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1.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154492, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are characterized by their ability to self-renew, to differentiate into multiple cell types and also drive tumor formation, altogether making them important cellular targets for therapeutic intervention. However, existing CSC-targeting drugs do not significantly improve clinical outcomes. More recently, preclinical studies of natural product-derived compounds have demonstrated their potential usefulness as a therapeutic cancer treatment through their cytotoxic actions on CSCs. PURPOSE: Here, we identify CSC-specific compounds derived from natural products and characterize their putative mechanisms of action in CSCs. METHODS: Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) were labeled with EGFP via homologous recombination and utilized for a high-throughput screen of 8,344 fractions from 386 herbal medicines. The fractions that extinguished EGFP fluorescence signal were then further characterized by LC-MS/MS. Next, several putative cytotoxic compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on GSCs, cancer cell lines and immortalized cells using a variety of methods to study cell proliferation (EdU incorporation assay), cell death (cleaved-Caspase-3 immunostaining), DNA damage (comet assay), mitochondrial membrane changes (JC-1 immunostaining), and tumor formation in vitro (soft agar colony forming assay). We also performed surface plasmon resonance analysis, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to characterize the putative mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of putative compounds on GSCs. Finally, we carried out xenograft tumor growth assays to study the cytotoxic potential of several candidates in vivo. RESULTS: Our high throughput screen led to the identification of the furostanol saponin taccaoside A and its two homologs from the rhizomatous geophyte Tacca. subflabellata that were cytotoxic to GSCs. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of taccaoside A on cell lines was significantly less compared to its homologs, owing to stereochemical differences of a carbon-carbon double bond between C-20 and C-22. Molecular studies revealed that taccaoside A binds to RAS to inhibit downstream effector signaling. Correspondingly, blockade of the interaction between taccaoside A and RAS abolished the inhibitory effect of this compound on CSCs. Furthermore, taccaoside A treatment was effective in limiting tumor cell growth in vivo. CONCLUSION: Our study yielded an effective approach to screen for CSC-specific agents. Through this approach, we identified taccaoside A from the rhizomatous geophyte Tacca. subflabellata are cytotoxic to CSCs through a molecular mechanism that involves RAS binding and suppression of its downstream signaling. Our findings indicate taccaoside A is a potential lead compound for anti-CSC drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Glioblastoma , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Glioblastoma/patologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Carbono/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159212, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206905

RESUMO

Light-absorbing aerosols (LAA), including black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC), profoundly impact regional and global climate. Vehicle emission is an important source of LAA in urban areas, but real-world emission features of LAA from the urban vehicle fleet are not fully understood. This study evaluates traffic-related BC and BrC emission factors (EFs) and their vehicular emission inventories via road tunnel measurements in Tianjin, China, in 2017 and 2021. The distance-based and fuel-based EFs of BC for the mixed fleet were 1.05 ± 1.28 mg km-1 veh-1 and 0.057 ± 0.057 g (kg-fuel)-1, respectively, in 2021, with a dramatic decrease of 80.6 % compared to those in 2017. The BC EFs for gasoline vehicles (GVs, including traditional gasoline and hybrid vehicles) and diesel vehicles (DVs) were 0.55 ± 0.065 mg km-1 veh-1 and 10.5 ± 2.52 mg km-1 veh-1, respectively, in 2021. Compared to 2017, the BrC EFs also decreased significantly in 2021, by 10.8-53.6 %, with 0.32 ± 0.45 mg km-1 veh-1 and 0.018 ± 0.020 g (kg-fuel)-1 of distance-based and fuel-based EFs for mixed fleet. The BrC EFs for GVs and DVs were 0.091 ± 0.024 mg km-1 veh-1 and 3.06 ± 0.91 mg km-1 veh-1, respectively, in 2021. Based on the BC and BrC EFs for GVs and DVs and annual mileage for each vehicle category, the annual vehicular LAA emission inventories were estimated. From 2017 to 2021, the annual vehicular LAA emissions in Tianjin have been significantly reduced, by 69 % for BC and 10 % for BrC. DVs account for a small amount of the vehicle population (8.4 %), but contribute to most of the BC (83 %) and BrC (86 %). Our study demonstrates the significant reduction of vehicular light-absorbing aerosols emission due to vehicle pollution prevention and control in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Gasolina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Aerossóis , Fuligem/análise , China , Carbono
3.
J Orthop Translat ; 38: 175-189, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439629

