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1.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(5): nwab122, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668749

RESUMO

Spin defects in silicon carbide (SiC) with mature wafer-scale fabrication and micro/nano-processing technologies have recently drawn considerable attention. Although room-temperature single-spin manipulation of colour centres in SiC has been demonstrated, the typically detected contrast is less than 2[Formula: see text], and the photon count rate is also low. Here, we present the coherent manipulation of single divacancy spins in 4H-SiC with a high readout contrast ([Formula: see text]) and a high photon count rate (150 kilo counts per second) under ambient conditions, which are competitive with the nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. Coupling between a single defect spin and a nearby nuclear spin is also observed. We further provide a theoretical explanation for the high readout contrast by analysing the defect levels and decay paths. Since the high readout contrast is of utmost importance in many applications of quantum technologies, this work might open a new territory for SiC-based quantum devices with many advanced properties of the host material.

2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683688

RESUMO

In the present work, the properties of graphene-nanoplates/aluminum (GNPs/Al) composites with a heterogeneous matrix design were investigated. The advantage of the heterogeneous matrix was investigated by the finite element method. Then, 0.6 wt.% (GNPs/6061Al)/2024Al (heterogeneous matrix) and 0.6 wt.% GNPs/6061Al composites were prepared by ball milling, pressure infiltration technology, and hot extrusion. The aggregation of GNPs was eliminated and the interlayer slide of GNPs was observed. Mechanical property test results show that the mechanical properties of the heterogeneous matrix composite are better than that of a homogeneous matrix composite, including strength, elastic modulus, and plasticity. It is assumed that the heterogeneous matrix design enhances the non-uniform stress field during the deformation treatment. This improves the dispersion of GNPs, grain refinement, and produces the few-layer graphene (FLG), thus enhancing the strengthening effect of GNPs. Meanwhile, heterogeneous matrix design is thought to introduce more hardening mechanisms to increase the plasticity of materials and improve the intrinsic trade-off of strength and toughness.

3.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e23137, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686336

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common urinary malignancy. The lack of specific and sensitive biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of PCa makes it important to seek alternatives. R software was used to analyze the PCa expression profile from data sets in Gene Expression Omnibus. Core differential genes were identified by String and Cytoscape and further validated by Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) and The Human Protein Atlas (HPA). Gene Ontology analysis was done in the DIVID database and visualization analysis was conducted by Hiplot. Pathway enrichment was analyzed by IPA. To identify potential competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) networks, the experimentally validated microRNA-target interactions database (miRTarBase), The Encyclopedia of RNA Interactomes (StarBase), lncBase, and GEPIA were used. The lncLocator was utilized to perform subcellular localization of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Both miRTarBase and StarBase were used to find the binding site of mRNAs-miRNAs and miRNAs-lncRNAs. Visualization of the ceRNA network was performed with Cytoscape. Nine genes closely related to the diagnosis and prognosis of PCa were obtained, including four identified biomarkers by HPA, CENPF, TPX2, TK1, and CCNB1, and five novel PCa biomarkers, RRM2, UBE2C, TOP2A, BIRC5, and ZWINT. Pathway analysis indicated that PCa carcinogenesis was highly correlated with liver fibrosis pathways, ILK signaling, and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response. Two sets of ceRNA networks, BIRC5/hsa-miR-218-5p/NEAT1 and UBE2C/hsa-miR-483-3p/NEAT1 were found to be novel biomarkers for the identification of PCa. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results verified that UBE2C, BIRC5, and NEAT1 were upregulated and hsa-miR-218-5p and hsa-miR-483-3p were downregulated in human PCa cells compared with normal prostate epithelial cells. The novel identified biomarkers in this study would be valuable for the diagnosis and prognosis of PCa.

