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1.
Science ; 381(6653): 63-69, 2023 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37410849

RESUMO

Improved stability and efficiency of two-terminal monolithic perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells will require reductions in recombination losses. By combining a triple-halide perovskite (1.68 electron volt bandgap) with a piperazinium iodide interfacial modification, we improved the band alignment, reduced nonradiative recombination losses, and enhanced charge extraction at the electron-selective contact. Solar cells showed open-circuit voltages of up to 1.28 volts in p-i-n single junctions and 2.00 volts in perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells. The tandem cells achieve certified power conversion efficiencies of up to 32.5%.

2.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(11): 1214-1221, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280763

RESUMO

Perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells offer the possibility of overcoming the power conversion efficiency limit of conventional silicon solar cells. Various textured tandem devices have been presented aiming at improved optical performance, but optimizing film growth on surface-textured wafers remains challenging. Here we present perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells with periodic nanotextures that offer various advantages without compromising the material quality of solution-processed perovskite layers. We show a reduction in reflection losses in comparison to planar tandems, with the new devices being less sensitive to deviations from optimum layer thicknesses. The nanotextures also enable a greatly increased fabrication yield from 50% to 95%. Moreover, the open-circuit voltage is improved by 15 mV due to the enhanced optoelectronic properties of the perovskite top cell. Our optically advanced rear reflector with a dielectric buffer layer results in reduced parasitic absorption at near-infrared wavelengths. As a result, we demonstrate a certified power conversion efficiency of 29.80%.

3.
ACS Energy Lett ; 7(10): 3600-3611, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36277135

RESUMO

Wide bandgap halide perovskite materials show promising potential to pair with silicon bottom cells. To date, most efficient wide bandgap perovskites layers are fabricated by spin-coating, which is difficult to scale up. Here, we report on slot-die coating for an efficient, 1.68 eV wide bandgap triple-halide (3halide) perovskite absorber, (Cs0.22FA0.78)Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 + 5 mol % MAPbCl3. A suitable solvent system is designed specifically for the slot-die coating technique. We demonstrate that our fabrication route is suitable for tandem solar cells without phase segregation. The slot-die coated wet halide perovskite is dried by a "nitrogen (N2)-knife" with high reproducibility and avoiding antisolvents. We explore varying annealing conditions and identify parameters allowing crystallization of the perovskite film into large grains reducing charge collection losses and enabling higher current density. At 150 °C, an optimized trade-off between crystallization and the PbI2 aggregates on the film's top surface is found. Thus, we improve the cell stability and performance of both single-junction cells and tandems. Combining the 3halide top cells with a 120 µm thin saw damage etched commercial Czochralski industrial wafer, a 2-terminal monolithic tandem solar cell with a PCE of 25.2% on a 1 cm2 active area is demonstrated with fully scalable processes.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 5159-5167, 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108814