RESUMO

Objective: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a congenital disorder characterized by muscle defect and skeletal fragility, and no cure is yet available. Crosstalk between bone and muscle has become a new coming focus of therapeutic strategy in OI. Irisin, a secreted myokine, was found to be involved in regulating bone metabolism, and may be beneficial for the treatment of OI. However, its effects in OI have yet to be determined. This study sought to determine whether Irisin therapy is capable of reducing fracture risk in OI and to investigate the potential mechanisms of action. Methods: Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)/Irisin expression was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemical staining. In vivo, X-ray was used for fracture counting and micro-CT, dynamic histomorphometry analysis, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry, and biomechanical test were used to evaluate the effects of Irisin on fracture frequency and bone quality in OI mouse model, oim/oim mouse. In vitro, osteogenesis-related gene expressions were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot, and osteoblastogenesis assay were assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and alizarin red S (ARS) staining. Mechanistically, cell immunofluorescence staining, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) (Co-IP), molecular docking, western blot, luciferase reporter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used for elucidating the mechanisms of how Irisin antagonized transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß)/Smad signaling in oim/oim osteoblasts and further attenuated the inhibitory effect of TGF-ß1 on osteogenic differentiation. Results: Musculoskeletal system-related FNDC5/Irisin was decreased in the serum, muscle, and bone in oim/oim mice. Irisin administration reduced bone fracture and attenuated bone abnormalities by improving bone mass and strength and facilitating the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers. In vivo study and in vitro experiments showed that Irisin antagonized TGF-ß/Smad signaling by interfering with TGF-ß1-TGF-ß receptor II (TßRII) binding. In oim/oim osteoblasts, Irisin alleviated TGF-ß1-induced suppression of osteogenic differentiation through both integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms. Independent of integrin receptors, Irisin affected osteogenesis by activating ERK/p38 signaling and counteracting TGF-ß/Smad2/3 signaling. In particular, Irisin alleviated TGF-ß1-induced inhibition of Runx2 function at the osteocalcin promoter through decreasing Smad2/3 signaling and inducing HADC4/5 degeneration. Conclusions: Collectively, Irisin could effectively reduce bone fracture in oim/oim mice through promoting osteogenesis and counteracting TGF-ß/Smad signaling. Translational potential statement: Findings from this study provided evidence for using Irisin as a potential therapeutic reagent to prevent the progression of OI.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346260

RESUMO

Functional particles, such as microcapsules of perfumes, enzymes, or anti-mite agents, are desired to stably suspend in the high-content surfactant solution, providing additional functionalities for household products. Due to the disassociation of high-content surfactant, most linear or branched polymers would fail to modify the rheological properties of the high-content surfactant solution, especially for the suspending ability. In this research, the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl oxidized bacterial cellulose microgel (T-microgel) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were employed as "island" and "chain," respectively, which could self-assemble together to fabricate a yield and thixotropic continuous network in a high-content surfactant solution. The suspending ability of microgel in high-content surfactant is better than cellulose nanofiber and carboxymethylcellulose. This is the first time to report a cellulose microgel-based rheological modifier. T-microgel/HPMC synthetic system mixed with high content surfactant presented a typical Carreau-Yasuka fluid. Meanwhile, the effects of the HPMC and surfactant on the rheological properties of the combined system were investigated, and an optimal ratio for the 'island'/'chain' synthetic system was found to modify its yield and thixotropy behavior successfully. The potential application of this combined system was explored and found to work with all kinds of surfactants at high concentrations, which is more advantageous than most commercial suspending agents.

