, our results favoured the debridement only group. We do not recommend the InSpace balloon for the treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tears. FUNDING: Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme, a Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health and Care Research partnership.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Artroscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Ombro , Dor de Ombro/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Neurology ; 98(18): 754-764, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321926

RESUMO

There are few treatments shown to slow disability progression in progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). One challenge has been efficiently testing the pipeline of candidate therapies from preclinical studies in clinical trials. Multi-arm multistage (MAMS) platform trials may accelerate evaluation of new therapies compared to traditional sequential clinical trials. We describe a MAMS design in PMS focusing on selection of interim and final outcome measures, sample size, and statistical considerations. The UK MS Society Expert Consortium for Progression in MS Clinical Trials reviewed recent phase II and III PMS trials to inform interim and final outcome selection and design measures. Simulations were performed to evaluate trial operating characteristics under different treatment effect, recruitment rate, and sample size assumptions. People with MS formed a patient and public involvement group and contributed to the trial design, ensuring it would meet the needs of the MS community. The proposed design evaluates 3 experimental arms compared to a common standard of care arm in 2 stages. Stage 1 (interim) outcome will be whole brain atrophy on MRI at 18 months, assessed for 123 participants per arm. Treatments with sufficient evidence for slowing brain atrophy will continue to the second stage. The stage 2 (final) outcome will be time to 6-month confirmed disability progression, based on a composite clinical score comprising the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Timed 25-Foot Walk test, and 9-Hole Peg Test. To detect a hazard ratio of 0.75 for this primary final outcome with 90% power, 600 participants per arm are required. Assuming one treatment progresses to stage 2, the trial will recruit ≈1,900 participants and last ≈6 years. This is approximately two-thirds the size and half the time of separate 2-arm phase II and III trials. The proposed MAMS trial design will substantially reduce duration and sample size compared to traditional clinical trials, accelerating discovery of effective treatments for PMS. The design was well-received by people with multiple sclerosis. The practical and statistical principles of MAMS trial design may be applicable to other neurodegenerative conditions to facilitate efficient testing of new therapies.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva , Esclerose Múltipla , Atrofia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroproteção , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
JAMA ; 327(6): 546-558, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35072713

RESUMO

Importance: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) have been recommended for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19. Uncertainty exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of these noninvasive respiratory strategies. Objective: To determine whether either CPAP or HFNO, compared with conventional oxygen therapy, improves clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: A parallel group, adaptive, randomized clinical trial of 1273 hospitalized adults with COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. The trial was conducted between April 6, 2020, and May 3, 2021, across 48 acute care hospitals in the UK and Jersey. Final follow-up occurred on June 20, 2021. Interventions: Adult patients were randomized to receive CPAP (n = 380), HFNO (n = 418), or conventional oxygen therapy (n = 475). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of tracheal intubation or mortality within 30 days. Results: The trial was stopped prematurely due to declining COVID-19 case numbers in the UK and the end of the funded recruitment period. Of the 1273 randomized patients (mean age, 57.4 [95% CI, 56.7 to 58.1] years; 66% male; 65% White race), primary outcome data were available for 1260. Crossover between interventions occurred in 17.1% of participants (15.3% in the CPAP group, 11.5% in the HFNO group, and 23.6% in the conventional oxygen therapy group). The requirement for tracheal intubation or mortality within 30 days was significantly lower with CPAP (36.3%; 137 of 377 participants) vs conventional oxygen therapy (44.4%; 158 of 356 participants) (absolute difference, -8% [95% CI, -15% to -1%], P = .03), but was not significantly different with HFNO (44.3%; 184 of 415 participants) vs conventional oxygen therapy (45.1%; 166 of 368 participants) (absolute difference, -1% [95% CI, -8% to 6%], P = .83). Adverse events occurred in 34.2% (130/380) of participants in the CPAP group, 20.6% (86/418) in the HFNO group, and 13.9% (66/475) in the conventional oxygen therapy group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19, an initial strategy of CPAP significantly reduced the risk of tracheal intubation or mortality compared with conventional oxygen therapy, but there was no significant difference between an initial strategy of HFNO compared with conventional oxygen therapy. The study may have been underpowered for the comparison of HFNO vs conventional oxygen therapy, and early study termination and crossover among the groups should be considered when interpreting the findings. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN16912075.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Intubação Intratraqueal , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Adulto , COVID-19/mortalidade , Cânula , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e058050, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996804

