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1.
Am J Bot ; 111(2): e16288, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366744

RESUMO

Functional traits are critical tools in plant ecology for capturing organism-environment interactions based on trade-offs and making links between organismal and ecosystem processes. While broad frameworks for functional traits have been developed for vascular plants, we lack the same for bryophytes, despite an escalation in the number of studies on bryophyte functional trait in the last 45 years and an increased recognition of the ecological roles bryophytes play across ecosystems. In this review, we compiled data from 282 published articles (10,005 records) that focused on functional traits measured in mosses and sought to examine trends in types of traits measured, capture taxonomic and geographic breadth of trait coverage, reveal biases in coverage in the current literature, and develop a bryophyte-function index (BFI) to describe the completeness of current trait coverage and identify global gaps to focus research efforts. The most commonly measured response traits (those related to growth/reproduction in individual organisms) and effect traits (those that directly affect community/ecosystem scale processes) fell into the categories of morphology (e.g., leaf area, shoot height) and nutrient storage/cycling, and our BFI revealed that these data were most commonly collected from temperate and boreal regions of Europe, North America, and East Asia. However, fewer than 10% of known moss species have available functional trait information. Our synthesis revealed a need for research on traits related to ontogeny, sex, and intraspecific plasticity and on co-measurement of traits related to water relations and bryophyte-mediated soil processes.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Traqueófitas , Ecossistema , Ecologia , Viés
2.
Zootaxa ; 5315(2): 101-121, 2023 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37518614

RESUMO

Dipteropeltis is a poorly described genus of fish louse endemic to South America. In a small blackwater region within Loreto, Peru, 13 adult and juvenile specimens of an unidentified species of Dipteropeltis Calman, 1912, as well as one adult specimen of D. hirundo Calman, 1912, were observed and collected. Scanning electron and light micrographs were acquired to examine and measure key features of these specimens. Morphological differences from the two known species of Dipteropeltis, D. hirundo and D. campanaformis Neethling et al., 2014, indicate that the collected specimens represent a new species. Dipteropeltis longicaudatus sp. nov. is diagnosed by elongate abdominal lobes, a chevron-shaped carapace, and uniquely shaped maxillae. One specimen represents the longest branchiuran documented to date at 31.5 mm. Additionally, we provide the first sequence data for this genus using DNA barcoding, which corroborates our designation of a new species. Videos were also captured that document behaviors including host attachment, pulsating abdominal lobes, suction disc "walking", and swimming. Findings have implications for its teleost hosts, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872 and Brycon amazonicus Spix & Agassiz, 1829, the latter being a critical species for aquaculture and commercial fisheries in Amazonia.

3.
Reproduction ; 166(3): 199-207, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37387479

RESUMO

In brief: It is not known when a functional circadian clock is established in the developing embryo. Lack of expression of key genes involved in the clock mechanism is indicative that a functional circadian clock mechanism is absent in the mammalian preimplantation embryo through the blastocyst stage of development. Abstract: An embryonic circadian clock could conceivably organize cellular and developmental events temporally and in synchrony with other circadian rhythms in the mother. The hypothesis that a functional molecular clock exists in the preimplantation bovine, pig, human, and mouse embryo was tested by using publicly available RNAseq datasets to examine developmental changes in expression of the core genes responsible for the circadian clock - CLOCK, ARNTL, PER1, PER2, CRY1, and CRY2. In general, the transcript abundance of each gene decreased as development advanced to the blastocyst stage. The most notable exception was for CRY2, where transcript abundance was low and constant from the two-cell or four-cell to the blastocyst stage. Developmental patterns were generally the same for all species although there were some species-specific patterns such as an absence of PER1 expression in the pig, an increase in ARNTL expression at the four-cell stage in human, and an increase in expression of Clock and Per1 from the zygote to two-cell stage in the mouse. Analysis of intronic reads (indicative of embryonic transcription) for bovine embryos indicated an absence of embryonic transcription. Immunoreactive CRY1 was not detected in the bovine blastocyst. Results indicate that the preimplantation mammalian embryo lacks a functional intrinsic clock although specific components of the clock mechanism could conceivably play a role in other functions in the embryo.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL , Relógios Circadianos , Bovinos , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Criptocromos/genética , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Mamíferos
4.
Am J Bot ; 110(2): e16131, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36795943