5.
Brain Sci ; 12(11)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421896

RESUMO

Aims: This intervention study evaluates the effect of a virtual reality cognition training system (VRCTS) on improving cognitive function and clinical symptoms in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia in the remission stage. Methods: Sixty-eight patients with schizophrenia in the remission stage were recruited for this study and were randomly allocated to either the virtual reality training (VRT) group or the treatment-as-usual (TAU) group. For the VRT group, patients received training with the VRCTS for two weeks and antipsychotic treatment as usual, while the TAU group only received antipsychotic treatment as usual. Cognitive function and clinical symptoms before and after the two-week treatment were assessed by the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB), positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), and personal and social performance scale (PSP). Results: The results showed that (1) VRCTS could improve MCCB composite scores and scores on 2 out of 7 cognitive domains: visual learning as well as reasoning and problem solving. It was also observed that (2) VRCTS could alleviate general psychopathology symptoms of PANSS, but did not exert effects on positive and negative symptoms among patients with schizophrenia in the remission stage. Conclusions: A therapeutic effect of VRCTS was observed in patients with schizophrenia in the remission stage. This may improve cognitive function and general psychopathological symptoms. Trial registration: China Clinical Trial Registry, ChiVTR1800016121.

6.
Chem Sci ; 13(44): 13201-13211, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425495

RESUMO

Fluorescence emission in the near-infrared-II (NIR-II) optical window affords reduced autofluorescence and light scattering, enabling deep-tissue visualization for both disease detection and surgical navigation. Small-molecule NIR-II dyes are preferable for clinical bioimaging applications, as the flexibility in their molecular synthesis allows for precise control of their optical and pharmacokinetic properties. Among the various types of dye, donor-acceptor-donor-based (D-A-D) dyes demonstrate exceptional photostability, whereas the frequently used PEGylation approach does not keep their intrinsic brightness enough in water environments due to their inherent effect of self-assembly. Here, we demonstrate that the commercially-available surfactants can serve as a dispersant to prevent molecular aggregation of PEGylated D-A-D dyes. Due to the favorable energetics for co-assembly between D-A-D dyes and surfactants, the formed surfactant-chaperoned dye strategy dramatically increases dye brightness. Accordingly, this effect provides remarkably improved performance for in vivo bioimaging applications. In parallel, we also investigate the D-A-D dye uptake and signal enhancement properties in the liver of murine models and demonstrate that the lumen-lining Kupffer cells can potentially disassemble PEGylated D-A-D aggregates such that their inherent brightness is restored. This phenomenon is similar to the surfactant-chaperoned dye strategy and our investigations provide a positive addition to better use of the current NIR-II fluorophores, especially for visualizing high-brightness required events.