4.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686661

RESUMO

AIMS: This study evaluated the control effect of the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambaris B3 against rice bakanae disease (RBD) caused by Fusarium proliferatum and the disease control result of different inoculation times of beneficial microorganisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rice seedlings pre-inoculated, co-inoculated and non-inoculated with B3 were exposed to F. proliferatum stress and grown under controlled conditions. Greenhouse experimental results showed that rice pre-inoculation with B3 significantly reduced rice bakanae disease by 21.45%, inhibited the colonization of F. proliferatum, increased defense-related enzyme activities, upregulated the expression of defense genes, and promoted plant photosynthesis. However, bakanae disease in rice co-inoculation with B3 increased by 11.45%, resulted in excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) bursts and plant cell death. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-inoculation with the endophytic fungus P. liquidambaris B3 significantly reduced rice bakanae disease by triggering the SA-dependent defense pathways of plants, and promoted plant growth. However, co-inoculatiton with P. liquidambaris B3 activated excessive defense responses, resulting in plants cell death and aggravation of bakanae disease. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study indicated that P. liquidambaris B3 was an effective method for agricultural control against rice bakanae disease caused by F. proliferatum, and provides an experimental basis for the development of sustainable endophytic fungal resources to effectively control plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi, and suggests that precise application of beneficial microorganisms may be become a key factor in farmland crop disease management.

5.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 1579937, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685657

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and pulsed radiofrequency (RF) in the clinical treatment of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). A total of 100 patients with PHN were randomly divided into two groups (n = 50 per group): RF group and BoNT-A group. Based on conventional drug treatment, patients were treated with either a single nerve root pulsed radiofrequency therapy or a single local subcutaneous injection of BoNT-A in the lesion area. All the patients were followed up for 24 weeks on pain scores, sleep quality, anxiety, and depression scores, etc. In the last follow-up at the end of 24 weeks postoperation, the pain scores of patients in both groups were significantly lower than those before the operation (P < 0.05), indicating that both treatments were effective against PHN; however, there was no significant difference between these two groups (P > 0.05). It is noteworthy that the subcutaneous injection of BoNT-A is relatively easy to administer and less expensive compared to RF. Therefore, we believe that the subcutaneous injection of BoNT-A is an effective and safe method for the treatment of PHN.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética , Tratamento por Radiofrequência Pulsada , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento por Radiofrequência Pulsada/métodos , Ondas de Rádio
6.
Chem Sci ; 13(19): 5659-5666, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694358

RESUMO

General photoactivation of electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes between arylsulfonium salts and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane with visible light or natural sunlight was discovered. This practical and efficient mode enables the production of aryl radicals under mild conditions, providing an unrealized opportunity for two-step para-selective C-H functionalization of complex arenes. The novel mode for generating aryl radicals via an EDA complex was well supported by UV-vis absorbance measurements, nuclear magnetic resonance titration experiments, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The method was applied to the regio- and stereo-selective arylation of various N-heterocycles under mild conditions, yielding an assembly of challengingly linked heteroaryl-(hetero)aryl products. Remarkably, the meaningful couplings of bioactive molecules with structurally complex drugs or agricultural pharmaceuticals were achieved to display favorable in vitro antitumor activities, which will be of great value in academia or industry.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; : 156653, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697222

RESUMO

The investigation of Ecological Agriculture (EA) patterns can reveal the differences, aggregation, and diversity of agricultural development, providing specific paths in agricultural development and environmental protection to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Although field surveys, literature analysis, and the method using administrative statistics can be employed to investigate EA records and determine EA distributions comprehensively, they still rely on manual operations that are generally unable to support the rapid and large-scale identification of EA patterns required by current agricultural sustainable researches. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel and rapid approach for Ecological Agriculture Pattern Investigation Based on Web-text (WEAPI), with the ability to automatically acquire EA pattern records, including pattern type, occurrence time, precise location, and other relevant information. The proposed method is employed in a national-scale case study to investigate trends in Chinese Ecological Agriculture (CEA). Results of the study reveal WEAPI's ability to detect new trends in CEA via the latest news and the corresponding distributions. The WEAPI method can also exhibit the unknown patterns of the current Chinese agricultural development. Further validation experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves over 95 % precision in the pattern parse processes and an 87 % coverage rate at the town level of the official CEA pattern list. Moreover, WEAPI can provide dynamic changing analyses on the annual evolution of the EA patterns in each type. Despite limitations under sparse records in partial classes, the results reveal WEAPI as a promising and powerful tool for agricultural research and agricultural development planning.