RESUMO

Lichens are one of the most iconic and ubiquitous symbioses known, widely valued as indicators of environmental quality and, more recently, climate change. Our understanding of lichen responses to climate has greatly expanded in recent decades, but some biases and constraints have shaped our present knowledge. In this review we focus on lichen ecophysiology as a key to predicting responses to present and future climates, highlighting recent advances and remaining challenges. Lichen ecophysiology is best understood through complementary whole-thallus and within-thallus scales. Water content and form (vapor or liquid) are central to whole-thallus perspectives, making vapor pressure differential (VPD) a particularly informative environmental driver. Responses to water content are further modulated by photobiont physiology and whole-thallus phenotype, providing clear links to a functional trait framework. However, this thallus-level perspective is incomplete without also considering within-thallus dynamics, such as changing proportions or even identities of symbionts in response to climate, nutrients, and other stressors. These changes provide pathways for acclimation, but their understanding is currently limited by large gaps in our understanding of carbon allocation and symbiont turnover in lichens. Lastly, the study of lichen physiology has mainly prioritized larger lichens at high latitudes, producing valuable insights but underrepresenting the range of lichenized lineages and ecologies. Key areas for future work include improving geographic and phylogenetic coverage, greater emphasis on VPD as a climatic factor, advances in the study of carbon allocation and symbiont turnover, and the incorporation of physiological theory and functional traits in our predictive models.


Assuntos
Líquens , Líquens/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ecologia , Simbiose
5.
Ecology ; 104(5): e4011, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36814365

RESUMO

Carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are a widespread phenomenon in photosynthetic organisms. In vascular plants, the evolution of CCMs ([C44-carbon compound] and crassulacean acid metabolism [CAM]) is associated with significant shifts, most often to hot, dry and bright, or aquatic environments. If and how CCMs drive distributions of other terrestrial photosynthetic organisms, remains little studied. Lichens are ecologically important obligate symbioses between fungi and photosynthetic organisms. The primary photosynthetic partner in these symbioses can include CCM-presenting cyanobacteria (as carboxysomes), CCM-presenting green algae (as pyrenoids) or green algae lacking any CCM. We use an extensive dataset of lichen communities from eastern North America, spanning a wide climatic range, to test the importance of CCMs as predictors of lichen ecology and distribution. We show that the presence or absence of CCMs leads to opposite responses to temperature and precipitation in green algal lichens, and different responses in cyanobacterial lichens. These responses contrast with our understanding of lichen physiology, whereby CCMs mitigate carbon limitation by water saturation at the cost of efficient use of vapor hydration. This study demonstrates that CCM status is a key functional trait in obligate lichen symbioses, equivalent in importance to its role in vascular plants, and central for studying present and future climate responses.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Cianobactérias , Líquens , Carbono/metabolismo , Líquens/metabolismo , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono
6.
Am J Bot ; 110(2): e16114, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462151

RESUMO

PREMISE: The long-term potential for acclimation by lichens to changing climates is poorly known, despite their prominent roles in forested ecosystems. Although often considered "extremophiles," lichens may not readily acclimate to novel climates well beyond historical norms. In a previous study (Smith et al., 2018), Evernia mesomorpha transplants in a whole-ecosystem climate change experiment showed drastic mass loss after 1 yr of warming and drying; however, the causes of this mass loss were not addressed. METHODS: We examined the causes of this warming-induced mass loss by measuring physiological, functional, and reproductive attributes of lichen transplants. RESULTS: Severe loss of mass and physiological function occurred above +2°C of experimental warming. Loss of algal symbionts ("bleaching") and turnover in algal community compositions increased with temperature and were the clearest impacts of experimental warming. Enhanced CO2 had no significant physiological or symbiont composition effects. The functional loss of algal photobionts led to significant loss of mass and specific thallus mass (STM), which in turn reduced water-holding capacity (WHC). Although algal genotypes remained detectable in thalli exposed to higher stress, within-thallus photobiont communities shifted in composition toward greater diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The strong negative impacts of warming and/or lower humidity on Evernia mesomorpha were driven by a loss of photobiont activity. Analogous to the effects of climate change on corals, the balance of symbiont carbon metabolism in lichens is central to their resilience to changing conditions.


