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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137074, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036147

RESUMO

Hygroscopicity is an important property of aerosols, which cannot be obtained for a wide range of particle sizes by online observation. A cascade impactor sampler, an essential method for obtaining the size-resolved chemical compositions of ambient aerosols, enables the acquisition of the size-resolved hygroscopicity for particles in multiple modes. A micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI-122, MSP) was used to collect the size-resolved aerosol samples during 2016 and 2017. The water-soluble components in these samples were analysed for different pollution levels in two periods. Then, the hygroscopicity parameter (κ) was calculated. The changing hygroscopicity in different size ranges was directly influenced by variations in the distribution of the water-soluble components. The contribution of sulfate to the κ was much higher in the summer period than that in the winter period due to the higher SO42- concentration in the summer. During the summer period, the contribution of nitrate to the κ of particle sizes above 0.56 µm was significantly higher than that of particles smaller than 0.56 µm, while in the winter period, the contribution of nitrate in finer particles with sizes below 1.8 µm was much higher than that in coarse particles. The contribution of chloride to the κ increased significantly in the winter period due to the influence of heating coal emissions. For particles below 1.0 µm, the contribution and fraction of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) to the aerosol hygroscopicity increased with decreasing particle size. Compared with the aerosol hygroscopicity during the first stage of a pollution episode, the hygroscopicity of particles above 0.18 µm was significantly enhanced during the stages of pollution accumulation and formation. The results in this study were in good agreement with the results of other similar studies or data derived by other methods, indicating that the hygroscopicity based on size-resolved water-soluble components is reliable and can be used in the study of activation, radiation force, and heterogeneous reaction mechanism of particles with multiple sizes.

2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 104, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well known that second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) is a predictor for adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs), such as preterm birth, stillbirth, preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA). However, it is unknown whether first-trimester MS-AFP is also predictive of APOs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data on the first-trimester MS-AFP levels and pregnancy outcomes of 3325 singleton pregnant women. The cutoff value of 2.5 multiple of the median (MoM) was used to evaluate the risks of APOs regarding MS-AFP. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the predictive efficiencies of MS-AFP to these disorders. RESULTS: A total of 181 pregnancies resulted in preterm birth, 32 in stillbirth, 81 in preeclampsia, and 362 in SGA. Compared to women with MS-AFP < 2.5MoM, those with MS-AFP ≥ 2.5MoM had increased risks (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) of preterm birth (2.53, 1.65~3.88), preeclampsia (3.05, 1.71~5.43) and SGA (1.90, 1.34~2.69), and had an earlier distribution of gestational weeks at delivery (P = 0.004) and a lower distribution of neonatal birth weights (P = 0.000), but the actual between-group differences were minuscule. The areas under ROC curves were 0.572 (P = 0.001), 0.579 (P = 0.015) and 0.565 (P = 0.000) for preterm birth, preeclampsia and SGA, respectively. Subdivisions for the disorders did not obviously improve the performances of MS-AFP. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated first-trimester MS-AFP is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, preeclampsia and SGA. However, the predictive efficiencies were low and it is not a good predictor for these APOs.

3.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(1): 73-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the overall distribution of pregnancy outcomes in women with elevated second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP), and to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) by MS-AFP level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 429 women with elevated MS-AFP (≥2.5 multiple of the median (MOM)) and 1555 women with normal MS-AFP (0.5-2.49MOM) from a total of 46,741 prenatally screened singleton pregnant women. The overall distribution of APOs of the two groups, the risk of APOs by MS-AFP level, and the predictive value of elevated MS-AFP to APOs were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence rate of APOs in elevated MS-AFP group was significantly higher than that in normal MS-AFP group (42.89 vs. 8.23%). In elevated MS-AFP group, the top three APOs, in term of incidence rate, were structural fetal abnormalities (7.93%), spontaneous abortion (7.46%) and preterm birth (7.23%); regarding to the risk, the top three APOs were stillbirth, spontaneous abortion and early-onset preeclampsia (odds ratio 35.98, 20.81 and 8.58 respectively). For structural fetal abnormalities, MS-AFP had predictive values for fetal open neural tube defects (ONTDs), gastroschisis and multiple malformations. CONCLUSION: Elevated MS-AFP is associated with increased risks of APOs. ONTDs complicate merely a small proportion of pregnancies with elevated MS-AFP, and the rest of them have high risks of obstetric complications. MS-AFP can help to identify these women at high risk of APOs in earlier second-trimester.

