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1.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(18): 3200-3213, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173439

RESUMO

Background: Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is considered as a novel biomarker of response to immunotherapy and correlated with survival outcomes in various malignancies. Here, TMB-related genes (TRGs) expression signatures were constructed to investigate the association between TMB and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and the potential mechanism in immunoregulation was also explored. Methods: Based on somatic mutation data of 436 EOC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we examined the relationship between TMB level and overall survival (OS), as well as disease-free survival (DFS). Next, the TRGs signatures were constructed and validated. Differential abundance of immune cell infiltration, expression levels of immunomodulators and functional enrichment in high- and low-risk groups were also analyzed. Results: Higher TMB level revealed better OS and DFS, and correlated with earlier clinical stages in EOCs (P = 2.796e-04). The OS-related prognostic model constructed based on seven TRGs (B3GALT1, LIN7B, ANGPT2, D2HGDH, TAF13, PFDN4 and DNAJC19) significantly stratified EOC patients into high- and low-risk groups (P < 0.001). The AUC values of the seven-gene prognostic signature at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 0.703, 0.758 and 0.777. While the DFS-related prognostic model was constructed based on the 4 TRGs (LPIN3, PXYLP1, IGSF23 and B3GALT1), with AUCs of 0.617, 0.756, and 0.731, respectively. Functional analysis indicated that immune-related pathways were enriched in low-risk groups. When considering the infiltration patterns of immune cells, we found higher proportions of follicular helper T (Tfh) cell and M1 macrophage, while lower infiltration of M0 macrophage in low-risk groups (P < 0.05). Accordingly, TMB levels of low-risk patients were significantly higher both in OS and DFS model (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Our TRGs-based models are reliable predictive tools for OS and DFS. High TMB may confer with an immunogenic microenvironment and predict favorable outcomes in EOCs.

2.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish an automated high-throughput mimic perfusion scale-down model (SDM) in ambr® 15 system. RESULTS: An optimized SDM for mimic perfusion was developed in ambr® 15 system. Cell retention in ambr® 15 was realized by sedimentation and supernatant removal with a retention rate > 95%. Although the SDM couldn't reach the viable cell density (VCD) at a bench scale bioreactor (BR), it maintained VCD at approximately 30 × 106 cells/mL with a cell bleeding rate estimated theoretically and predicted the cell specific perfusion rate (CSPR). A base-feeding strategy was developed to alleviate the pH drop during sedimentation which would adversely have an impact on cell growth, and showed an apparent cell viability improvement from 79.6% (control) to 90.1% on Day 18. The optimized SDM for mimic perfusion was employed for media screening in two cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: A small-scale high-throughput perfusion model in ambr® 15 was developed, optimized to improve cell viability, and as a result, utilized for media screening in two cell lines.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e037150, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Geographical disparities have been identified as a specific barrier to cancer screening and a cause of worse outcomes for patients with cancer. In the present study, our aim was to assess the influence of geographical disparities on the survival outcomes of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1002 adult patients with NPC (724 males and 278 females) who were classified by area of residence (rural or urban) received IMRT from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014, at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Following propensity score matching (PSM), 812 patients remained in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We used PSM to reduce the bias of variables associated with treatment effects and outcome prediction. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression was used to identify independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: In the matched cohort, 812 patients remained in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the rural group was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS, p<0.001), disease-free survival (DFS, p<0.001), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS, p=0.003) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, p<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression showed worse OS (HR=3.126; 95% CI 1.902 to 5.138; p<0.001), DFS (HR=2.579; 95% CI 1.815 to 3.665; p<0.001), LRRFS (HR=2.742; 95% CI 1.359 to 5.533; p=0.005) and DMFS (HR=2.461; 95% CI 1.574 to 3.850; p<0.001) for patients residing in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: The survival outcomes of patients with NPC who received the same standardised treatment were significantly better in urban regions than in rural regions. By analysing the geographic disparities in outcomes for NPC, we can guide the formulation of healthcare policies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199606

