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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732965

RESUMO

Although the rapid expansion of urban rail transit offers convenience to citizens, the issue of subway vibration cannot be overlooked. This study investigates the spatial distribution characteristics of vibration in the Fayuan Temple historic and cultural reserve. It involves using a V001 magnetoelectric acceleration sensor capable of monitoring low amplitudes with a sensitivity of 0.298 V/(m/s2), a measuring range of up to 20 m/s2, and a frequency range span from 0.5 to 100 Hz for in situ testing, analyzing the law of vibration propagation in this area, evaluating the impact on buildings, and determining the vibration reduction scheme. The reserve is divided into three zones based on the vertical vibration level measured during the in situ test as follows: severely excessive, generally excessive, and non-excessive vibration. Furthermore, the research develops a dynamic coupling model of vehicle-track-tunnel-stratum-structure to verify the damping effect of the wire spring floating plate track and periodic pile row. It compares the characteristics of three vibration reduction schemes, namely, internal vibration reduction reconstruction, periodic pile row, and anti-vibration reinforcement or reconstruction of buildings, proposing a comprehensive solution. Considering the construction conditions, difficulty, cost, and other factors, a periodic pile row is recommended as the primary treatment measure. If necessary, anti-vibration reinforcement or reconstruction of buildings can serve as supplemental measures.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 331: 118274, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697410

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with reproductive dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities, particularly characterized by insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation. Multiple clinical studies have clearly demonstrated the significant efficacy and safety of the combination of Bailing capsules (BL) in the treatment of PCOS, but its pharmacological effects and mechanisms still require further study. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effect of BL on improving PCOS in mice and explore the mechanism. METHODS: In this study, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) injection was administered alone and in combination with a high-fat and high-sugar diet to induce PCOS-like mouse. They were randomly divided into five groups: normal group (N), PCOS group (P), Bailing capsule low-dose group (BL-L), Bailing capsule high-dose group (BL-H) and Metformin + Daine-35 group (M + D). Firstly, the effects of BL on ovarian lesions, serum hormone levels, HOMA-IR, intestinal barrier function, inflammation levels, along with the expression of IRS1, PI3K, AKT, TLR4, Myd88, NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-6, and Occludin of the ovary, liver and colon were investigated. Finally, the composition of the gut microbiome of fecal was tested. RESULTS: The administration of BL significantly reduced body weight, improved hormone levels, improved IR, and attenuated pathological damage to ovarian tissues, up-regulated the expression of IRS1, PI3K, and AKT in liver. It also decreased serum LPS, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, while downregulating the expression of Myd88, TLR4, and NF-κB p65. Additionally, BL improved intestinal barrier damage and upregulated the expression of Occludin. Interestingly, the abundance of norank_f__Muribaculacea and Lactobacillus was down-regulated, while the abundance of Akkermansia was significantly up-regulated. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that BL exerts a treatment PCOS effect, which may be related to the modulation of the gut microbiota, the improvement of insulin resistance and the intestinal-derived LPS-TLR4 inflammatory pathway. Our research will provide a theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of PCOS.

3.
Neural Netw ; 176: 106331, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701599

RESUMO

Adversarial attack reveals a potential imperfection in deep models that they are susceptible to being tricked by imperceptible perturbations added to images. Recent deep multi-object trackers combine the functionalities of detection and association, rendering attacks on either the detector or the association component an effective means of deception. Existing attacks focus on increasing the frequency of ID switching, which greatly damages tracking stability, but is not enough to make the tracker completely ineffective. To fully explore the potential of adversarial attacks, we propose Blind-Blur Attack (BBA), a novel attack method based on spatio-temporal motion information to fool multi-object trackers. Specifically, a simple but efficient perturbation generator is trained with the blind-blur loss, simultaneously making the target invisible to the tracker and letting the background be regarded as moving targets. We take TraDeS as our main research tracker, and verify our attack method on other excellent algorithms (i.e., CenterTrack, FairMOT, and ByteTrack) on MOT-Challenge benchmark datasets (i.e., MOT16, MOT17, and MOT20). BBA attack reduced the MOTA of TraDeS and ByteTrack from 69.1 and 80.3 to -238.1 and -357.0, respectively, indicating that it is an efficient method with a high degrees of transferability.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 134(9)2024 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690739
5.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 17: 1831-1840, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707965