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The National Health Service (NHS) Breast Screening Programme aims to detect cancer earlier when treatment is more effective but can harm women by over diagnosing and overtreating cancers which would never have become symptomatic. As well as breast cancer, a spectrum of atypical epithelial proliferations (atypia) can also be detected as part of screening. This spectrum of changes, while not cancer, may mean that a woman is more likely to develop breast cancer in the future. Follow-up of atypia is not evidence based. We currently do not know which atypia should be detected to avoid future cancer. This study will explore how atypia develops into breast cancer in terms of number of women, time of cancer development, cancer type and severity, and whether this varies for different types of atypia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Sloane cohort study began in April 2003 with ongoing data collection including atypia diagnosed through screening at screening units in the UK. The database for England has 3645 cases (24 September 2020) of epithelial atypia, with follow-up from 1 to 15 years. The outcomes include subsequent invasive breast cancer and the nature of subsequent cancer. Descriptive statistics will be produced. The observed rates of breast cancer at 1, 3 and 6 years for types of atypia will be reported with CIs, to enable comparison to women in the general population. Time to event methods will be used to describe the time to breast cancer diagnosis for the types of atypia, including flexible parametric modelling if appropriate. Patient representatives from Independent Cancer Patients' Voice are included at every stage of the research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received research ethics approval from the University of Warwick Biomedical and Scientific Research Ethics Committee (BSREC 10/20-21, 8 October 2020), Public Health England office for data release approvals (ODR1718_313) and approval from the English Breast Research Advisory Committee (BSPRAC_031). The findings will be disseminated to breast screening clinicians (via journal publication and conference presentation), to the NHS Breast Screening Programme to update their guidelines on how women with atypia should be followed up, and to the general public.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Medicina Estatal , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
18.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 40(1): 109-120, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580839

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Time-to-event data from clinical trials are routinely extrapolated using parametric models to estimate the cost effectiveness of novel therapies, but how this approach performs in the presence of heterogeneous populations remains unknown. METHODS: We performed a simulation study of seven scenarios with varying exponential distributions modelling treatment and prognostic effects across subgroup and complement populations, with follow-up typical of clinical trials used to appraise the cost effectiveness of therapies by agencies such as the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). We compared established and emerging methods of estimating population life-years (LYs) using parametric models. We also proved analytically that an exponential model fitted to censored heterogeneous survival times sampled from two distinct exponential distributions will produce a biased estimate of the hazard rate and LYs. RESULTS: LYs are underestimated by the methods in the presence of heterogeneity, resulting in either under- or overestimation of the incremental benefit. In scenarios where the overestimation of benefit is likely, which is of interest to the healthcare provider, the method of taking the average LYs from all plausible models has the least bias. LY estimates from complete Kaplan-Meier curves have high variation, suggesting mature data may not be a reliable solution. We explore the effect of increasing trial sample size and accounting for detected treatment-subgroup interactions. CONCLUSIONS: The bias associated with heterogeneous populations suggests that NICE may need to be more cautious when appraising therapies and to consider model averaging or the separate modelling of subgroups when heterogeneity is suspected or detected.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Viés , Simulação por Computador , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra
19.
Health Econ ; 31(2): 417-430, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825428

RESUMO

Advances in medical technology have led to a better understanding of heterogeneity of diseases and patients, and to the development of targeted medicines. This development is beneficial to society but can come at an increased cost to pharmaceutical manufacturers due to the costs associated with developing and manufacturing a diagnostic test. For such medicines, the conventional pricing structure, where a therapy is approved if it is deemed cost-effective, may not appropriately incentivize targeted drug development. We model the decision-making processes for both the healthcare provider and the pharmaceutical manufacturer, capturing their main priorities, and populate it with information from a recent appraisal by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Healthcare providers prefer a stratified drug to be developed for a subgroup of the population when the drug is on average effective in the subgroup but with a detrimental effect in the complement. Whilst pharmaceutical manufacturers' preferences are similar, regions of disagreement exist. We show how preferences can be aligned by either penalizing the development of a non-stratified drug or rewarding the development of a stratified drug. The cost and position of alignment depends on the true value of health to the healthcare provider, among other parameters.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos
20.
Brain Commun ; 3(4): fcab242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901853

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease. Despite decades of clinical trials, effective disease-modifying drugs remain scarce. To understand the challenges of trial design and delivery, we performed a systematic review of Phase II, Phase II/III and Phase III amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clinical drug trials on trial registries and PubMed between 2008 and 2019. We identified 125 trials, investigating 76 drugs and recruiting more than 15 000 people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. About 90% of trials used traditional fixed designs. The limitations in understanding of disease biology, outcome measures, resources and barriers to trial participation in a rapidly progressive, disabling and heterogenous disease hindered timely and definitive evaluation of drugs in two-arm trials. Innovative trial designs, especially adaptive platform trials may offer significant efficiency gains to this end. We propose a flexible and scalable multi-arm, multi-stage trial platform where opportunities to participate in a clinical trial can become the default for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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