RESUMO

Since the postulation of carbenes by Buchner (1903) and Staudinger (1912) as electron-deficient transient species carrying a divalent carbon atom, carbenes have emerged as key reactive intermediates in organic synthesis and in molecular mass growth processes leading eventually to carbonaceous nanostructures in the interstellar medium and in combustion systems. Contemplating the short lifetimes of these transient molecules and their tendency for dimerization, free carbenes represent one of the foremost obscured classes of organic reactive intermediates. Here, we afford an exceptional glance into the fundamentally unknown gas-phase chemistry of preparing two prototype carbenes with distinct multiplicities-triplet pentadiynylidene (HCCCCCH) and singlet ethynylcyclopropenylidene (c-C5H2) carbene-via the elementary reaction of the simplest organic radical-methylidyne (CH)-with diacetylene (HCCCCH) under single-collision conditions. Our combination of crossed molecular beam data with electronic structure calculations and quasi-classical trajectory simulations reveals fundamental reaction mechanisms and facilitates an intimate understanding of bond-breaking processes and isomerization processes of highly reactive hydrocarbon intermediates. The agreement between experimental chemical dynamics studies under single-collision conditions and the outcome of trajectory simulations discloses that molecular beam studies merged with dynamics simulations have advanced to such a level that polyatomic reactions with relevance to extreme astrochemical and combustion chemistry conditions can be elucidated at the molecular level and expanded to higher-order homolog carbenes such as butadiynylcyclopropenylidene and triplet heptatriynylidene, thus offering a versatile strategy to explore the exotic chemistry of novel higher-order carbenes in the gas phase.

5.
Scand J Immunol ; : e12992, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140452

RESUMO

Autophagy is a highly conserved protein degradation pathway that is essential for affecting some autoimmune diseases. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common autoimmune disorder, and the complex dysregulation of cellular immunity has been observed; however, the relationship between autophagy-related proteins and immune responses in ITP remains unclear. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the mRNA expression levels of Beclin-1, SQSTM1/p62 and LC3 were measured in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 20 newly diagnosed patients with active ITP, 16 ITP patients in remission and 21 healthy volunteers. The stained Beclin-1 and SQSTM1/p62 proteins were also observed in the bone marrow of active ITP patients and normal controls by immunofluorescence. SQSTM1/p62 mRNA expression in PBMCs in newly diagnosed patients was significantly decreased. At the same time, Beclin-1 mRNA was increased significantly. During the remission stages, the levels of these autophagy-related proteins were comparable with those observed in healthy controls. Taken together, these results suggest that the aberrant expression of autophagy-related proteins might be involved in the pathogenesis of ITP. Further study of the autophagy pathway may provide a new strategy and direction for the treatment of ITP.

6.
Hepatology ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185911

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with obesity and an increased risk for liver cirrhosis and cancer. Neutral ceramidase (NcDase), highly expressed in the intestinal brush border of the small intestine, plays a critical role in digesting dietary sphingolipids (ceramide) to regulate the balance of sphingosine and free fatty acids (FFAs). It remains unresolved whether obesity-associated alteration of NcDase contributes to the manifestation of NASH. Here we revealed that neutral ceramidase deficiency in murine models of NASH prevents hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, but not steatosis. NcDase-/- mice display reduced SCD1 expression with a compositional decrease of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) under the different dietary conditions. We further found that neutral ceramidase is a functional regulator of intestinal B cells and influences the abundance and quality of the secretory IgA response toward commensal bacteria. Analysis of composition of the gut microbiota found that Clostridiales colonization was increased in NcDase-/- mice. The colonization of germ-free mice with gut microbiota from NcDase-/- mice resulted in a greater decrease in the expression of SCD1 and the level of MUFAs in the liver relative to gut microbiota from wild-type (WT) littermates, which are associated with the alternation of IgA bound bacteria including increase of Ruminococcaceae and reduction of Desulfovibrio. Mechanistically, NcDase is a crucial link that controls the expression of SCD1 and MUFAs-mediated activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin. Very importantly, our experiments further demonstrated that Wnt3a stimulation can enhance the activity of neutral ceramidase in hepatocytes. Thus, the NcDase-SCD1-Wnt feedback loop promotes the diet-induced steatohepatitis and fibrosis through the regulation of intestinal IgA+ immune cells.