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to translate and validate the Learned Helplessness Scale (LHS) for use in the educational context and specifically among Chinese law school students. Understanding learned helplessness in the context of Chinese law students can provide unique insights into the interaction of legal education, psychological health, and cultural influences, thereby contributing to a more nuanced understanding of learned helplessness. Methods: A total of 711 Chinese college students from two law schools participated in this study. The Learned Helplessness Scale (LHS) was translated into Chinese using forward and backward translation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and construct validity were conducted to assess the dimensionality of the Chinese version of the LHS (Chinese LHS). Results: The exploratory factor analysis indicated that the Chinese LHS has a four-factor structure consisting of 14 items, which accounted for 50% of the total variance. The subsequent confirmatory factor analysis further supported this four-factor structure. The internal consistency of the Chinese LHS was found to be medium to high, with Cronbach's α values ranging from 0.63 to 0.87 for the subfactors, and 0.79 for the total scale. In addition, concurrent validity is also confirmed. Conclusion: The 14-item version of the Chinese LHS is a psychometric sound instrument for assessing learned helplessness among Chinese law school students.

6.
Front Chem ; 12: 1397549, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708031

RESUMO

Leptadenia hastata (Pers.) Decne is a commonly used food source and prescribed as a traditional African medicine for treatment of various diseases, such as diabetes, skin disorders, wounds, and ulcers. However, quality control has become a bottleneck restricting the therapeutic development and utilization of this plant. In this study, a reliable method for qualitative and quantitative determination of components in Leptadenia hastata was established. The components of L. hastata were profiled using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Subsequently, an ultra-high performance tandem diode array detector (UHPLC-DAD)-based method was used for simultaneous quantitative analysis of five major constituents in six batches of L. hastata samples. As a result, 35 compounds were tentatively identified. The quantities of the five constituents (vicenin-Ⅱ, orientin, schaftoside, chrysin 6-C-arabinoside 8-C-glucoside, chrysin 6-C-glucoside 8-C-arabinoside) were determined as 124.8-156.9 µg/g, 170.5-216.0 µg/g, 61.31-93.73 µg/g, 85.13-119.3 µg/g and 99.82-129.4 µg/g, respectively. This method offers a successful strategy for precise and effective evaluation of the constituents of L. hastata, providing a robust foundation for holistic quality assessment of medicinal plants.

7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4300, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773134

RESUMO

The chromatin modifier GRAIN WEIGHT 6a (GW6a) enhances rice grain size and yield. However, little is known about its gene network determining grain size. Here, we report that MITOGEN-ACTIVED PROTEIN KINASE 6 (OsMAPK6) and E3 ligase CHANG LI GENG 1 (CLG1) interact with and target GW6a for phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, respectively. Unexpectedly, however, in vitro and in vivo assays reveal that both of the two post-translational modifications stabilize GW6a. Furthermore, we uncover two major GW6a phosphorylation sites (serine142 and threonine186) targeted by OsMAPK6 serving an important role in modulating grain size. In addition, our genetic and molecular results suggest that the OsMAPK6-GW6a and CLG1-GW6a axes are crucial and operate in a non-additive manner to control grain size. Overall, our findings identify a previously unknown mechanism by which phosphorylation and ubiquitylation non-additively stabilize GW6a to enhance grain size, and reveal correlations and interactions of these posttranslational modifications during rice grain development.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas , Ubiquitinação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Cromatina/metabolismo
8.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28019, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560167

RESUMO

Aim: Atractylodes macrocephala Rhizome (AM) has been used to treat hyperlipidemia for centuries, but its functional components and mechanisms are not clear. This research aimed to investigate the active components in AM and the mechanisms that underlie its anti-hyperlipidemia effect. Methods: SD rats were fed a high-sucrose high-fat diet in conjunction with alcohol (HSHFDAC) along with different AM extracts (AMW, AMO, AME, and AMP) for 4 weeks. AM's active components were analyzed using multiple databases, and their mechanisms were explored through network pharmacology. The relationship between AM's effect of enhancing serum HDL-c and regulating the expression of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)-related proteins (Apo-A1, LCAT, and SR-BI) was further validated in the HSHFDAC-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The kidney and liver functions of the rats were measured to evaluate the safety of AM. Results: AMO, mainly comprised of volatile and liposoluble components, contributed the most significant anti-hyperlipidemia effect among the four extracts obtained from AM, significantly improving the blood lipid profile. Network pharmacology analysis also suggested that volatile and liposoluble components, comprise AM's main active components and they might act on signaling pathways associated with elevated HDL-c. Validation experiments found that AMO substantially and dose-dependently increased HDL-c levels, upregulated the expression of Apo-A1, SR-BI, and LCAT, improved the pathological changes in the kidney and liver, and significantly reduced the serum creatinine levels in rats with hyperlipidemia. Conclusion: The main anti-hyperlipidemia active components of AM are its volatile and liposoluble components, which may enhance serum HDL-c by increasing the expression of the RCT-related proteins Apo-A1, LCAT, and SR-BI.