4.
J Mol Biol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954129

RESUMO

The interleukin-18 subfamily belongs to the interleukin-1 family and plays an important role in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Dysregulation of IL-18 has been implicated in or correlated with numerous diseases, including inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Thus, blockade of IL-18 signaling may offer therapeutic benefits in many pathological settings. Here, we report the development of synthetic human antibodies that target human IL-18Rß and block IL-18-mediated IFN-γ secretion by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK dependent pathways. The crystal structure of a potent antagonist antibody in complex with IL-18Rß revealed inhibition through an unexpected allosteric mechanism. Our findings offer a novel means for therapeutic intervention in the IL-18 pathway and may provide a new strategy for targeting cytokine receptors.

5.
Nature ; 577(7791): 566-571, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915377

RESUMO

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) are phenotypic plasticity processes that confer migratory and invasive properties to epithelial cells during development, wound-healing, fibrosis and cancer1-4. EMTs are driven by SNAIL, ZEB and TWIST transcription factors5,6 together with microRNAs that balance this regulatory network7,8. Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) is a potent inducer of developmental and fibrogenic EMTs4,9,10. Aberrant TGF-ß signalling and EMT are implicated in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, pulmonary fibrosis and cancer4,11. TGF-ß depends on RAS and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inputs for the induction of EMTs12-19. Here we show how these signals coordinately trigger EMTs and integrate them with broader pathophysiological processes. We identify RAS-responsive element binding protein 1 (RREB1), a RAS transcriptional effector20,21, as a key partner of TGF-ß-activated SMAD transcription factors in EMT. MAPK-activated RREB1 recruits TGF-ß-activated SMAD factors to SNAIL. Context-dependent chromatin accessibility dictates the ability of RREB1 and SMAD to activate additional genes that determine the nature of the resulting EMT. In carcinoma cells, TGF-ß-SMAD and RREB1 directly drive expression of SNAIL and fibrogenic factors stimulating myofibroblasts, promoting intratumoral fibrosis and supporting tumour growth. In mouse epiblast progenitors, Nodal-SMAD and RREB1 combine to induce expression of SNAIL and mesendoderm-differentiation genes that drive gastrulation. Thus, RREB1 provides a molecular link between RAS and TGF-ß pathways for coordinated induction of developmental and fibrogenic EMTs. These insights increase our understanding of the regulation of epithelial plasticity and its pathophysiological consequences in development, fibrosis and cancer.

6.
Nature ; 578(7793): E11, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937917

RESUMO

An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

7.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 30(2): 107-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532267

RESUMO

In standard nonclinical drug safety evaluation studies, limitations exist in predicting the clinical risk of a drug based only on data from healthy animals. To obtain more comprehensive toxicological information on norisoboldine (NOR), we conducted an exploratory study using C57BL/6 mice in addition to healthy mice as models of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis to evaluate the safety of NOR. The healthy mice and DSS colitis mice were exposed to 30 or 90 mg NOR/kg body weight or water for 15 days. Compared with the model control group, 90 mg/kg of NOR aggravated the symptoms and colonic lesions of the DSS colitis mice and even caused death in two animals. No significant adverse effects were observed in the healthy mice. These different toxic reactions to NOR in the healthy and DSS colitis mice indicate that NOR toxicity varies by status among animals and suggests that the DSS colitis mouse model may be more susceptible, accurate and comprehensive in evaluating the safety of NOR. In conclusion, 90 mg/kg of NOR may be safe for healthy mice but not for DSS colitis mice. The DSS colitis mouse model, with many features similar to those of human colitis patients, may be a novel choice to counteract the deficiencies of using healthy mice to evaluate the safety of anti-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) drugs, and further research is required.

8.
Clin Chim Acta ; 502: 9-14, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837298

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is an important means to raise the survival rate of patients. Multi-marker combined detection is a powerful tool of early HCC diagnosis. Traditional detection methods are not effective and accurate because it is difficult to achieve combined detection of multiple markers. In this paper, we selected Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) and miRNA-125b as the combined detection markers to improve the simultaneously diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The anti-AFP monoclonal antibody and the DNA probes paired with the miRNA-125b were modified on the surface of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor respectively to specifically recognize AFP and miRNA-125b in serum. In order to enhance the SPR response signal and detection sensitivity, Double Antibody Sandwich Method (DASM) and S9.6 antibody enhanced method were applied to achieve low detection limit of the two markers. Experimental results showed that AFP (25-400 ng/mL) was accurately detected by DASM and the detection limit of miRNA-125b by S9.6 antibody enhanced method reached 123.044 pM. These results verified the feasibility of the multi-marker detection method in early diagnosis of HCC.