7.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152401

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) originates in the nasopharyngeal epithelium and has the highest metastatic rate among head and neck cancers. Distant metastasis is the main reason for treatment failure with the underlying mechanisms remaining unclear. By comparing the expression profiling of NPCs versus non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues, we found LACTB was highly expressed in the tumor tissues. We found that elevated expression of the LACTB protein in primary NPCs correlated with poorer patient survival. LACTB is known to be a serine protease and a ubiquitous mitochondrial protein localized in the intermembrane space. Its role in tumor biology remains controversial. We found that the different methylation pattern of LACTB promoter led to its differential expression in NPC cells. Overexpressing LACTB in NPC cells promoted their motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo. While knocking down LACTB reduced the metastasis capability of NPC cells. However, LACTB did not influence cellular proliferation. We further found the role of LACTB in promoting NPC metastasis depended on the activation of ERBB3/EGFR-ERK signaling, which in turn, affected the stability and the following acetylation of histone H3. These findings may shed light on unveiling the mechanisms of NPC metastasis.

8.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 31(8): 543-550, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141778

RESUMO

: The occurrence and development of primary immune thrombocytopenia is closely related to autoimmune imbalanced. Thus, we conducted the current study to investigate the modulation of IL-35, a newly identified immunological self-tolerance factor on immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). We were enrolled peripheral blood in 21 adult healthy volunteers, 21 active primary ITP patients and 16 ITP patients in remission. In the same period, bone marrow plasma was drawn from active primary ITP patients and 16 bone marrow donors. Enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to measure IL-35 levels in bone marrow mononuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to study the mRNA expression levels of p35, Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 in bone marrow mononuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compared with the normal group, IL-35 levels of in ITP patients were decreased significantly. IL-35 level in bone marrow plasma was decreased more significantly than that in peripheral blood plasma at the same stage. The results showed that plasma IL-35 levels were significantly decreased in patients with active ITP compared with those of control individuals, and IL-35 levels in bone marrow plasma were decreased more significantly compared with those at the same stage. The pathogenesis of ITP is associated with decreased IL-35 levels. Further studies are needed to expand sample content and explore more in-depth investigate a possible role of IL-35 in the pathogenesis and course of ITP.

9.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 330, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory response has been recognized as a pivotal pathophysiological process during cerebral ischemic stroke. NLRP3 inflammasome, involved in the regulation of inflammatory cascade, can simultaneously lead to GSDMD-executed pyroptosis in cerebral ischemia. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), responsible for cholesterol uptake, was noted to exert potential anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Nevertheless, the role of LDLR in neuroinflammation mobilized by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) has not been investigated. METHODS: Ischemic stroke mice model was accomplished by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Oxygen-glucose deprivation was employed after primary cortical neuron was extracted and cultured. A pharmacological inhibitor of NLRP3 (CY-09) was administered to suppress NLPR3 activation. Histological and biochemical analysis were performed to assess the neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, neurological deficits and behavioral deterioration were evaluated in mice. RESULTS: The expression of LDLR was downregulated following cerebral I/R injury. Genetic knockout of Ldlr enhanced caspase-1-dependent cleavage of GSDMD and resulted in severe neuronal pyroptosis. LDLR deficiency contributed to excessive NLRP3-mediated maturation and release of IL-1ß and IL-18 under in vitro and in vivo ischemic conditions. These influences ultimately led to aggravated neurological deficits and long-term cognitive dysfunction. Blockade of NLRP3 substantially retarded neuronal pyroptosis in Ldlr-/- mice and cultured Ldlr-/- neuron after experimental stroke. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that LDLR modulates NLRP3-mediated neuronal pyroptosis and neuroinflammation following ischemic stroke. Our findings characterize a novel role for LDLR as a potential therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory responses to acute cerebral ischemic injury.