8.
Oral Oncol ; 130: 105941, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is few longitudinal study on oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMDs) focusing on oral leukoplakia (OLK) with clinical endpoints to investigate the role of autofluorescence imaging (AFI) for surveilling the malignant transformation. METHODS: Based on our previous prospective diagnostic study enrolled 517 OPMD patients, 184 OLK patients were retrieved to further investigate the role of AFI using VELscope in predicting malignant transformation. During a median follow-up period of 44 months, 19 (10.33%) developed into oral cancer. RESULTS: OLK patients were divided into loss of autofluorescence (LAF, n = 124) and retention of autofluorescence (RAF, n = 60) groups according to the results of AFI. Interestingly, difference between malignant transformation rate (MTR, 14.52%) of group LAF and overall MTR (10.33%) was not significant, but MTR (1.67%) of group RAF was significantly lower than overall MTR. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analyses revealed that LAF could not directly distinguish the high-risk lesions, but RAF significantly discriminate the low-risk lesions. Importantly, time-dependent ROC curve analysis found that the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of AFI for the prediction of malignant transformation was 100% and 100% (2-year follow-up), 94.7% and 98.3% (5-year follow-up), respectively. Also, calibration curve and decision curve analyses showed high levels of predictive value and clinical relevance. CONCLUSION: This follow-up cohort study firstly evaluated AFI using VELscope for risk stratification of OLK malignant transformation. Whether conservative management is appropriate for OLK patients with RAF imaging due to minimal rate and risk of malignant transformation and great specificity and NPV is required to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Leucoplasia Oral , Doenças da Boca , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucoplasia Oral/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoplasia Oral/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem Óptica , Medição de Risco
9.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 19(5): 367-376, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-vessel disease (TVD) with a SYNergy between PCI with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score of ≥ 23 is one of the most severe types of coronary artery disease. We aimed to take advantage of machine learning to help in decision-making and prognostic evaluation in such patients. METHODS: We analyzed 3786 patients who had TVD with a SYNTAX score of ≥ 23, had no history of previous revascularization, and underwent either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after enrollment. The patients were randomly assigned to a training group and testing group. The C4.5 decision tree algorithm was applied in the training group, and all-cause death after a median follow-up of 6.6 years was regarded as the class label. RESULTS: The decision tree algorithm selected age and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) as splitting features and divided the patients into three subgroups: subgroup 1 (age of ≤ 67 years and LVEDD of ≤ 53 mm), subgroup 2 (age of ≤ 67 years and LVEDD of > 53 mm), and subgroup 3 (age of > 67 years). PCI conferred a patient survival benefit over CABG in subgroup 2. There was no significant difference in the risk of all-cause death between PCI and CABG in subgroup 1 and subgroup 3 in both the training data and testing data. Among the total study population, the multivariable analysis revealed significant differences in the risk of all-cause death among patients in three subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of age and LVEDD identified by machine learning can contribute to decision-making and risk assessment of death in patients with severe TVD. The present results suggest that PCI is a better choice for young patients with severe TVD characterized by left ventricular dilation.

10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 879834, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722116

RESUMO

Aims: To explore the effects of age and sex on the outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients with the three-vessel disease (TVD). Methods and Results: The study is a subanalysis of data from a prospective cohort of 8,943 patients with angiographically confirmed TVD at Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. In total, 2,819 patients with NSTE-ACS who received CABG (43.6%) or PCI (56.4%) were included, among whom 32.7% were of 65-74 years, 7.2% were ≥75 years, and 22.6% were women. The median follow-up duration was 6.8 years. The superiority of CABG relative to PCI in terms of MACCE was decreased with age (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: <65 years: 0.662 [0.495-0.885], p = 0.005; 65-74 years: 0.700 [0.512-0.956], p = 0.025; ≥75 years: 0.884 [0.529-1.479], p = 0.640) and was only seen in men (adjusted HR [95% CI]: men: 0.668 [0.526-0.848], p = 0.001; women: 0.713 [0.505-1.006], p = 0.054). Significant treatment-by-sex and treatment-by-age interactions were observed in patients ≥ 75 years and women, respectively, (p interaction with sex = 0.001; p interaction with age = 0.002). Conclusion: Coronary artery bypass grafting is favorable for most NSTE-ACS patients with TVD. The preponderance of CABG over PCI disappeared in patients ≥ 75 years and women. PCI is superior in women ≥ 75 years.