9.
Neuropeptides ; 79: 102000, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864679

RESUMO

The neuropeptide galanin functions via three G-protein coupled receptors, Gal1-3-R. Both Gal1-R and 2-R are involved in pain signaling at the spinal level. Here a Gal2-R-EGFP transgenic (TG) mouse was generated and studied in pain tests and by characterizing Gal2-R expression in both sensory ganglia and spinal cord. After peripheral spared nerve injury, mechanical allodynia developed and was ipsilaterally similar between wild type (WT) and TG mice. A Gal2-R-EGFP-positive signal was primarily observed in small and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and in spinal interneurons and processes. No significant difference in size distribution of DRG neuronal profiles was found between TG and WT mice. Both percentage and fluorescence intensity of Gal2-R-EGFP-positive neuronal profiles were overall significantly upregulated in ipsilateral DRGs as compared to contralateral DRGs. There was an ipsilateral reduction in substance P-positive and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neuronal profiles, and this reduction was more pronounced in TG as compared to WT mice. Moreover, Gal2-R-EGFP partly co-localized with three pain-related neuropeptides, CGRP, neuropeptide Y and galanin, both in intact and injured DRGs, and with galanin also in local neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. Taken together, the present results provide novel information on the localization and phenotype of DRG and spinal neurons expressing the second galanin receptor, Gal2-R, and on phenotypic changes following peripheral nerve injury. Gal2-R may also be involved in autoreceptor signaling.

10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789478

RESUMO

The metacognitive deficit in awareness of one's own mental states is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ). The previous studies suggested that the metacognitive deficit associates with clinical symptoms. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the relationship remain largely unknown. We here investigated the neural activities associated with the metacognitive deficit and the neural signatures associated with clinical symptoms in 38 patients with SZ using functional magnetic resonance imaging with a perceptual decision-making task accompanied with metacognition, in comparison to 38 age, gender, and education matched healthy control subjects. The metacognitive deficit in patients with SZ was associated with reduced regional activity in both the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and the default mode network. Critically, the anticorrelational balance between the two disrupted networks was substantially altered during metacognition, and the extent of alteration positively scaled with negative symptoms. Conversely, decoupling between the two networks was impaired when metacognitive monitoring was not required, and the strength of excessive neural activity positively scaled with positive symptoms. Thus, disruptions of the FPCN and the default mode network underlie the metacognitive deficit, and alternations of network balance between the two networks correlate with clinical symptoms in SZ. These findings implicate that rebalancing these networks holds important clinical potential in developing more efficacious therapeutic treatments.

11.
J Cancer ; 10(27): 6822-6828, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839816

RESUMO

The coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 (CHCHD2) is overexpressed in several types of cancer. This study aimed to investigate the role of CHCHD2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression of CHCHD2 in HCC and non-tumorous tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and the correlation between CHCHD2 expression and clinicopathological features of HCC was analyzed. Furthermore, the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of HepG2 cells with CHCHD2 knockdown were examined. We found that CHCHD2 was upregulated in HCC tissues, and high CHCHD2 expression was associated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, local tissue invasion, high TNM grade of HCC and poor patient survival. Depletion of CHCHD2 led to significantly reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and diminished migratory capacity in HepG2 cells. In addition, HCC tissues had high expression of CD105, a microvessel marker, and HepG2 cells depleted of CHCHD2 had low CD105 expression. In conclusion, CHCHD2 may play an oncogenic role in HCC via promoting tumor cell growth and migration while preventing apoptosis. CHCHD2 is a potential biomarker for poor outcome of HCC patients.

12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(22): 4896-4904, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872598