10.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive, childhood-onset motor neuron disease, fatal in its most severe forms. In addition to neuromuscular degeneration, organ involvement, including the liver, may also be present. Onasemnogene abeparvovec (OA) is a gene therapy that addresses SMA's root cause. In pivotal mouse toxicology studies, the liver was identified a major target organ of toxicity for OA. Clinical data reflect elevations in serum aminotransferase concentrations, with some reports of serious acute liver injury. Prophylactic prednisolone mitigates these effects. We evaluated liver effects, with attention to clinical characteristics, to provide pragmatic, supportive guidance for identification, management, and risk mitigation of potential drug-induced liver injury. METHODS: Data from 325 SMA patients who had received OA through 31 December 2019, in five clinical trials, a managed access program (MAP), and a long-term registry (RESTORE), and through commercial use, were analyzed. Liver-related adverse events (AEs), laboratory data, concomitant medications, and prednisolone use were analyzed. RESULTS: Based on adverse events and laboratory data, 90 of 100 patients had elevated serum aminotransferases concentrations. Of these, liver-associated AEs were reported for 34 of 100 (34%) and 10 of 43 (23%) patients in clinical trials and MAP/RESTORE, respectively. Two patients in MAP had serious acute liver injury, which resolved completely. While all events in the overall population resolved, prednisolone treatment duration varied (range: 33-229 days), with a majority receiving prednisolone 60-120 days. More than 60% had elevations in serum aminotransferases concentrations prior to dosing. Greater than 40% received potentially hepatotoxic concomitant medications. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatotoxicity is a known risk associated with OA use. Practitioners should identify contributing factors and mitigate risk through appropriate monitoring and intervention.

11.
Ann Hematol ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236196

RESUMO

There are a limited number of studies comparing outcomes of busulfan (BU)-based myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using unmanipulated haploidentical donors (HIDs), HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUDs), and HLA-matched sibling related donors (MSDs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with complete remission (CR) status. With this background, we compared outcomes among 377 cases of CR following consecutive HID-HSCT for AML (CR) to 86 MUD and 92 MSD-HSCT cases. All patients received BU-based myeloablative conditioning and an unmanipulated graft within the same period. The median patient age was 23 years (range 1.1 to 65 years), and 230 patients (41.4%) were under age18. Among the 555 patients, 432 (77.8%) were of intermediate cytogenetic risk and 123 (22.2%) were of adverse risk. A total of 113 patients (20.5%) had FLT3-ITD+ AML, 425 patients (76.6%) were in first complete remission (CR1) post-transplant, and 130 (23.4%) patients were in second CR (CR2). GVHD prophylaxis included mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporine-A (CSA) with short-term methotrexate (MTX) for HID, and MUD-HSCT. MMF is not used for MSD-HSCT. The median survival follow-up time was 42 months (range 18-91 months). The 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) among the HID, MUD, and MSD cohorts was 73.8% ± 4.8%, 66.4% ± 8.5%, 74.5% ± 2.4%, respectively (P = 0.637). Three-year overall survival (OS) was 74.9% ± 2.4%, 81.8% ± 4.3%, and 77.5% ± 4.5% among the HID, MUD, and MSD cohorts, respectively (P = 0.322). There were no difference among the relapse rate among the HID, MUD, and MSD donor cohorts (14.3% ± 4.0% vs 20.3% ± 6.4% vs 14.5% ± 2.2, respectively; P = 0.851) or the non-relapse mortality (NRM) (12.3% ± 3.5% vs 9.5% ± 3.2% vs 14.0% ± 1.8%, respectively; P = 0.441). Multivariate analyses showed that MRD-positive pre-HSCT was the only risk factor associated with a lower OS and LFS and higher risk of relapse among all 555 patients. Compared with the use of a MUD or MSD, an HID for HSCT had similar outcomes among AML patients with CR states who underwent an allo-HSCT with BU-based myeloablative conditioning. MFC-MRD-positive pre-HSCT was an independent negative factor impact on outcomes for AML patients in CR. We conclude that for AML patients who do not have a MSD or if an urgent transplant is required, HSCT from an HID is a valid option.