11.
Acta Biomater ; 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724919

RESUMO

The delivery of salicylic acid or its derivatives to tumor tissue in the form of nanomedicine is critical for the studies on their potential synergistic mechanism in tumor therapy and chemoprevention considering the dangerous bleeding in the high-dose oral administration. To deepen the understanding of their role in adjusting immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (ITM), herein, we firstly developed a hypoxia-sensitive Fe-5,5'-azosalicylic acid nanoscale coordination polymer nanomedicines (FeNCPs) via a "old drugs new tricks" strategy for synergistic chemodynamic therapy (CDT) and remodulation of ITM to elevate antitumor immunotherapy effect. PEGylated FeNCPs could be reductively cleaved to release 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and ferric ions by azo-reductase under hypoxic conditions, which could induce tumor cell death by Fenton reaction-catalysis enhanced CDT and 5-ASA-converted carboxylquinone to promote the production of •OH. Meanwhile, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its enzymatic product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as immune negative regulatory molecules, can promote tumor progression and immune tolerance. The released 5-ASA as a COX inhibitor could suppress the expression of PGE2, and Fe3+ was employed to reeducate M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to M1-like phenotype, which could initiate antitumor immune response to reach better antitumor immunotherapy. This work broadens the application of salicylic acid derivatives in antitumor immunotherapy, and provides a new strategy for their "old drugs new tricks". STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its enzymatic product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as immune negative regulatory molecules, facilitate the differentiation of immune cells into immunosuppressive cells to build the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, which can promote tumor progression and immune tolerance. Thus, down-regulation of COX-2/PGE2 expression may be a key approach to tumor treatments. Meanwhile, as a class of inhibitors of COX-2/PGE2, the potential mechanism of aspirin or 5-aminosalicylic acid has been a mystery in tumor therapy and chemoprevention. To expand the application of aspirin family nanomedicine in biomedicine, herein, we firstly developed a hypoxia-sensitive Fe-5,5'-azosalicylic acid nanoscale coordination polymer nanomedicines via a "old drugs new tricks" strategy for synergistic chemodynamic therapy and remodulation of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment to elevate antitumor immunotherapy effect.

12.
Environ Res ; 213: 113674, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700768

RESUMO

Pseudomonas sp. C27 can achieve the conversion of toxic sulfide to economical elemental sulfur (S0) with various electron acceptors. In this study the distribution pattern of S0 produced by C27 in denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process was explored. The SEM observation identified that the particle size of the biogenic S0 was at micron level. Strikingly, a novel distribution pattern of S0 was revealed that the produced S0 was not directly secreted extracellularly, but be stored temporarily in the cell interior. Pyrolysis at 65 °C for 20 min were recommended prior to S0 recovery, which could maximize the separation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from C27. Furthermore, the effects of N/S molar ratio, initial sulfide concentration, and micro-oxygen condition were investigated to improve the production of S0 by C27. The highest S0 production was obtained at S/N of 3 and anaerobic condition seemed to favor the S0 production by C27. This study would provide a theoretical support for highly efficient sulfide removal as well as S0 recovery in sulfide-laden wastewater treatment.

14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 624: 377-384, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660906

RESUMO

Solar-driven interfacial evaporation is an emerging technology to obtain fresh water using solar energy. However, the complicated system and the corresponding fabrication process severely restrict its large-scale and cost-effective production. Herein, an all-in-one solar-driven interfacial evaporator was fabricated via a hybrid nanofibrous aerogel of aramid nanofibers (ANFs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Assisted by the reprotonation of the ANFs, CNTs are assembled into the nanofibrous network for through-body light-to-heat activity, and AuNPs are set on the surface layer to enhance solar absorption. The aerogel also features low thermal conductivity to suppress heat losses and high capillary action to wick and confine water within the aerogels. Benefitting from the synergistic effect, the aerogel shows a high evaporation rate of 1.53 kg m-2h-1 and an evaporation efficiency of 91.3% under 1 sun irradiation. Simultaneously, the evaporator demonstrates high purification capacity for wastewaters with dyes and heavy metal ions. The integrated structure design and facile fabrication process would make the hybrid nanofibrous aerogel-based all-in-one evaporators promising for cost-effective and large-scale application under ambient solar irradiance.