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have shown great potential for next-generation photovoltaics. One of the main barriers to their commercial use is their poor long-term stability under ambient conditions and, in particular, their sensitivity to moisture and oxygen. Therefore, several encapsulation strategies are being developed in an attempt to improve the stability of PSCs in a humid environment. The lack of common testing procedures makes the comparison of encapsulation strategies challenging. In this paper, we optimized and investigated two common encapsulation strategies: lamination-based glass-glass encapsulation for outdoor operation and commercial use (COM) and a simple glue-based encapsulation mostly utilized for laboratory research purposes (LAB). We compare both approaches and evaluate their effectiveness to impede humidity ingress under three different testing conditions: on-shelf storage at 21 °C and 30% relative humidity (RH) (ISOS-D1), damp heat exposure at 85 °C and 85% RH (ISOS-D3), and outdoor operational stability continuously monitoring device performance for 10 months under maximum power point tracking on a roof-top test site in Berlin, Germany (ISOS-O3). LAB encapsulation of perovskite devices consists of glue and a cover glass and can be performed at ambient temperature, in an inert environment without the need for complex equipment. This glue-based encapsulation procedure allowed PSCs to retain more than 93% of their conversion efficiency after 1566 h of storage in ambient atmosphere and, therefore, is sufficient and suitable as an interim encapsulation for cell transport or short-term experiments outside an inert atmosphere. However, this simple encapsulation does not pass the IEC 61215 damp heat test and hence results in a high probability of fast degradation of the cells under outdoor conditions. The COM encapsulation procedure requires the use of a vacuum laminator and the cells to be able to withstand a short period of air exposure and at least 20 min at elevated temperatures (in our case, 150 °C). This encapsulation method enabled the cells to pass the IEC 61215 damp heat test and even to retain over 95% of their initial efficiency after 1566 h in a damp heat chamber. Above all, passing the damp heat test for COM-encapsulated devices translates to devices fully retaining their initial efficiency for the full duration of the outdoor test (>10 months). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is one of the longest outdoor stability demonstrations for PSCs published to date. We stress that both encapsulation approaches described in this work are useful for the scientific community as they fulfill different purposes: the COM for the realization of prototypes for long-term real-condition validation and, ultimately, commercialization of perovskite solar cells and the LAB procedure to enable testing and carrying out experiments on perovskite solar cells under noninert conditions.

5.
Science ; 370(6522): 1300-1309, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303611

RESUMO

Tandem solar cells that pair silicon with a metal halide perovskite are a promising option for surpassing the single-cell efficiency limit. We report a monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem with a certified power conversion efficiency of 29.15%. The perovskite absorber, with a bandgap of 1.68 electron volts, remained phase-stable under illumination through a combination of fast hole extraction and minimized nonradiative recombination at the hole-selective interface. These features were made possible by a self-assembled, methyl-substituted carbazole monolayer as the hole-selective layer in the perovskite cell. The accelerated hole extraction was linked to a low ideality factor of 1.26 and single-junction fill factors of up to 84%, while enabling a tandem open-circuit voltage of as high as 1.92 volts. In air, without encapsulation, a tandem retained 95% of its initial efficiency after 300 hours of operation.

6.
Science ; 369(6499): 96-102, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631893

RESUMO

Longevity has been a long-standing concern for hybrid perovskite photovoltaics. We demonstrate high-resilience positive-intrinsic-negative perovskite solar cells by incorporating a piperidinium-based ionic compound into the formamidinium-cesium lead-trihalide perovskite absorber. With the bandgap tuned to be well suited for perovskite-on-silicon tandem cells, this piperidinium additive enhances the open-circuit voltage and cell efficiency. This additive also retards compositional segregation into impurity phases and pinhole formation in the perovskite absorber layer during aggressive aging. Under full-spectrum simulated sunlight in ambient atmosphere, our unencapsulated and encapsulated cells retain 80 and 95% of their peak and post-burn-in efficiencies for 1010 and 1200 hours at 60° and 85°C, respectively. Our analysis reveals detailed degradation routes that contribute to the failure of aged cells.

7.
Joule ; 4(5): 1054-1069, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467877

RESUMO

Monolithic [Cs0.05(MA0. 17FA0. 83)0.95]Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (perovskite/CIGS) tandem solar cells promise high performance and can be processed on flexible substrates, enabling cost-efficient and ultra-lightweight space photovoltaics with power-to-weight and power-to-cost ratios surpassing those of state-of-the-art III-V semiconductor-based multijunctions. However, to become a viable space technology, the full tandem stack must withstand the harsh radiation environments in space. Here, we design tailored operando and ex situ measurements to show that perovskite/CIGS cells retain over 85% of their initial efficiency even after 68 MeV proton irradiation at a dose of 2 × 1012 p+/cm2. We use photoluminescence microscopy to show that the local quasi-Fermi-level splitting of the perovskite top cell is unaffected. We identify that the efficiency losses arise primarily from increased recombination in the CIGS bottom cell and the nickel-oxide-based recombination contact. These results are corroborated by measurements of monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction cells, which severely degrade to 1% of their initial efficiency due to radiation-induced recombination centers in silicon.