Assuntos
Líquens , Líquens/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Carbono/metabolismo , Simbiose , Plantas
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 1019295, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36340410

RESUMO

The Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) is tolerant to Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus greening). This species can be utilized to develop HLB tolerant citrus cultivars through conventional breeding and biotechnological approaches. In this report, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of transcriptomic data following a non-choice infection assay to understand the CaLas tolerance mechanisms in the finger lime. After filtering 3,768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 2,396 were downregulated and 1,372 were upregulated in CaLas-infected finger lime compared to CaLas-infected HLB-susceptible 'Valencia' sweet orange. Comparative analyses revealed several DEGs belonging to cell wall, ß-glucanase, proteolysis, R genes, signaling, redox state, peroxidases, glutathione-S-transferase, secondary metabolites, and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins categories. Our results indicate that the finger lime has evolved specific redox control systems to mitigate the reactive oxygen species and modulate the plant defense response. We also identified candidate genes responsible for the production of Cys-rich secretory proteins and Pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1-like) proteins that are highly upregulated in infected finger lime relative to noninfected and infected 'Valencia' sweet orange. Additionally, the anatomical analysis of phloem and stem tissues in finger lime and 'Valencia' suggested better regeneration of phloem tissues in finger lime in response to HLB infection. Analysis of callose formation following infection revealed a significant difference in the production of callose plugs between the stem phloem of CaLas+ 'Valencia' sweet orange and finger lime. Understanding the mechanism of resistance will help the scientific community design strategies to protect trees from CaLas infection and assist citrus breeders in developing durable HLB tolerant citrus varieties.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 977710, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36225379

RESUMO

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating citrus disease in the world. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the prevalent HLB pathogen, which is yet to be cultivated. A recent study demonstrates that Las does not contain pathogenicity factors that are directly responsible for HLB symptoms. Instead, Las triggers systemic and chronic immune responses, representing a pathogen-triggered immune disease. Importantly, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes systemic cell death of phloem tissues, thus causing HLB symptoms. Because Las resides in the phloem tissues, it is expected that phloem cell might recognize outer membrane proteins, outer membrane vesicle (OMV) proteins and extracellular proteins of Las to contribute to the immune responses. Because Las has not been cultivated, we used Liberibacter crescens (Lcr) as a surrogate to identify proteins in the OM fraction, OMV proteins and extracellular proteins by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We observed OMVs of Lcr under scanning electron microscope, representing the first experimental evidence that Liberibacter can deliver proteins to the extracellular compartment. In addition, we also further analyzed LC-MS/MS data using bioinformatic tools. Our study provides valuable information regarding the biology of Ca. Liberibacter species and identifies many putative proteins that may interact with host proteins in the phloem tissues.

9.
Integr Comp Biol ; 62(6): 1503-1518, 2022 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073444

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, the molecular mechanisms responsible for circadian phenotypes of animals have been studied in increasing detail in mammals, some insects, and other invertebrates. Particular circadian proteins and their interactions are shared across evolutionary distant animals, resulting in a hypothesis for the canonical circadian clock of animals. As the number of species for which the circadian clockwork has been described increases, the circadian clock in animals driving cyclical phenotypes becomes less similar. Our focus in this review is to develop and synthesize the current literature to better understand the antiquity and evolution of the animal circadian clockwork. Here, we provide an updated understanding of circadian clock evolution in animals, largely through the lens of conserved genes characterized in the circadian clock identified in bilaterian species. These comparisons reveal extensive variation within the likely composition of the core clock mechanism, including losses of many genes, and that the ancestral clock of animals does not equate to the bilaterian clock. Despite the loss of these core genes, these species retain circadian behaviors and physiology, suggesting novel clocks have evolved repeatedly. Additionally, we highlight highly conserved cellular processes (e.g., cell division, nutrition) that intersect with the circadian clock of some animals. The conservation of these processes throughout the animal tree remains essentially unknown, but understanding their role in the evolution and maintenance of the circadian clock will provide important areas for future study.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Fotoperíodo , Insetos , Mamíferos
10.
Plant Methods ; 18(1): 33, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic engineering of crops has enhanced productivity in the face of climate change and a growing global population by conferring desirable genetic traits, including the enhancement of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, to improve agriculture. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) system has been found to be a promising technology for genomic editing. Protoplasts are often utilized for the development of genetically modified plants through in vitro integration of a recombinant DNA fragment into the plant genome. We targeted the citrus Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis-Related 3 (CsNPR3) gene, a negative regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) that governs the proteasome-mediated degradation of NPR1 and developed a genome editing technique targeting citrus protoplast DNA to produce stable genome-edited citrus plants. RESULTS: Here, we determined the best cationic lipid nanoparticles to deliver donor DNA and described a protocol using Lipofectamine™ LTX Reagent with PLUS Reagent to mediate DNA delivery into citrus protoplasts. A Cas9 construct containing a gRNA targeting the CsNPR3 gene was transfected into citrus protoplasts using the cationic lipid transfection agent Lipofectamine with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 6000). The optimal transfection efficiency for the encapsulation was 30% in Lipofectamine, 51% in Lipofectamine with PEG, and 2% with PEG only. Additionally, plasmid encapsulation in Lipofectamine resulted in the highest cell viability percentage (45%) compared with PEG. Nine edited plants were obtained and identified based on the T7EI assay and Sanger sequencing. The developed edited lines exhibited downregulation of CsNPR3 expression and upregulation of CsPR1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that utilization of the cationic lipid-based transfection agent Lipofectamine is a viable option for the successful delivery of donor DNA and subsequent successful genome editing in citrus.