15.
Nanomicro Lett ; 14(1): 127, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699776

RESUMO

Effective thermal management is quite urgent for electronics owing to their ever-growing integration degree, operation frequency and power density, and the main strategy of thermal management is to remove excess energy from electronics to outside by thermal conductive materials. Compared to the conventional thermal management materials, flexible thermally conductive films with high in-plane thermal conductivity, as emerging candidates, have aroused greater interest in the last decade, which show great potential in thermal management applications of next-generation devices. However, a comprehensive review of flexible thermally conductive films is rarely reported. Thus, we review recent advances of both intrinsic polymer films and polymer-based composite films with ultrahigh in-plane thermal conductivity, with deep understandings of heat transfer mechanism, processing methods to enhance thermal conductivity, optimization strategies to reduce interface thermal resistance and their potential applications. Lastly, challenges and opportunities for the future development of flexible thermally conductive films are also discussed.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638921

RESUMO

Traditional composting is a well-suited biotechnology for on-farm management of livestock manure (LM) but still leads to the release of toxic micropollutants and imbalance of nutrients. One in situ exoenzyme-assisted composting has shown promise to ameliorate the agronomical quality of end products by improving humification and polymerization. The naturally occurring extracellular laccase from microorganisms belongs to a multicopper phenoloxidase, which is verified for its versatility to tackle micropollutants and conserve organics through the reactive radical-enabled decomposition and polymerization channels. Laccase possesses an indispensable relationship with humus formation during LM composting, but its potential applications for the harmless disposal and resource utilization of LM have until now been overlooked. Herein, we review the extracellular laccase-aided humification mechanism and its optimizing strategy to maintain enzyme activity and in situ production, highlighting the critical roles of laccase in treating micropollutants and preserving organics during LM composting. Particularly, the functional effects of the formed humification products by laccase-amended composting on plant growth are also discussed. Finally, the future perspectives and outstanding questions are summarized. This critical review provides fundamental insights into laccase-boosted humification that ameliorates the quality of end products in LM composting, which is beneficial to guide and advance the practical applications of exoenzyme in humification remediation, the carbon cycle, and agriculture protection.

17.
Biofabrication ; 14(3)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593920

RESUMO

Current techniques for the generation of cell-laden microgels are limited by numerous challenges, including poorly uncontrolled batch-to-batch variations, processes that are both labor- and time-consuming, the high expense of devices and reagents, and low production rates; this hampers the translation of laboratory findings to clinical applications. To address these challenges, we develop a droplet-based microfluidic strategy based on metastable droplet-templating and microchannel integration for the substantial large-scale production of single cell-laden alginate microgels. Specifically, we present a continuous processing method for microgel generation by introducing amphiphilic perfluoronated alcohols to obtain metastable emulsion droplets as sacrificial templates. In addition, to adapt to the metastable emulsion system, integrated microfluidic chips containing 80 drop-maker units are designed and optimized based on the computational fluid dynamics simulation. This strategy allows single cell encapsulation in microgels at a maximum production rate of 10 ml h-1of cell suspension while retaining cell viability and functionality. These results represent a significant advance toward using cell-laden microgels for clinical-relevant applications, including cell therapy, tissue regeneration and 3D bioprinting.


Assuntos
Microgéis , Alginatos , Encapsulamento de Células , Emulsões , Microfluídica
18.
Cancer Biomark ; 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35634845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitosis-associated genes are dysregulated in many types of cancers and play important roles in disease progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, their expression and functions in chemotherapy-resistant Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) are still largely undetermined. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the roles of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes CENPE, CENPF, and DLGAP5 in chemotherapy-resistant AML. METHODS: RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed in patients with chemotherapy-resistant AML and chemotherapy-sensitive AML. AML mRNA data from 151 patients with recurrence were downloaded from TCGA. Integrated analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), GO and KEGG pathways. CENPE, CENPF, or DLGAP5 knockdown cell lines were used to analyse proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle alterations. RESULTS: A total of 87 DEGs (48 upregulated and 39 downregulated) were obtained through gene analysis of R/R-AML (Fig. 1A) and a total of 329 DEGs (202 upregulated and 127 downregulated) were obtained in refractory S-AML. Upregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in cell cycle (GO: 0007049, hsa04110) and mitotic cell cycle (GO: 0000278) processes and pathway. Venn diagram analysis identified the most upregulated DEGs (including CENPE, CENPF, and DLGAP5) in chemoresistant AML. The expression of CENPE, CENPF and DLGAP5 in R-AML (TCGA) was significantly higher than that of primary AML (GEO). The proliferation of K562 cells after CENPE and DLGAP5 knockdown was significantly decreased (P= 0.0001 and P= 0.0006). In THP-1 cells, the CCK-8 values after CENPE, CENPF and DLGAP5 knockdown were significantly decreased (P= 0.01, P= 0.0395 and P= 0.0362). Knockdown of CENPE, CENPF and DLGAP5 significantly increased cell apoptosis by regulating Caspase-9, BAX, TP-53 and bcl-2, and induced cell cycle arrested by regulating CDK1, CDK2, CDKN1A, and CyclinD1. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the mitotic cell cycle-associated genes CENPE, CENPF, and DLGAP5 were upregulated in chemotherapy-resistant AML patients and might be useful for predicting poor prognosis.