9.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28365, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571661

RESUMO

Aurora kinase A, as a pro-carcinogenic in gastric cancer and glioma kinase, is enhanced in several human tumors. However, it's regulatory mechanism in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the expression status, functional roles, and molecular mechanisms of AURKA in ESCC development. AURKA expression was analyzed by the screening of the GEO database and detected using an immunohistochemical method. The biological function of AURKA on ESCC was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Western blot assay, malondialdehyde (MDA), iron, and glutathione (GSH) kits were utilized to assess changes in ferroptosis. Database analysis results showed that AURKA was a differential gene in ESCC and was highly expressed in human ESCC tissues. Functionally, AURKA knockdown decreased ESCC cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, when AURKA was knockdown, cells were more correctly blocked in the G2/M phase, and the ferroptosis-related MDA and Fe increased, whereas the GSH reduced. Consistently, Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and solute carrier family 7a member 11 (SLC7A11) expression were downregulated by AURKA knockdown. However, ferroptosis inhibitor partially restore ESCC cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis caused by AURKA knockdown. AURKA knockdown enhances ferroptosis and acts against cancer progression in ESCC. AURKA acts as a tumor-promoting gene and may serve as potential target for ESCC treatment.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was designed to conduct pooled comparisons of the relative clinical efficacy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided localization for pulmonary nodules (PNs) using either coil- or liquid material-based approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant articles published as of July 2023 were identified in the Web of Science, PubMed, and Wanfang databases, and pooled analyses of relevant endpoints were then conducted. RESULTS: Six articles that enrolled 287 patients (341 PNs) and 247 patients (301 PNs) that had respectively undergone CT-guided localization procedures using coil- and liquid material-based approaches prior to video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) were included in this meta-analysis. The liquid material group exhibited a significantly higher pooled successful localization rate as compared to the coil group (p = 0.01), together with significantly lower pooled total complication rates (p = 0.0008) and pneumothorax rates (p = 0.01). Both groups exhibited similar rates of pulmonary hemorrhage (p = 0.44) and successful wedge resection (p = 0.26). Liquid-based localization was also associated with significant reductions in pooled localization and VATS procedure durations (p = 0.004 and 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: These data are consistent with CT-guided localization procedures performed using liquid materials being safer and more efficacious than coil-based localization in patients with PNs prior to VATS resection.

11.
Am J Transl Res ; 16(3): 925-932, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in preventing upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: The clinical data of patients with gastric cancer complicated with acute non-operative GI bleeding treated in the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University from 2020 to 2022 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The survival status of the patients was followed up by telephone. The dataset of 168 patients was divided into a control group (n=85) and a TXA group (n=83), at a 1:1 ratio. The patients in the control group were treated with esomeprazole, and the patients in the TXA group received additional TXA. The hemostatic effect, rebleeding rate, and mortality of patients were compared between the two groups. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the overall survival of patients as well as the related risk factors. RESULTS: The success rate of hemostasis and the normal blood coagulation rate in the TXA group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P=0.003 and P=0.016). The secondary bleeding rate, thrombus formation rate and digestive tract perforation rate in the TXA group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P=0.002, P=0.003 and P=0.035). The improvement of all indicators in the TXA group was better than that in the control group (all P<0.05). For patients with gastric cancer complicated with acute GI bleeding treated with TXA, the Cox proportional hazard model identified III~IV stage, time of TXA treatment, surgical treatment after hemorrhage, and an increase of D-dimer as independent risk factors for upper GI bleeding (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: TXA can be an effective treatment for patients with gastric cancer complicated by GI bleeding.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603468