11.
New Phytol ; 234(5): 1566-1582, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302240

RESUMO

Lichens are the symbiotic outcomes of open, interspecies relationships, central to which are a fungus and a phototroph, typically an alga and/or cyanobacterium. The evolutionary processes that led to the global success of lichens are poorly understood. In this review, we explore the goods and services exchange between fungus and phototroph and how this propelled the success of both symbiont and symbiosis. Lichen fungal symbionts count among the only filamentous fungi that expose most of their mycelium to an aerial environment. Phototrophs export carbohydrates to the fungus, which converts them to specific polyols. Experimental evidence suggests that polyols are not only growth and respiratory substrates but also play a role in anhydrobiosis, the capacity to survive desiccation. We propose that this dual functionality is pivotal to the evolution of fungal symbionts, enabling persistence in environments otherwise hostile to fungi while simultaneously imposing costs on growth. Phototrophs, in turn, benefit from fungal protection from herbivory and light stress, while appearing to exert leverage over fungal sex and morphogenesis. Combined with the recently recognized habit of symbionts to occur in multiple symbioses, this creates the conditions for a multiplayer marketplace of rewards and penalties that could drive symbiont selection and lichen diversification.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Líquens , Biologia , Fungos , Líquens/microbiologia , Filogenia , Simbiose
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 529, 2022 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35082290

RESUMO

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus, caused by the phloem-colonizing bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Here, we present evidence that HLB is an immune-mediated disease. We show that CLas infection of Citrus sinensis stimulates systemic and chronic immune responses in phloem tissue, including callose deposition, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2, and induction of immunity-related genes. The infection also upregulates genes encoding ROS-producing NADPH oxidases, and downregulates antioxidant enzyme genes, supporting that CLas causes oxidative stress. CLas-triggered ROS production localizes in phloem-enriched bark tissue and is followed by systemic cell death of companion and sieve element cells. Inhibition of ROS levels in CLas-positive stems by NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) indicates that NADPH oxidases contribute to CLas-triggered ROS production. To investigate potential treatments, we show that addition of the growth hormone gibberellin (known to have immunoregulatory activities) upregulates genes encoding H2O2-scavenging enzymes and downregulates NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, foliar spray of HLB-affected citrus with gibberellin or antioxidants (uric acid, rutin) reduces H2O2 concentrations and cell death in phloem tissues and reduces HLB symptoms. Thus, our results indicate that HLB is an immune-mediated disease that can be mitigated with antioxidants and gibberellin.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus/imunologia , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias , Morte Celular , Citrus/microbiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Glucanos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Liberibacter , Floema , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Virulência
13.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(2): 446-461, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890720