19.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 12(5): 2813-2829, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502389

RESUMO

Background: Digital pathology has aroused widespread interest in modern pathology. The key to digitalization is to scan the whole slide image (WSI) at high magnification. The file size of each WSI at 40 times magnification (40×) may range from 1 gigabyte (GB) to 5 GB depending on the size of the specimen, which leads to huge storage capacity, very slow scanning and network exchange, seriously increasing time and storage costs for digital pathology. Methods: We design a strategy to scan slides with low resolution (LR) (5×), and a superresolution (SR) method is proposed to restore the image details during diagnosis. The method is based on a multiscale generative adversarial network, which can sequentially generate three high-resolution (HR) images: 10×, 20×, and 40×. A dataset consisting of 100,000 pathological images from 10 types of human body systems is used for training and testing. The differences between the generated images and the real images have been extensively evaluated using quantitative evaluation, visual inspection, medical scoring, and diagnosis. Results: The file size of each 5× WSI is approximately 15 Megabytes. The peak-signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) of 10× to 40× generated images are 24.167±3.734 dB, 22.272±4.272 dB, and 20.436±3.845 dB, and the structural similarity (SSIM) index values are 0.845±0.089, 0.680±0.150, and 0.559±0.179, which are better than those of other SR networks and conventional digital zoom methods. Visual inspections show that the generated images have details similar to the real images. Visual scoring average with 0.95 confidence interval from three pathologists are 3.630±1.024, 3.700±1.126, and 3.740±1.095, respectively, and the P value of analysis of variance is 0.367, indicating the pathologists confirm that generated images include sufficient information for diagnosis. The average value of the Kappa test of the diagnoses of paired generated and real images is 0.990, meaning the diagnosis of generated images is highly consistent with that of the real images. Conclusions: The proposed method can generate high-quality 10×, 20×, 40× images from 5× images, which can effectively reduce the time and storage costs of digitalization up to 1/64 of the previous costs, which shows the potential for clinical applications and is expected to be an alternative digitalization method after large-scale evaluation.

20.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 825492, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574144

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) deposition significantly affects the growth and the function of invasive clonal plants. However, the effects of heterogeneous N supply with different frequencies on the growth and the potential contribution of clonal integration in invasion plants are still unclear, especially in the complex environment considering ramet damage. To address this question, apical and basal ramets of the clonal invader Hydrocotyle vulgaris were connected or disconnected, N was added to the basal ramets with a high frequency, a low frequency, or no supply, and the total N quantity was the same for the different frequency. Furthermore, 8 aphids were placed on the apical ramets, and 30% of each leaf was cut off to cause damage. The connection between ramets significantly increased the biomass, total carbon (C), and total N of the basal and apical ramets. Higher frequency N supply significantly increased the biomass, total C, and total N of the basal ramets and the entire clonal fragment biomass. The damage had no significant effect on the growth of basal and apical ramets. Especially, under the high N frequency and ramet damage condition, the connection between ramets more significantly increased the biomass, total C, and total N of the apical ramets and the entire clonal fragment biomass. In addition, the uptake rates of 15 NH 4 + and 15 NO 3 - in H. vulgaris had no significant difference, and N supply increased the uptake rates of 15 NH 4 + and 15 NO 3 - of the basal ramets. Our results suggest that both higher frequency N supply and clonal integration are beneficial to the growth of H. vulgaris. Moreover, the heterogeneous N supply with high frequency and ramet damage increases the benefits of clonal integration in H. vulgaris. These findings improve our understanding of the response of clonal invader H. vulgaris to nitrogen deposition and ramet damage.

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