RESUMO

Taking advantage of the well-defined geometry of metal centers and highly directional metal-ligand coordination bonds, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising candidates for nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. In this work, taking a photoresponsive carboxylate triphenylamine derivative as an organic ligand, a bismuth-based MOF, Bi-NBC, NBC = 4',4‴,4‴″-nitrilotris(([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid)) is obtained. Structure determination reveals that it is a potential NLO material derived from its noncentrosymmetric structure, which is finally confirmed by its rarely strong second harmonic generation (SHG) effect. Theoretical calculations reveal that the potential difference around Bi atoms is large; therefore, it leads to a strong local built-in electric field, which greatly facilitates the charge separation and transfer and finally improves the photocatalytic performance. Our results provide a reference for the exploration of MOFs with NLO properties.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(15): 19235-19246, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584351

RESUMO

The ability of ferroelectric memristors to modulate conductance and offer multilevel storage has garnered significant attention in the realm of artificial synapses. On one hand, the resistance change of ferroelectric memristors mainly depends on the polarization reversal. On the other hand, the defects such as oxygen vacancies, which are inevitable presence during high-temperature processes, can undergo diffusion drift with the polarization reversal, thereby change the interface potential barrier. Thus, it is both desirable and necessary to investigate the synergistic effect of ferroelectricity and defects. Here, we prepare BaTiO3 ferroelectric memristor by pulse laser deposition and achieve resistance switching through the synergistic effect of ferroelectricity and oxygen vacancies. The memristor shows excellent switching characteristics with a large switching ratio (104) and good stability (103 s). It effectively emulates the features of artificial synapses and accomplishes decimal logical neural computing. In the neuromorphic system crafted with the memristor, the recognition accuracy of the 28 × 28 pixel image reaches 94.9%. These findings strongly support the research of ferroelectric memristors in neuromorphic devices.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610312

RESUMO

Electrocardiogram (ECG) reconstruction from contact photoplethysmogram (PPG) would be transformative for cardiac monitoring. We investigated the fundamental and practical feasibility of such reconstruction by first replicating pioneering work in the field, with the aim of assessing the methods and evaluation metrics used. We then expanded existing research by investigating different cycle segmentation methods and different evaluation scenarios to robustly verify both fundamental feasibility, as well as practical potential. We found that reconstruction using the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and a linear ridge regression model shows good results when PPG and ECG cycles are semantically aligned-the ECG R peak and PPG systolic peak are aligned-before training the model. Such reconstruction can be useful from a morphological perspective, but loses important physiological information (precise R peak location) due to cycle alignment. We also found better performance when personalization was used in training, while a general model in a leave-one-subject-out evaluation performed poorly, showing that a general mapping between PPG and ECG is difficult to derive. While such reconstruction is valuable, as the ECG contains more fine-grained information about the cardiac activity as well as offers a different modality (electrical signal) compared to the PPG (optical signal), our findings show that the usefulness of such reconstruction depends on the application, with a trade-off between morphological quality of QRS complexes and precise temporal placement of the R peak. Finally, we highlight future directions that may resolve existing problems and allow for reliable and robust cross-modal physiological monitoring using just PPG.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Fotopletismografia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Benchmarking , Eletricidade
17.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2870, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594246

RESUMO

Traditional approaches to coastal defence often struggle to reduce the risks of accelerated climate change. Incorporating nature-based components into coastal defences may enhance adaptation to climate change with added benefits, but we need to compare their performance against conventional hard measures. We conduct a meta-analysis that compares the performances of hard, hybrid, soft and natural measures for coastal defence across different functions of risk reduction, climate change mitigation, and cost-effectiveness. Hybrid and soft measures offer higher risk reduction and climate change mitigation benefits than unvegetated natural systems, while performing on par with natural measures. Soft and hybrid measures are more cost-effective than hard measures, while hybrid measures provide the highest hazard reduction among all measures. All coastal defence measures have a positive economic return over a 20-year period. Mindful of risk context, our results provide strong an evidence-base for integrating and upscaling nature-based components into coastal defences in lower risk areas.