7.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 2037-2045, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinicopathological features of anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM-GN) and the prognostic values of clinical and laboratory indicators at diagnosis on renal and patient survival. METHODS: A total of 76 patients (34 males and 42 females) with anti-GBM-GN who were hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University between January 2010 and June 2021 were included in this study. The baseline clinical features, histopathological data from renal biopsies, and predictors of renal and patient survival were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 76 patients, the median serum creatinine at diagnosis was 618.0 (350.98, 888.25) µmol/L and the median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 6.62 (4.39, 14.41) mL/min. Of these 76 patients, 55 (72.4%) received initial kidney replacement therapy (KRT) and 39 (51.3%) received plasma exchange or double-filtered plasmapheresis (DFPP). During a median follow-up duration of 28.5 (6.0, 71.8) months, 53 (69.7%) patients progressed to kidney failure with replacement therapy (KFRT) and received maintenance dialysis. Initial KRT (HR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.22-9.97, p = 0.020) was a significant risk factor for renal survival. During the follow-up, 49 (64.5%) of 76 patients survived. Age (≥60 years, HR = 4.13, 95% CI = 1.65-10.38, p = 0.003) and initial KRT (HR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.01-8.14, p = 0.047) were predictive of patient survival. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with anti-GBM-GN, initial KRT at presentation was predictive of KFRT while older age and initial KRT were associated with higher all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular , Glomerulonefrite , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/diagnóstico , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/terapia , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glomerulonefrite/terapia , Glomerulonefrite/complicações , Membrana Basal Glomerular/patologia , Rim/patologia
8.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 4): 114737, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In animal and human studies, exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) has been associated with reduced semen quality. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of blood THM concentrations with sperm mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length (TL) among healthy men. METHODS: We recruited 958 men who volunteered as potential sperm donors. A single blood sample was collected from each participant at recruitment and measured for chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM) concentrations. Within a 90-day follow-up, the last semen sample provided by each participant was quantified for sperm mtDNAcn and TL. We used multivariable linear regression models to assess the associations between blood THM concentrations and sperm mtDNAcn and TL. We also performed stratified analyses according to the time intervals between baseline blood THM determinations and semen collection (i.e., 0-9, 10-14, 15-69, or >69 days) to explore potential windows of susceptibility. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, we found inverse associations between quartiles (or categories) of blood TBM, brominated THM (Br-THM, the sum of BDCM, DBCM, and TBM), and total THM (TTHM, the sum of all four THMs) concentrations and sperm mtDNAcn (all P for trend≤0.03). Besides, we found inverse associations between quartiles of blood TCM, Br-THM, chlorinated THM (Cl-THM, the sum of TCM, BDCM, and DBCM), and TTHM concentrations and sperm TL (all P for trend<0.10). Stratified analyses showed stronger associations between Br-THM concentrations and sperm mtDNAcn determined 15-69 days since baseline exposure determinations, and between blood TCM and TTHM concentrations and sperm TL determined >69 days since baseline exposure determinations. CONCLUSION: Exposure to THMs may be associated with sperm mitochondrial and telomeric dysfunction.

9.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(10): 3330-3336, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lateral medullary syndrome is the most common type of brainstem infarction. Lateral medullary syndrome results in damage to the corresponding cranial nerve nuclei and the nucleus tractus solitarius, with vertigo, ipsilateral ataxia, crossed sensory disturbances, Horner's sign, bulbar palsy, and other underlying symptoms or signs. However, cases with cardiac arrhythmia and other autonomic dysfunctions as the primary manifestations are less common. Clinically, sudden death occasionally occurs in patients with lateral medullary syndrome, which may be associated with severe cardiac arrhythmia. These patients may suffer in life-threatening arrhythmia and even cardiac arrest, and vital signs should be closely monitored to prevent sudden death. In younger patients, vertebral artery dissection is the most common cause. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we present a case of lateral medullary syndrome caused by vertebral artery dissection with severe bradycardia. The patient was a 49-year-old man who was admitted with "sudden onset of numbness in the left limbs and right side of the face for 1 hour". Electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring showed a repeated heart rate decrease to as low as 23 beats/min, followed by a gradual increase in heart rate to 35-55 beats/min after 2-3 seconds. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right dorsolateral cerebral infarction of the medulla oblongata. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed a right vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm. We performed an emergency placement of a temporary pacemaker, followed by conservative treatment with platelet aggregation inhibitors, vascular softening agents and improved collateral circulation. Elective spring coil embolization of the vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm and stent implantation were performed. At outpatient follow-up, the patient had a good prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical management of patients with lateral medullary syndrome should be prioritized, with close cardiac monitoring at the early stages of observation and pacemaker placement and tracheal intubation as required to prevent adverse events.


Assuntos
Síndrome Medular Lateral , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Medular Lateral/complicações , Síndrome Medular Lateral/patologia , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/complicações , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/patologia , Bradicardia/complicações , Bradicardia/patologia , Bulbo/irrigação sanguínea , Bulbo/patologia , Morte Súbita/patologia
10.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363168