RESUMO

Sperm characteristics, such as sperm morphology and sperm morphometry are important in assessing sperm quality. This is especially important for the management and conservation of endangered and exotic species, like the Florida manatee, where information of this nature is extremely limited. In this study, we fill this knowledge gap to better understand the reproductive physiology of Florida manatees by conducting the first extensive analysis of sperm morphometry and ultrastructure. Sperm were retrieved from the vas deferens of nine recently deceased Florida manatees. Computer-aided sperm morphology analysis (CASMA) was used for morphometric analysis and laser-scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy were used for structural and ultrastructural characterization. Our findings reveal new morphometric and structural data for the Florida manatee spermatozoon. Twelve morphometric features of Florida manatee sperm were quantified with some approximately 1.5-2 times larger than those previously reported. Ultrastructurally, the Florida manatee spermatozoon followed a mammalian structural pattern with an ovate-shaped head, midpiece containing 84-90 mitochondria, and a flagellum. However, unique ultrastructural features were identified. Distinct, rectangular-like enlargement of four outer dense fibers surrounding the axoneme was evident, which may provide additional tensile strength to counteract the forces on sperm transiting the female reproductive tract. Likewise, strong localization of F-actin fibers within the midpiece may function to maintain sperm integrity within the female reproductive tract. These findings highlight the potential effects of sexual selective pressures on sperm size and structure in the Florida manatee and provide avenues for research on the occurrence of sperm competition in this species.


Assuntos
Espermatozoides , Trichechus manatus , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mamíferos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitocôndrias
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259710, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851964

RESUMO

Several racial and ethnic identities are widely understood to be under-represented within academia, however, actual quantification of this under-representation is surprisingly limited. Challenges include data availability, demographic inertia and identifying comparison points. We use de-aggregated data from the U.S. National Science Foundation to construct a null model of ethnic and racial representation in one of the world's largest academic communities. Making comparisons between our model and actual representation in academia allows us to measure the effects of retention (while controlling for recruitment) at different academic stages. We find that, regardless of recruitment, failed retention contributes to mis-representation across academia and that the stages responsible for the largest disparities differ by race and ethnicity: for Black and Hispanic scholars this occurs at the transition from graduate student to postdoctoral researcher whereas for Native American/Alaskan Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander scholars this occurs at transitions to and within faculty stages. Even for Asian and Asian-Americans, often perceived as well represented, circumstances are complex and depend on choice of baseline. Our findings demonstrate that while recruitment continues to be important, retention is also a pervasive barrier to proportional representation. Therefore, strategies to reduce mis-representation in academia must address retention. Although our model does not directly suggest specific strategies, our framework could be used to project how representation in academia might change in the long-term under different scenarios.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375348

RESUMO

The Australian finger lime is a unique citrus species that has gained importance due to its unique fruit characteristics and perceived tolerance to Huanglongbing (HLB), an often-fatal disease of citrus trees. In this study, we developed allotetraploid finger lime hybrids and cybrids by utilizing somatic cell fusion techniques to fuse diploid 'OLL8' sweet orange or 'Page' tangelo callus-derived protoplasts with finger lime (FL) mesophyll-derived protoplasts. Six somatic fusions were regenerated from the 'OLL8' + FL fusion, while three putative cybrids were regenerated from the 'Page' + FL fusion. Ploidy levels and nuclear-expressed sequence tag derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers confirmed the somatic hybrid production, and mitochondrial DNA primer sets confirmed the cybrid nature. Several trees produced by the somatic fusion remained HLB negative even after 6 years of growth in an HLB-endemic environment. Pathogenesis related (PR) and other genes that are often upregulated in HLB-tolerant trees were also upregulated in our somatic fusions. These newly developed somatic fusions and cybrids could potentially be used as breeding parents to develop the next generation of improved HLB-tolerant rootstocks and scions.


Assuntos
Citrus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Austrália , Citrus/anatomia & histologia , Citrus sinensis/anatomia & histologia , Citrus sinensis/genética , Diploide , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Células Híbridas/citologia , Células Híbridas/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Protoplastos/citologia , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Tetraploidia
16.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(9): 2593-2600, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285727

RESUMO

A 41-year-old gentleman presented with decreased range of motion. Initial radiographs demonstrated extensive osteoarthritic changes involving the glenohumeral joint with a large inferior oriented osteophyte. Subsequent MRI of the shoulder was obtained which demonstrated isolated fatty atrophy of the teres minor and, to a lesser extent, deltoid muscles. The axillary nerve was visualized entering the quadrilateral space which, although, was severely narrowed secondary to the large osteophyte. The patient's clinical symptoms and MRI findings were consistent with quadrilateral space syndrome. The patient wanted to attempt conservative therapy first; and therefore, subsequently underwent physical therapy with improvement of shoulder strength and range of motion.