RESUMO

Previous studies of Dendrobium officinale on anti-hypertension effect always focused only on the blood pressure,while polysaccharides of D. officinale( DOP) have been traditionally considered as one of the main effective substances. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract from D. officinale( DOE) on blood pressure,Glu and lipid profile in metabolic hypertensive rats induced by comprehensive dietary factors,and elucidate the composition of effective fractions from DOE. A metabolic hypertension model of rat induced by high-sugar,high-fat diet and alcohol drinking was adopted to evaluate the effect of DOE on hypertension and other metabolic disorders. Blood pressure,Glu and lipid profile were detected to find the features and differences of DOE and DOP on metabolic hypertension. Furthermore,DOE was separated with three different common solvents according to the polarity. Along with blood pressure,Glu,UA and lipid profile,hemorheology,oxidative index and aortas structure changes were adopted to evaluate the comprehensive effects of the most effective fractions on metabolic hypertension. Finally,HPLC-DAD-MS was adopted to identify the components of the most effective fraction. The SBP and Glu of models were decreased significantly after administration of DOE and DOP for 6 weeks,while TG in DOE groups also reduced dramatically. The DOE was separated with ether,n-butanol respectively and named NAF,NBF and NCF. SBP,TG,Glu,UA of model rats were decreased significantly after 4 weeks administration with NBF. The level of MDA in serum was down-regulated,while GSH-Px and T-AOC were up-regulated obviously after 12 weeks.And the blood viscosity also obviously decreased,with less collagen deposition of aortas by Masson's trichrome staining. NBF was mainly composed of phenols and flavone C-glycosides,whose aglycone was apigenin,and monosaccharide was connected to C-6 and C-8. Ethanol extract from D.officinale has an positive effect in alleviating hypertension and metabolic disorders in metabolic hypertension. Medium polarity fraction was the effective fraction of alcohol extraction from D. officinale,and mainly composed of phenols and flavone C-glycosides.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Etanol , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872494

RESUMO

Triangulene and its higher homologues are a class of zigzag-edged triangular graphene molecules (ZTGMs) with high-spin ground states. These open-shell molecules are predicted to host ferromagnetically coupled edge states with net spin values scaling with molecular size and are therefore considered promising candidates for future molecular spintronics applications. Unfortunately, the synthesis of unsubstituted [n]triangulenes and the direct observation of their edge states have been a long-standing challenge due to a high reactivity towards oxygen. However, recent advances in precursor design enabled the on-surface synthesis and characterization of unsubstituted [3]-, [4]-, and [5]triangulene. In this Minireview, we will highlight key aspects of this rapidly developing field, ranging from the principles of precursor design to synthetic strategies and characterization of a homologous series of triangulene molecules synthesized on-surface. We will also discuss challenges and future directions.

14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 3849-3855, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854846

RESUMO

It is important to obtain the size distribution of carbonaceous components in aerosols for studying the formation and transformation mechanisms and radiation characteristics of regional aerosols. However, only a few studies on the size distribution of aerosol carbonaceous fractions have been conducted in Beijing. In this study, a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI)-120 sampler was used to collect size-resolved aerosol samples in three seasons in Beijing, and the concentrations of different types of carbonaceous fractions were analyzed. Furthermore, the size distribution, characteristics, sources, and interrelationship of each carbonaceous component in different seasons and under different pollution levels were systematically studied. The results show that the carbonaceous components were concentrated mainly in fine particles, and the proportion of carbonaceous components in fine particles in autumn and winter was higher than that in summer. The carbonaceous components are distributed in two main modes:accumulation mode and coarse mode. Organic carbon fraction 1 (OC1) and OC2 were distributed mainly in the accumulated mode, with a higher proportion in the range of 0.056-0.56 µm, and OC3+OC4 was more abundant in the coarse mode. The concentration of Soot-elemental carbon (EC) was low but was highest in the 0.10-0.18 µm size range, which indicates that the EC emitted by high temperature combustion was distributed mainly in the ultra-fine particle size range. The Char-EC concentration was much higher, accounting for the majority of EC. The distribution appearances of the main carbonaceous components were essentially the same in the daytime and at night. Summer and winter were more conducive to the formation of SOC, and the OC/EC ratio was significantly higher than that in autumn. The OC/EC values varied greatly in different particle sizes because the water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) were distributed mainly in the range of 0.056-0.10 µm, with significantly higher OC/EC values than other particle sizes. Sunlight and high temperature were beneficial to the oxidation of gaseous organic matter to SOC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio in summer in daytime to be significantly higher than that at night. Among the carbonaceous components, EC1 and OC1 had the strongest interrelation. In addition, EC1 also had stronger interrelation with potassium.