RESUMO

The Nb4AlC3 MAX phase can be regarded as a TMC structure with stacking faults, which has great potential as a novel solid hydrogen storage material. Herein, we used ab initio calculations for understanding the hydrogen incorporation into Nb4AlC3 MAX phases, including equilibrium structural characteristics, energy changes, electronic structures, bonding characteristics, and diffusion paths. According to the calculated results, H has thermal stability in the interstice of the Nb-Al layer, and the most probable insertion site is an octahedron (3-site) composed of three Nb atoms and three Al atoms. When C vacancies are introduced, the Nb-C layer has a specific storage capacity for H. In addition, Al vacancies can also be used as possible sites for H incorporation. Moreover, the introduction of vacancies significantly increase the hydrogen storage capacity of the MAX phase. According to the electronic structure and bonding characteristics, the excellent hydrogen storage ability of the Nb4AlC3 structure may be due to the formation of ionic bonds between H and Nb/Al. It is worth noting that the H-Al bond in the 1-site is a covalent bond and an ionic bond key mixture. The linear synchronous transit optimization study shows that only H diffusion in Al vacancies is not feasible. In conclusion, the Nb-Al layer in Nb4AlC3 can provide favorable conditions for the continuous insertion and subsequent extraction of H, while the vacancy structure is more suitable for H storage. Our work provides solid theoretical results for understanding the hydrogen incorporation into Nb4AlC3 MAX phases that can be helpful for the design of advanced hydrogen storage materials.

11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321807

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations of type I collagen-related genes, and excessive transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) signaling is a common mechanism. TGF-ß/Smad signaling has inhibitory effects on osteoblast differentiation and maturation and is mainly transduced and regulated by the internalization of a tetrameric receptor complex comprising types I and II TGF-ß receptors (TßRI and TßRII). During internalization, clathrin-mediated endocytosis enhances TGF-ß/Smad signaling via Smad2/3 phosphorylation and receptors recycling, while caveolae-mediated endocytosis turns off TGF-ß/Smad signaling by promoting receptor ubiquitination and degradation. In this study, using an animal model of OI (Colla2oim , osteogenesis imperfecta murine [oim]/oim mouse), we found that osteoblastic cells of oim/oim mice were more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of TGF-ß on osteoblast differentiation and maturation and had much higher cell membrane protein levels of TGF-ß receptors than those of wild-type (wt)/wt mice. Further results showed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis of TßRI was enhanced, whereas caveolae-mediated TßRI endocytic degradation was reduced in oim/oim mice, combined with reduced caveolin-1 (Cav-1) phosphorylation. In addition, type I collagen downregulated TßRI via focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src activation-dependent Cav-1 phosphorylation. To further examine this mechanism, 4-week-old oim/oim and wt/wt mice were treated with either TßRI kinase inhibitor (SD-208) or vehicle for 8 weeks. SD-208 treatment significantly reduced the fracture incidence in oim/oim mice. Micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing showed that femoral bone mass and strength were significantly improved with SD-208 treatment in both genotypes. Additionally, SD-208 significantly promoted osteoblast differentiation and bone formation and inhibited bone resorption. In conclusion, dysfunction of caveolae-mediated endocytic TßRI degradation is a possible mechanism for the enhanced TGF-ß/Smad signaling in OI. Targeting this mechanism using a TßRI kinase inhibitor effectively reduced fractures and improved bone mass and strength in OI model and, thus, may offer a new strategy for the treatment of OI. © 2022 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

12.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 436, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the correlation between the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes in patients with eyelid malignant tumors underwent wide local excision. METHODS: This retrospective study included 141 cases of eyelid malignant neoplasms from January 2010 to December 2015 in Shanxi eye hospital. Demographic and clinical information were collected. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival curves, and the log-rank test method was used to compare survival between groups. Cox proportional regression models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) of total recurrence rate and metastasis rate. RESULTS: Overall, there were 141 eyelid malignant neoplasms cases aged 65.34 ± 9.69 (range, 41-88) years old. The duration time range was from 1 to 828 (61.09 ± 122.21) months. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common of all eyelid malignancies, accounting for 84 (59.5%), followed by Sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC, 41, 29%), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC, 11, 7.8%), Malignant Melanoma (MM, 3, 2.1%)。On cox-regression analysis, pathological classification (HR 1.959; 95% CI 1.012-3.790; p = 0.046) and eyelid tumor surgery history (HR 17.168; 95% CI 1.889-156.011; p = 0.012) were independently associated with recurrence in patients with eyelid malignant neoplasm. Pathological classification (HR 2.177; 95% CI 1.423 -3.331; p < 0.001) was independently associated with metastasis in patients with eyelid malignant neoplasm. Recurrence and metastasis were most likely to occur in 3 years after surgery. CONCLUSION: Wide local excision is an effective and economical treatment for eyelid malignant neoplasms. The prognosis is mainly related to pathological types, eyelid tumor surgical history and TNM stages.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Palpebrais , Neoplasias das Glândulas Sebáceas , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Palpebrais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Palpebrais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Pálpebras/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Sebáceas/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Sebáceas/patologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429839