18.
Sci Adv ; 10(15): eadh1077, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598638

RESUMO

Achieving sustainable dietary change is essential for safeguarding human and environmental health. However, dietary recommendations based on broad food groups may not accurately reflect real-world realities because individuals select and consume dishes with multiple food items influenced by diverse context-specific factors. Therefore, here we explored the sustainability trade-offs of dietary choices at the dish level through an optimization modeling approach tested in Japan. We estimated the nutritional quality, price, and carbon footprint of major Japanese dishes and examined 16 dietary scenarios to identify options that meet the nutritional requirements and minimize carbon footprint. Overall, mixed diets contain more combinations of dishes that meet nutritional requirements with lower carbon footprints compared to more restrictive dietary scenarios. We argue that the approach developed here enables a better understanding of dietary trade-offs, complements existing methods, and helps identify sustainable diets by offering nuanced information at the national and sub-national levels.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Dieta , Humanos , Alimentos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Nutrientes
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 930: 172728, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663614

RESUMO

Vegetation resilience is critical for understanding the dynamic feedback effect of regional ecological environment stability against interferences. Thus, based on quantify the interferences of climate dryness and vegetation water deficit affecting vegetation growth function, incorporate mechanical Hooke's law to develop a vegetation resilience assessment model by quantitatively expressing vegetation growth function maintenance ability, to reveal the ecological environment stability and its feedback effect on interferences in the study area. The essential discoveries of the study are as follows: (1) with the increase of precipitation and the improvement of afforestation on soil erosion, the interferences intensity of climate dryness and vegetation water deficit in the ecological environment decreased by 5.88 % and 4.92 % respectively, the regional vegetation growth function loss was improved, especially in the southern region; (2) the decrease of vegetation growth function loss promoted the vegetation resilience level fluctuated from class II to class IV, with the average annual vegetation resilience increased by 7.02 %, reflecting that the regional ecological environment stability increased from difficult to rapid recovery after disturbance, and the benefit was especially noticeable in the eastern and southern forested areas; (3) the contribution rates of climate dryness and vegetation water deficit to the variation of vegetation resilience caused by vegetation restoration were -1.38 % and 4.73 %, respectively, and the prominent positive feedback effect of increasing vegetation resilience with decreasing vegetation water deficit degree in forest restoration area, indicating that the vegetation water deficit greatly impacts ecological environment stability in the study area, and forest restoration constantly improves regional ecological environment stability more than grassland restoration. This research has crucial guiding implications for supporting the sustainable development of regional ecological environments.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Florestas , Modelos Teóricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Clima , Erosão do Solo , Mudança Climática
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 175: 116519, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Atractylodes macrocephala extract crystallize (BZEP) and BZEP self-microemulsion (BZEPWR) on metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) induced by "high sugar, high fat, and excessive alcohol consumption" based on the gut-liver axis HDL/LPS signaling pathway. METHODS: In this study, BZEP and BZEPWR were obtained via isolation, purification, and microemulsification. Furthermore, an anthropomorphic MAFLD rat model of "high sugar, high fat, and excessive alcohol consumption" was established. The therapeutic effects of BZEPWR and BZEP on the model rats were evaluated in terms of liver function, lipid metabolism (especially HDL-C), serum antioxidant indexes, and liver and intestinal pathophysiology. To determine the lipoproteins in the serum sample, the amplitudes of a plurality of NMR spectra were derived via deconvolution of the composite methyl signal envelope to yield HDL-C subclass concentrations. The changes in intestinal flora were detected via 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, the gut-liver axis HDL/LPS signaling pathway was validated using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blot. RESULTS: The findings established that BZEPWR and BZEP improved animal signs, serum levels of liver enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid metabolism (TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C), and antioxidant indexes (GSH, SOD, and ROS). In addition, pathological damage to the liver, colon, and ileum was ameliorated, and the intestinal barrier function of the model rats was restored. At the genus level, BZEPWR and BZEP exerted positive effects on beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and norank_f__Muribaculaceae, and inhibitory effects on harmful bacteria, such as unclassified_f__Lachnospiraceae and Blautia. Twenty HDL-C subspecies were detected, and their levels were differentially increased in both BZEPWR and BZEP groups, with BZEPWR exhibiting a stronger elevating effect on specific HDL-C subspecies. Also, the gut-liver axis HDL/LPS signaling pathway was studied, which indicated that BZEPWR and BZEP significantly increased the expressions of ABCA1, LXR, occludin, and claudin-1 proteins in the gut and serum levels of HDL-C. Concomitantly, the levels of LPS in the serum and TLR4, Myd88, and NF-κB proteins in the liver were decreased. CONCLUSION: BZEPWR and BZEP exert restorative and reversal effects on the pathophysiological damage to the gut-liver axis in MAFLD rats, and the therapeutic mechanism may be related to the regulation of the intestinal flora and the HDL/LPS signaling pathway.

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