12.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202570

RESUMO

Oral vaccination is a practical method for the active immunization of farmed fish in the matter of animal welfare and handling costs. However, it always shows insufficient protective immunity, mainly due to antigen degradation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Bacillus subtilis spores have been shown to be able to protect surface-display heterologous antigens against degradation. Neverthless, the spores can germinate in GIT, which causes loss of the antigens with spore coat disassembly. Here, we developed a novel surface display system using the B. subtilis spore coat proteins CotB and CotC as anchors for the heterogenous antigen, and the germination-controlling genes cwlJ and sleB as the ectopic integration sites for the fusion genes. Using this display system, we engineered germination-arrest spores displaying the model antigen Vp7 of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) on their surface. Oral vaccination of the engineered spores could confer immune protection against GCRV in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) via eliciting adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses. Most importantly, the germination-arrest spores were shown to significantly augment immunogenicity and protection above the engineered spores based on the existing surface display system. Therefore, the presently reported antigen expression strategy opens new and promising avenues for developing oral vaccines for the immunization of farmed fish species.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141760

RESUMO

Oligodendrocytes express low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to endocytose cholesterol for the maintenance of adulthood myelination. However, the potential role of LDLR in chronic cerebral ischemia-related demyelination remains unclear. We used bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) to induce sustained cerebral ischemia in mice. This hypoxic-ischemic injury caused a remarkable decline of oligodendroglial LDLR with impaired oligodendroglial differentiation and survival. Oligodendroglial cholesterol levels, however, remained unchanged. Mice miR-344e-3p and human homolog miR-410-3p, two miRNAs directly targeting Ldlr, were identified in experimental and clinical leukoaraiosis, thus leading to LDLR reduction. Lentiviral delivery of LDLR ameliorated the demyelination following chronic cerebral ischemia. By contrast, Ldlr-/- mice displayed inadequate myelination in the corpus callosum. Ldlr-/- oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) exhibited defective ability to differentiate and myelinate axons in vitro. Transplantation with Ldlr-/- OPCs could not rescue the BCAS-induced demyelination. Such LDLR-dependent myelin restoration might involve a physical interaction of the Asn-Pro-Val-Tyr (NPVY) motif with phosphotyrosine binding domain of Shc, which subsequently activated MEK/ERK pathway. Together, our findings demonstrate that the aberrant oligodendroglial LDLR in chronic cerebral ischemia impairs myelination through intracellular signal transduction. Preservation of oligodendroglial LDLR may provide a promising approach to treat ischemic demyelination.

14.
Adv Mater ; : e2005315, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145825

RESUMO

Emergent topological insulators (TIs) and their design are in high demand for manipulating and transmitting spin information toward ultralow-power-consumption spintronic applications. Here, distinct topological states with tailored spin properties can be achieved in a single reduced-dimensional TI-superlattice, (Bi2 /Bi2 Se3 )-(Bi2 /Bi2 Se3 )N or (□/Bi2 Se3 )-(Bi2 /Bi2 Se3 )N (N is the repeating unit, □ represents an empty layer) by controlling the termination via molecular beam epitaxy. The Bi2 -terminated superlattice exhibits a single Dirac cone with a spin momentum splitting ≈0.5 Å-1 , producing a pronounced inverse Edelstein effect with a coherence length up to 1.26 nm. In contrast, the Bi2 Se3 -terminated superlattice is identified as a dual TI protected by coexisting time reversal and mirror symmetries, showing an unexpectedly long spin lifetime up to 1 ns. The work elucidates the key role of dimensionality and dual topological phases in selecting desired spin properties, suggesting a promise route for engineering topological superlattices for high-performance TI-spintronic devices.