RESUMO

The identification of ecosystem types is important in ecological environmental assessment. However, due to cloud and rain and complex land cover characteristics, commonly used ecosystem identification methods have always lacked accuracy in subtropical urban agglomerations. In this study, China's Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) was taken as a study area, and the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data were used as the fusion of active and passive remote sensing data with time series data to distinguish typical ecosystem types in subtropical urban agglomerations. Our results showed the following: (1) The importance of different features varies widely in different types of ecosystems. For grassland and arable land, two specific texture features (VV_dvar and VH_diss) are most important; in forest and mangrove areas, synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data for the months of October and September are most important. (2) The use of active time series remote sensing data can significantly improve the classification accuracy by 3.33%, while passive time series remote sensing data improves by 4.76%. When they are integrated, accuracy is further improved, reaching a level of 84.29%. (3) Time series passive data (NDVI) serve best to distinguish grassland from arable land, while time series active data (SAR data) are best able to distinguish mangrove from forest. The integration of active and passive time series data also improves precision in distinguishing vegetation ecosystem types, such as forest, mangrove, arable land, and, especially, grassland, where the accuracy increased by 21.88%. By obtaining real-time and more accurate land cover type change information, this study could better serve regional change detection and ecosystem service function assessment at different scales, thereby supporting decision makers in urban agglomerations.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Hong Kong , Macau , Fatores de Tempo , China
14.
Sci Total Environ ; : 160435, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435260

RESUMO

The traffic control policies, including "Odd and Even" (OAE) and "One Day Per Week" (ODPW), were adopted in Zhengzhou, China. In this study, we use the bottom-up policy evaluation framework to capture the temporal-spatial characteristics of traffic conditions and vehicle emissions under various traffic restriction scenarios. Moreover, we use the street-scale simulation model to evaluate the effectiveness of improving air quality. Results showed that the improvements in traffic conditions led to the emission decrease by about 28.3 % for carbon monoxide (CO), 16.2 % for nitrogen oxide (NOx), 21.3 % for particulate matter (PM2.5), and 23.2 % for total hydrocarbon (THC) under OAE. During ODPW, total vehicle emissions decreased by 14.1 % for CO, 10.2 % for NOx, 13.7 % for PM2.5, and 12.4 % for THC. However, the spatial analysis indicates traffic restrictions could not significantly reduce those emissions caused by high traffic volume; besides, buses, middle-duty trucks, and heavy-duty trucks have partly offset the reduction benefit from restrictions. The air quality simulation results reveal no significant concentration decrease of CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in most areas. With the update of vehicles, stricter management of high-emission vehicles, and limited coverage for implementation of policies, the traffic control policies were not as effective as before. The limitations of the restriction policies are gradually prominent, and upgrade policies are urgently needed to continuously improve urban air quality in the future.

15.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 1730501, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408465

RESUMO

Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is one of the most common retinal vascular diseases leading to vision loss if not diagnosed and treated in time. RVO can be classified into two types: CRVO (blockage of the main retinal veins) and BRVO (blockage of one of the smaller branch veins). Automated diagnosis of RVO can improve clinical workflow and optimize treatment strategies. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are few reported methods for automated identification of different RVO types. In this study, we propose a new hypermixed convolutional neural network (CNN) model, namely, the VGG-CAM network, that can classify the two types of RVOs based on retinal fundus images and detect lesion areas using an unsupervised learning method. The image data used in this study is collected and labeled by three senior ophthalmologists in Shanxi Eye Hospital, China. The proposed network is validated to accurately classify RVO diseases and detect lesions. It can potentially assist in further investigating the association between RVO and brain vascular diseases and evaluating the optimal treatments for RVO.