15.
Support Care Cancer ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is an integral part of cancer survivorship. To help improve survivorship education, clinicians need an understanding of patient awareness of the harms of continued smoking. METHODS: Cancer survivors from Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (Toronto, ON) were surveyed on their awareness of the harms of continued smoking on cancer-related outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed factors associated with awareness and whether awareness was associated with subsequent cessation among smokers at diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 1118 patients, 23% were current smokers pre-diagnosis and 54% subsequently quit; 25% had lung and 30% head and neck cancers. Many patients reported being unaware that continued smoking results in greater cancer surgical complications (53%), increased radiation side effects (62%), decreased quality of life during chemotherapy (51%), decreased chemotherapy or radiation efficacy (57%), increased risk of death (40%), and increased development of second primaries (38%). Being a current smoker was associated with greater lack of awareness of some of these smoking harms (aORs = 1.53-2.20, P < 0.001-0.02), as was exposure to any second-hand smoke (aORs = 1.45-1.53, P = 0.006-0.04) and being diagnosed with early stage cancer (aORs = 1.38-2.31, P < 0.001-0.06). Among current smokers, those with fewer pack-years, being treated for cure, or had a non-tobacco-related cancer were more likely unaware. Awareness that continued tobacco use worsen quality of life after chemotherapy was associated with subsequent cessation (aOR = 2.26, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Many cancer survivors are unaware that continued smoking can negatively impact cancer-related outcomes. The impact of educating patients about the potential harms of continued smoking when discussing treatment plans should be further evaluated.

16.
Radiother Oncol ; 144: 13-22, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710939

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examines outcome heterogeneity and potential to refine the TNM-8 cN-classification using radiologic extranodal extension (rENE) in a contemporary HPV-positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) cohort. METHODS: All HPV+ OPC treated with definitive IMRT from 2010-2015 were included. Pre-treatment CT/MR of cN+ cases were reviewed by a head-neck radiologist for rENE. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between rENE-positive (rENE+) vs rENE-negative (rENE-). Multivariable analysis (MVA) for OS confirmed the prognostic value of rENE. Refined cN-classifications for new TNM staging proposals were evaluated against TNM-8 using established criteria. RESULTS: A total of 517 cN+ (rENE+: 97; rENE-: 420) and 41 cN0 cases were identified. The rENE+ proportion increased with rising N-category (N1/N2/N3: 11%/19%/84%, p < 0.001). Median follow-up was 5.1 years. Compared to rENE-, rENE+ patients had a lower 5-year OS (56% vs 85%) and DFS (46% vs 83%) overall, and in N1 (OS: 57% vs 89%; DFS: 51% vs 87%) and N2 subsets (OS: 45% and 76%; DFS: 33% vs 74%) (all p < 0.001). MVA confirmed the prognostic value of rENE for OS (HR = 3.86, p < 0.001) and DFS (HR = 3.89, p < 0.001). We proposed two new cN-classifications: Schema1 reclassified any N_rENE+ as New_N3; Schema2 reclassified N1_rENE+ as New_N2 and N2_rENE+ as New_N3. Stage incorporating either Schema1 (ranked 1st) or Schema2 (ranked 2nd) cN-categories outperformed TNM-8. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that rENE is prognostically important and facilitates understanding of known outcome heterogeneity within TNM-8 in HPV+ OPC patients. rENE is a promising parameter to refine the TNM-8 cN-classifications.

17.
Head Neck ; 2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no mechanism to predict health utility (HU) values from the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UWQoL) scores. We sought to develop a mapping algorithm capable of using UWQoL data to approximate HU scores. METHODS: Outpatients with head and neck cancer completed the UWQoL, EQ-5D, and the Health Utilities Index-Mark 3 (HUI-3). Results of the UWQoL were mapped onto both EQ-5D and HUI-3 scores using ordinary least-squares regression models. Two-part models were explored. The predictive power of the model was assessed using 10-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: A total of 209 patients were recruited. The reduced model converting UWQoL data into EQ-5D scores performed best (adjusted R2 = 0.628, root mean square error = 0.076). Both models demonstrated construct validity by discriminating between clinical indices of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: The abovementioned algorithms enable researchers to perform health economic evaluations with existing UWQoL data in cases where prospectively collected HU values are not available.

18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3335-3342, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602892