15.
Nano Lett ; 20(11): 8141-8150, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172280

RESUMO

The ferroptosis effect has been illuminated with a clear Fenton reaction mechanism that converts endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into highly oxidative hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in ROS-amplified tumor therapy. This ferroptosis-related oxidation effect was then further enhanced by the enzyme-like roles of cisplatin (CDDP). This CDDP-induced apoptosis was promoted in reverse by ferroptosis via the depletion of glutathione (GSH) and prevention of DNA damage repair. Here, we have developed degradable metallic complexes (PtH@FeP) containing an Fe(III)-polydopamine (FeP) core and HA-cross-linked CDDP (PtH) shell, exaggerating in situ toxic ROS production via the synergistic effect of CDDP and Fe(III). Taken together, the rationally designed PtH@FeP provided a new strategy for self-amplified synergistic chemotherapy/ferroptosis/photothermal therapy (PTT) antitumor effects with a reduced dosage that facilitates clinical safety.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5570, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149137

RESUMO

BMP signaling plays key roles in development, stem cells, adult tissue homeostasis, and disease. How BMP receptors are extracellularly modulated and in which physiological context, is therefore of prime importance. R-spondins (RSPOs) are a small family of secreted proteins that co-activate WNT signaling and function as potent stem cell effectors and oncogenes. Evidence is mounting that RSPOs act WNT-independently but how and in which physiological processes remains enigmatic. Here we show that RSPO2 and RSPO3 also act as BMP antagonists. RSPO2 is a high affinity ligand for the type I BMP receptor BMPR1A/ALK3, and it engages ZNRF3 to trigger internalization and degradation of BMPR1A. In early Xenopus embryos, Rspo2 is a negative feedback inhibitor in the BMP4 synexpression group and regulates dorsoventral axis formation. We conclude that R-spondins are bifunctional ligands, which activate WNT- and inhibit BMP signaling via ZNRF3, with implications for development and cancer.

17.
Thromb Res ; 194: 222-228, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology. In this study, we aimed to identify the mutations and aberrant expression of mucins associated with ITP pathogenesis. METHODS: First, we investigated the DNA mutation profile of bone marrow samples from patients with ITP (n = 20) by using next-generation sequencing (NGS). In addition, MUC3A, MUC5B and MUC6 were mutated in all patients with ITP. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoassay) was used to measure MUC3A, MUC5B and MUC6 levels in the plasma of bone marrow fluid mononuclear cells (BMMCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Real-time quantitative PCR was used to study the mRNA expression levels of MUC3A, MUC5B and MUC6 in BMMCs and PBMCs. RESULTS: The results indicated that there were 3998 missense mutations involving 2269 genes in more than 10 individuals. MUC3A levels were not significantly different among the three groups, whereas MUC5B and MUC6 expression were significantly down-regulated in patients with ITP compared with healthy controls. In addition, serum MUC5B and MUC6 levels were significantly higher in patients with ITP in clinical remission than in patients with active ITP. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that genetic alterations and the aberrant serum expression of mucins might be involved in the pathogenesis of ITP.