Assuntos
Oclusão da Veia Retiniana , Humanos , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Redes Neurais de Computação , China
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective treatment option for end-stage liver disease. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as rapamycin, are widely used post LT. DATA SOURCES: In this review, we focused on the anti-cancer activities and metabolic side effects of rapamycin after LT. The literature available on PubMed for the period of January 1999-September 2022 was reviewed. The key words were rapamycin, sirolimus, liver transplantation, hepatocellular carcinoma, diabetes, and lipid metabolism disorder. RESULTS: Rapamycin has shown excellent effects and is safer than other immunosuppressive regimens. It has exhibited excellent anti-cancer activity and has the potential in preventing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence post LT. Rapamycin is closely related to two long-term complications after LT, diabetes and lipid metabolism disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Rapamycin prevents HCC recurrence post LT in some patients, but it also induces metabolic disorders. Reasonable use of rapamycin benefits the liver recipients.

17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1010948, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189244

RESUMO

Water temperature elevation as a consequence of global warming results in increased incidence of bacterial disease, such as edwardsiellosis, in fish farming. Edwardsiellosis is caused by the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella tarda and affects many farmed fish including flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Currently, the effect of temperature on the metabolic response of flounder to E. tarda infection is unclear. In this study, we found that compared to low temperature (15°C), high temperature (23°C) enhanced E. tarda dissemination in flounder tissues. To examine the impact of temperature on the metabolism of flounder induced by E. tarda, comparative metabolomics were performed, which identified a large number of metabolites responsive to E. tarda invasion and temperature alteration. During E. tarda infection, the metabolic profile induced by elevated temperature was mainly featured by extensively decreased amino acids and TCA intermediates such as succinate, a proven immune regulator. Further, 38 potential metabolite markers of temperature effect (MMTE) in association with bacterial infection were identified. When used as exogenous supplements, two of the MMTE, i.e., L-methionine and UDP-glucose, effectively upregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressed E. tarda infection in flounder leukocytes. Taken together, the results of this study indicate an important influence of temperature on the metabolism of flounder during bacterial infection, which eventually affects the survivability of the fish.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Doenças dos Peixes , Linguado , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Edwardsiella tarda , Glucose/metabolismo , Metionina , Succinatos/metabolismo , Temperatura , Difosfato de Uridina/metabolismo , Água
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232457

RESUMO

Drought stress at jointing-booting directly affects plant growth and productivity in rice. Limited by natural factors, the jointing and booting stages of short-growth-period rice varieties are highly overlapped in high-latitude areas, which are more sensitive to water deficit. However, little is known about the dry matter translocation in rice and the strategies of starch synthesis and filling of superior and inferior grains under different drought stress was unclear. In this study, the rice plants were subjected to three degrees of drought stress (-10 kPa, -25 kPa, -40 kPa) for 15 days during the jointing-booting stage; we investigated dry matter accumulation and translocation, grain filling and enzyme activities to starch synthesis of superior and inferior grains in rice with overlapping growth stages from 2016 to 2017. The results showed that drought stress significantly reduced dry matter accumulation in the stems and leaves. Mild and moderate drought increased dry matter translocation efficiency. However, severe drought stress largely limited the dry matter accumulation and translocation. A large amount of dry matter remains in vegetative organs under severe drought stress. The high content in NSC in stem and sheath plays a key role in resisting drought stress. The drought stress at jointing-booting directly caused a change in the grain filling strategy. Under moderate and severe drought, the grain-filling active period of the superior grains was shortened to complete the necessary reproductive growth. The grain-filling active period of the inferior grains was significantly prolonged to avoid a decrease in grain yield. The significant decrease in the grain-filling rate of the superior and inferior grains caused a reduction in the thousand-grain weight. In particular, the influence of the grain-filling rate of inferior grains on the thousand-grain weight was more significant. Drought stress changed the starch synthesis strategies of the superior and inferior grains. Soluble starch synthase and starch branching enzyme activities of inferior grains increased significantly under drought stress. GBSS activity was not sensitive to drought stress. Therefore, amylose content was decreased and amylopectin synthesis was enhanced under drought stress, especially in inferior grains.