RESUMO

Based on pharmacodynamics-component correlation analysis,the best effective part of hyperlipidemia of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae( PCR) was screened out to confirm the possible constituents with the lipid regulating effect,in order to provide a basis for the development of new drugs. Hyperlipidemia rats induced by fat emulsion were used to screen out the best hypolipidemic parts of PCR with TC,LDL-c as the index. HPLC-ESI-MS were used to analyze common constituents of the different solvent extracts from PCR. The constituents were classified and identified based on the retention time,m/z and UV spectra. And the HPLC-DAD were used to determine the contents of flavonoids( narirutin,hesperidin,didymin,nobiletin,tangeretin,3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptemthoxyflavone).Correlation analysis was conducted on the constituents and efficacy with the method of SPSS ANOVA bivariate correlation. Five extracts could significantly decrease the content of TC,LDL-c of hyperlipemia rats induced by fat emulsion,and the best effective part were95% ethanol and ethyl acetate. There were 19 common peaks in five different solvent extracts from PCR,and 17 flavonoids were identified and classified,including 10 polymethoxyflavonoids and 7 other flavonoids. According to the raw material quantity,the order of content of flavonones arranged from high to low: n-butyl alcohol part> 95% ethanol part> water part> ethyl acetate part> petroleum ether part; and the order of PMFs arranged from high to low: n-butyl alcohol part≈95% ethanol part≈ethyl acetate part > petroleum ether part > water part. The decreased percentage of TC,LDL-c was positively correlated with 10 common PMFs constituents,which suggested that PMFs may be the effective components for reducing blood lipid.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Ratos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621812

RESUMO

Importance: Clinicians should understand the prevalence of depression and decision regret in patients with head and neck cancer and whether these factors differ with age or frailty. Objectives: To assess whether age and frailty are associated with preoperative and/or worsening postoperative depression and postoperative decision regret in patients undergoing major head and neck surgery and to identify additional factors associated with depression and decision regret. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted at a single institution, with patients aged 50 years or older undergoing major head and neck surgery recruited from December 1, 2011, to April 30, 2014. Statistical analysis was performed from July 1, 2018, to June 30, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frailty, functional, and geriatric depression assessments were completed before surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Decision regret assessment was completed 6 months after surgery. The prevalence of depression and decision regret was determined by age group. Change in depression over time was compared between age groups using a linear-effects model. Variables potentially associated with moderate to severe depression and decision regret were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Results: The study included 274 patients (68 women and 206 men; mean [SD] age, 67.8 [9.5] years). Of these, 105 (38.3%) were 50 to 64 years of age and 169 (61.7%) were 65 years or older. The rate of preoperative moderate to severe depression was 9.6% (21 of 219), with no difference between younger and older adult cohorts. For both age groups, depression scores increased in the postoperative period from baseline to 6 months. At 12 months, there was a difference in depression scores between the younger and older adult cohort (4.8 [4.6] vs 3.1 [3.6]). A higher preoperative Fried Frailty Index score (odds ratio, 2.58 [95% CI, 1.63-4.06]) was associated with preoperative moderate to severe depression. For all patients, the mean Decision Regret Scale score was 18.2 (range, 0-95), and 26.7% of patients (48 of 180) had moderate to severe regret. There was no difference in Decision Regret Scale scores between younger and older patients. Preoperative depression but not frailty is associated with postoperative moderate to severe decision regret (odds ratio, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.06-1.28]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, there was no difference based on age in the prevalence of moderate to severe depression or decision regret. A higher preoperative frailty score was associated with depression but not decision regret. Preoperative depression was the only factor associated with moderate to severe decision regret on multivariate analysis. Understanding the prevalence of and factors associated with moderate to severe depression and decision regret may aid in identifying patients who would benefit from more extensive preoperative counseling and preoperative and postoperative multispecialty assessment and treatment.

20.
Genes Dev ; 33(21-22): 1506-1524, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582430

RESUMO

TGF-ß receptors phosphorylate SMAD2 and SMAD3 transcription factors, which then form heterotrimeric complexes with SMAD4 and cooperate with context-specific transcription factors to activate target genes. Here we provide biochemical and structural evidence showing that binding of SMAD2 to DNA depends on the conformation of the E3 insert, a structural element unique to SMAD2 and previously thought to render SMAD2 unable to bind DNA. Based on this finding, we further delineate TGF-ß signal transduction by defining distinct roles for SMAD2 and SMAD3 with the forkhead pioneer factor FOXH1 as a partner in the regulation of differentiation genes in mouse mesendoderm precursors. FOXH1 is prebound to target sites in these loci and recruits SMAD3 independently of TGF-ß signals, whereas SMAD2 remains predominantly cytoplasmic in the basal state and set to bind SMAD4 and join SMAD3:FOXH1 at target promoters in response to Nodal TGF-ß signals. The results support a model in which signal-independent binding of SMAD3 and FOXH1 prime mesendoderm differentiation gene promoters for activation, and signal-driven SMAD2:SMAD4 binds to promoters that are preloaded with SMAD3:FOXH1 to activate transcription.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad2 , Proteína Smad3 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteína Smad2/química , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/química , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo
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