18.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107145

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA) have been emerged as prognostic biomarkers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To understand the potential underlying mechanisms and translate these findings into clinical prediction on lymphoma progression, large patient cohorts should be evaluated. Here, using miRNA PCR array, we analyzed the miRNA expression profiles in serum samples of 20 DLBCL patients at diagnosis, remission and relapse. Four candidate miRNA were identified and subsequently evaluated for their ability to predict relapse and survival. A prognostic model based on four circulating miRNA (miR21, miR130b, miR155 and miR28) was established and tested in a training cohort of 279 patients and in a validation cohort of 225 patients (NCT01852435). The prognostic value of the 4-circulating miRNA model was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The novel 4-circulating miRNA prognostic model significantly predicted clinical outcome of DLBCL, independent of International Prognostic Index in the training cohort [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.83, 95% CI 2.14-3.51, P < 0.001] and in the validation cohort (HR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.91-3.50, P < 0.001). Moreover, DNA- and RNA-sequencing was performed on tumor samples to detect genetic mutations and signaling pathway dysregulation. DNA-sequencing data showed no significant difference of tumor mutation burden between the low-risk and the high-risk groups of the 4-circulating miRNA model. RNA-sequencing revealed a correlation between the 4-circulating miRNA model and aberrant Ras protein signaling transduction. The impact of the miRNA signature on oncogenic signaling and tumor microenvironment was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. In B-lymphoma cells, modulation of the miRNA regulated IGF1 and JUN expression, thereby altering MDSC and Th17 cells. In DLBCL patients, the high-risk group presented Ras signaling activation, increased MDSC and Th17 cells, and immunosuppressive status compared with the low-risk group. In conclusion, the easy-to-use 4-circulating miRNA prognostic model effectively predicted relapse and survival in DLBCL. Moreover, the tumor microenvironment contributes to the role of the 4-circulating miRNA model in DLBCL progression.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103436

RESUMO

The dynamics of the HBr+ + CO2 → HOCO+ + Br reaction was recently investigated with guided ion beam experiments under various excitations (collision energy of the reactants, rotational and spin-orbital states of HBr+, etc.), and their impacts were probed through the change of the cross section of the reaction. The potential energy profile of this reaction has also been accurately characterized by high-level ab initio methods such as CCSD(T)/CBS, and the UMP2/cc-pVDZ/lanl08d has been identified as an ideal method to study its dynamics. This manuscript reports the first ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of this reaction at two different collision energies, 8.1 kcal/mol and 19.6 kcal/mol. The cross sections measured from the simulations agree very well with the experiments measured with HBr+ in the 2∏1/2 state. The simulations reveal three distinct mechanisms at both collision energies: direct rebound (DR), direct stripping (DS), and indirect (Ind) mechanisms. DS and Ind make up 97% of the total reaction. The dynamics of this reaction is also compared with nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions of X- + CH3Y → CH3X + Y- type. In summary, this research has revealed interesting dynamics of the HBr+ + CO2 → HOCO+ + Br reaction at different collision energies and has laid a solid foundation for using this reaction to probe the impact of rotational excitation of ion-molecule reactions in general.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063996

RESUMO

Surface states of mesoporous NiO semiconductor films have particular properties differing from the bulk and are able to dramatically influence the interfacial electron transfer and adsorption of chemical species. To achieve a better performance of NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs), the function of the surface states has to be understood. In this paper, we applied a modified atomic layer deposition procedure that is able to passivate 72% of the surface states on NiO by depositing a monolayer of Al2O3. This provides us with representative control samples to study the functions of the surface states on NiO films. A main conclusion is that surface states, rather than the bulk, are mainly responsible for the conductivity in mesoporous NiO films. Furthermore, surface states significantly affect dye regeneration (with I-/I3- as redox couple) and hole transport in NiO-based p-DSCs. A new dye regeneration mechanism is proposed in which electrons are transferred from reduced dye molecules to intra-bandgap states, and then to I3- species. The intra-bandgap states here act as catalysts to assist I3- reduction. A more complete mechanism is suggested to understand the particular hole transport behavior in p-DSCs, in which the hole transport time is independent of light intensity. This is ascribed to the percolation hole hopping on the surface states. When the concentration of surface states was significantly reduced, the light-independent charge transport behavior in pristine NiO-based p-DSCs transformed into having an exponential dependence on light intensity, similar to that observed in TiO2-based n-type DSCs. These conclusions on the function of surface states provide new insight into the electronic properties of mesoporous NiO films.

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