Assuntos
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana , Oryza , Sintase do Amido , Amilopectina , Amilose , Desidratação , Grão Comestível , Amido
19.
Theranostics ; 12(16): 7191-7202, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36276643

RESUMO

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the key diagnostic procedure to determine tumor metastasis and treatment plan. Current SLN biopsy has considerable drawbacks in that SLNs (both malignant and normal) must be removed by navigation surgery, followed by a time-consuming pathological examination. The selective, non-invasive, and real-time diagnosis of metastatic status in SLNs is becoming essential. Methods: Here, we design two lanthanide-doped nanoparticles as a pair of NIR-II ratiometric fluorescence probes, one of which is conjugated with tumor-targeting moiety, while the other is conjugated with PEG as an internal reference. The NIR-II ratiometric fluorescence signal (I1060 nm/I1525 nm) from two well-separated channels were used to identify the tumor-draining SLNs. The precise navigation surgery of metastatic SLNs was performed and we further evaluated their surgery outcomes. Results: The NIR-II ratiometric fluorescence facilitates an ideal fluorescence-guided surgery with only resection of tumor-positive SLNs, thereby avoiding unnecessary removal of the normal SLNs. In addition, our system has a time-saving operation procedure and can be performed under the operation light without altering the appearance of surgical settings. Conclusion: The present study enables non-invasive and real-time detection metastatic status in SLNs with high sensitivity and selectivity. Our investigations will provide a new direction for SLN biopsy and substantially improve cancer surgery outcomes.


Assuntos
Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos , Linfonodo Sentinela , Humanos , Linfonodo Sentinela/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodo Sentinela/cirurgia , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Verde de Indocianina , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia
20.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with preoperative anxiety are at risk of perioperative adverse events, such as reflux aspiration, prolonged induction time, wake agitation, and delirium. Identifying children at high risk of severe preoperative anxiety may help anesthesiologists intervene and manage them in advance. AIM: The authors hypothesized that the risk of developing serious preoperative anxiety in children is predictable by variables related to basic information about the parent and child. We developed a clinical prediction model to identify patients vulnerable to severe preoperative anxiety among children aged 2-12 years. METHODS: We enrolled patients aged 2-12 years who underwent elective surgery under general anesthesia and divided them into derivation (n = 340, 70.8%) and validation (n = 140, 29.2%) groups. Preoperative anxiety was assessed using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, and a high level of preoperative anxiety was defined as a score of >30. The following predictors were collected preoperatively: gender, age, weight, children's education level, only child, history of surgery, waiting time in the anesthesia waiting area, parental education level, parental anxiety, whether venous access had been established in the ward, and whether they had received anti-anxiety interventions. A prediction model was built using binary logistic regression analysis; bootstrap was applied for internal validation, and external validation was performed using the validation datasets. RESULTS: The prediction model had good discrimination, with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.961 (95% CI = 0.943-0.979) and 0.896 (95% CI = 0.842-0.950) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The predictive variables included in the final clinical model were pharmacological intervention (OR = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.002-0.025), nonpharmacological intervention (OR = 0.342, 95% CI = 0.104-1.127), parental education level (OR = 0.211, 95% CI = 0.108-0.411), parental anxiety (OR = 6.15, 95% CI = 2.396-15.786), only child (OR = 2.417, 95% CI = 1.065-5.488), history of surgery (OR = 3.513, 95% CI = 1.137-10.860), and age (OR = 0.692, 95% CI = 0.500-0.957). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a clinical prediction model was developed and validated for the first time. The proposed clinical prediction model can help doctors identify children most likely to develop a high level of preoperative anxiety. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION IDENTIFIER: ChiCTR2100054409 (https://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx).

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