17.
Ecology ; 102(8): e03419, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086981

RESUMO

Movement is a widespread behavior across organisms and is driven in part by interspecific interactions. Generally, negative interspecific interactions (such as competition and natural enemies) are more often studied in the context of movement than positive interactions (mutualism). Mutualistic relationships are incredibly common, yet only a subset are studied in the context of movement (transportation mutualisms). Overall, the costs and benefits that an individual experiences are shaped both by their movement behavior and their mutualistic relationships, as well as the intersection between these. Here we argue that the intersection between movement behavior and mutualistic relationships is understudied, and we present a conceptual framework to synthesize the links between movement and mutualisms and give examples of species that exhibit each. Our framework serves both to highlight the ways that mutualism can shape movement (and vice versa) and to draw parallels across different organisms (enabling a more abstract perspective of these biological systems, complementing the system-focused perspective). Finally, we show how considering movement in light of mutualisms (and vice versa) presents a number of new research questions to be answered by each empirical and theoretical approach going forward.


Assuntos
Polinização , Simbiose
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21404, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293614

RESUMO

Shortening the juvenile stage in citrus and inducing early flowering has been the focus of several citrus genetic improvement programs. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a small phloem-translocated protein that regulates precocious flowering. In this study, two populations of transgenic Carrizo citrange rootstocks expressing either Citrus clementina FT1 or FT3 genes under the control of the Arabidopsis thaliana phloem specific SUCROSE SYNTHASE 2 (AtSUC2) promoter were developed. The transgenic plants were morphologically similar to the non-transgenic controls (non-transgenic Carrizo citrange), however, only AtSUC2-CcFT3 was capable of inducing precocious flowers. The transgenic lines produced flowers 16 months after transformation and flower buds appeared 30-40 days on juvenile immature scions grafted onto transgenic rootstock. Gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and APETALA1 (AP1) were enhanced in the transgenics. Transcriptome profiling of a selected transgenic line showed the induction of genes in different groups including: genes from the flowering induction pathway, APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) family genes, and jasmonic acid (JA) pathway genes. Altogether, our results suggested that ectopic expression of CcFT3 in phloem tissues of Carrizo citrange triggered the expression of several genes to mediate early flowering.


Assuntos
Quimera/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Quimera/genética , Citrus/genética , Citrus/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Poncirus/genética , Poncirus/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7762, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385353

RESUMO

The global expansion of tree plantations is often claimed to have positive effects for mitigating global warming, preventing soil erosion, and reducing biodiversity loss. However, questions remain unanswered about the impacts of plantations on belowground diversity and soil properties. Here, we examine how forestry plantations of exotic trees affect critical soil functions and the composition of invertebrate assemblages, by comparing invertebrate diversity and soil physico-chemical properties between non-native Pinus radiata plantations, and nearby native forests in a region of extensive plantation activity in south-central Chile. We quantified differences in diversity, abundance, and community composition of soil invertebrates, as well as fundamental soil properties such as soil water content, water infiltration, nutrient status, and pH. We show that in this landscape mosaic of native forest and plantations, both soil invertebrate communities and physical soil properties differed significantly between systems, despite similar soil origins and topographies. We found a significant loss of soil carbon and a major reduction in taxonomic and functional diversity of soil invertebrates in pine plantation sites. Soil biotic and abiotic characteristics of plantations differed significantly from native forests in plantation-dominated south-central Chile, with profound consequences for ecosystem processes and resilience to future climate change.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Florestas , Invertebrados , Pinus , Solo , Animais , Invertebrados/classificação , Solo/química , Solo/parasitologia
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(4): 2026-2030, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426825

RESUMO

Huanglongbing is a citrus disease that reduces yield, crop quality, and eventually causes tree mortality. The putative causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Rhizobiales: Rhizobiaceae), is vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Disease management is largely through vector control, but the insect is developing pesticide resistance. A nonchemical approach to vector management is to grow citrus under screen cages either as bags over individual trees or enclosures spanning many acres. The enclosing screen reduces wind, alters temperature relative to ambient, and excludes a variety of pests that are too large to pass through the screen. Here we evaluated the potential of six screens to exclude D. citri. We conclude that screens with rectangular openings need to limit the short side to no more than 384.3 µm with a SD of 36.9 µm (40 mesh) to prevent psyllids from passing through the screen. The long side can be at least 833 µm, but the efficacy of screens exceeding this value should be tested before using in the field.


Assuntos
Citrus , Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Animais , Doenças das Plantas , Telas Cirúrgicas
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