8.
Opt Express ; 26(10): A487-A497, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801255

RESUMO

We performed optical simulations using hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon oxide (nc-SiOx:H) as n-doped interlayer in monolithic perovskite/c-Si heterojunction tandem solar cells. Depending on the adjustable value of its refractive index (2.0 - 2.7) and thickness, nc-SiOx:H allows to optically manage the infrared light absorption in the c-Si bottom cell minimizing reflection losses. We give guidelines for nc-SiOx:H optimization in tandem devices in combination with a systematic investigation of the effect of the surface morphology (flat or textured) on the photocurrent density. For full-flat and rear textured devices, we found matched photocurrents higher than 19 and 20 mA/cm2, respectively, using a 90 nm nc-SiOx:H interlayer with a refractive index of 2.7.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(34): 19282-94, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26281016

RESUMO

In this study, various silicon dielectric films, namely, a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOxNy:H, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were evaluated for use as interlayers (ILs) between crystalline silicon and glass. Chemical bonding analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that high values of oxidant gases (CO2 and/or N2), added to SiH4 during PECVD, reduced the Si-H and N-H bond density in the silicon dielectrics. Various three layer stacks combining the silicon dielectric materials were designed to minimize optical losses between silicon and glass in rear side contacted heterojunction pn test cells. The PECVD grown silicon dielectrics retained their functionality despite being subjected to harsh subsequent processing such as crystallization of the silicon at 1414 °C or above. High values of short circuit current density (Jsc; without additional hydrogen passivation) required a high density of Si-H bonds and for the nitrogen containing films, additionally, a high N-H bond density. Concurrently high values of both Jsc and open circuit voltage Voc were only observed when [Si-H] was equal to or exceeded [N-H]. Generally, Voc correlated with a high density of [Si-H] bonds in the silicon dielectric; otherwise, additional hydrogen passivation using an active plasma process was required. The highest Voc ∼ 560 mV, for a silicon acceptor concentration of about 10(16) cm(-3), was observed for stacks where an a-SiOxNy:H film was adjacent to the silicon. Regardless of the cell absorber thickness, field effect passivation of the buried silicon surface by the silicon dielectric was mandatory for efficient collection of carriers generated from short wavelength light (in the vicinity of the glass-Si interface). However, additional hydrogen passivation was obligatory for an increased diffusion length of the photogenerated carriers and thus Jsc in solar cells with thicker absorbers.

10.
Appl Opt ; 54(14): 4366-73, 2015 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967490

RESUMO

Light scattering superstrates are important for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. In this work, aluminum-induced texture (AIT) glass, covered with nonetched Al-doped ZnO (AZO), is investigated as an alternative to the commonly used planar glass with texture-etched AZO superstrate. Four different AIT glasses with different surface roughnesses and different lateral feature sizes are investigated for their effects on light trapping in a-Si:H solar cells. For comparison, two reference superstrates are investigated as well: planar glass covered with nonetched AZO and planar glass covered with texture-etched AZO. Single-junction a-Si:H solar cells are deposited onto each superstrate, and the scattering properties (haze and angular resolved scattering) as well as the solar cell characteristics (current-voltage and external quantum efficiency) are measured and compared. The results indicate that AIT glass superstrates with nonetched AZO provide similar, or even superior, light trapping than the standard reference superstrate, which is demonstrated by a higher short-circuit current Jsc and a higher external quantum efficiency. Using the trapped light fraction δ, a quantity based on the integrated light scattering at the AZO/a-Si:H interface, we show that Jsc linearly increases with δ in the scattering regime of the samples, regardless of the type of superstrate used.

11.
Adv Mater ; 27(7): 1262-7, 2015 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581318

RESUMO

Hybrid multijunction solar cells comprising hydrogenated amorphous silicon and an organic bulk heterojunction are presented, reaching 11.7% power conversion efficiency. The benefits of merging inorganic and organic subcells are pointed out, the optimization of the cells, including optical modeling predictions and tuning of the recombination contact are described, and an outlook of this technique is given.

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