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1.
J Evid Based Med ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615709

RESUMO

It has been over 20 years since the introduction of evidence-based medicine (EBM) into the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The development of evidence-based TCM research has profoundly influenced the process of clinical research and decision-making, impelling researchers to pay attention to raise evidence quality, accumulate data, and explore appropriate evaluation methods adaptive to TCM original theories and knowledge. In this paper, the authors aim to summarize and review the existing work and seek promising research interests in this field, expecting to inspire more thoughts leading to breakthroughs in the near future.

2.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605169

RESUMO

AeP-P-2, a pectic polysaccharide, was extracted from the fruit pod of okra. It composed of rhamnose (Rha), arabinose (Ara), glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal) and galacturonic acid (GalA) with the ratio of 4.75:2.01:1.00:4.91:7.24. The main structural feature of AeP-P-2 are 1,4-linked galacturonan units (homogalacturonan backbone) and (1 → 2) and (1 → 2,4) linked Rha (rhamnogalacturonan I region). And the other side chains contained →1)-linked Ara, (1 → 5)-linked Ara, (1 → 4)-linked Glc, (1 → 6)-linked Gal, (1 → 4)-linked Rha, (1 → 2,4)-linked Rha, →1)-linked Ara and →1)-linked Gal. When the concentration of AeP-P-2 was 3.2 mg/mL, the scavenging rates on DPPH·, ABTS, O2-· and ·OH reached to 61.88%, 87.10%, 52.17% and 60.32%, respectively. AeP-P-2 also could protect PC12 cells from the damage of H2O2 and reduce apoptosis caused by oxidative damage by decreasing the level of ROS. The findings indicated that okra was a functional vegetable and AeP-P-2 was worth studying and developing into antioxidant component.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e23589, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578510

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Postoperative intracranial hemorrhage is a serious and even fatal complication after non-traumatic craniotomy, in which epidural hematoma and intracerebral hematoma are relatively common. Postoperative subdural hematoma is rare, and its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. PATIENT CONCERNS: In the present study, we report 2 cases with postoperative subdural hematoma after non-traumatic craniotomy. DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis of acute subdural hematoma (aSDH) was rendered according to the imaging features. INTERVENTIONS: Hematoma evacuation was performed immediately. OUTCOMES: Two months later, the first patient continued to have impaired consciousness and sensorimotor deficiency in the right extremities. And the second one remained unconscious and continued to have sensorimotor disturbance in the right extremities after 6 weeks of rehabilitation. LESSONS: Neurosurgeons should be aware of potential subdural hematoma after non-traumatic craniotomy, since this condition is usually latent and associated with poor prognosis. Early identification and surgical evacuation should be highlighted.


Assuntos
Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Adulto , Conscientização , Diagnóstico Precoce , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocirurgiões , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
4.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522523

RESUMO

As an alternative to photodynamic therapy (PDT), ultrasound-triggered tumor sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has garnered significant attention, owing to its high tissue penetration, few side effects, and reliable patient compliance. A sonosensitizer is the most important component in SDT, and high-quantum-yield safe sonosensitizers are crucial for SDT. Existing sonosensitizers mainly include organic sonosensitizers and inorganic sonosensitizers. Organic sonosensitizers, mainly some small dye molecules, have been widely studied. However, organic sonosensitizers have limited utility owing to their poor stability, rapid blood clearance, and potential phototoxicity. In contrast, inorganic sonosensitizers have stable chemical properties, long circulation time in the blood and can effectively reduce phototoxicity. In addition to their utilization as sonosensitizers, some inorganic nanoparticles can also operate as carriers for delivering organic sonosensitizers, effectively overcoming the inherent shortcomings of organic small-molecule sonosensitizers. This review mainly focuses on inorganic nanomaterial-based SDT, the possible mechanisms of SDT, and newly developed inorganic sonosensitizers, as well as the challenges and possible solutions associated with their clinical translation are introduced.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(8)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597298

RESUMO

Plant fertilization involves both an egg cell, which fuses with a sperm cell, and synergid cells, which guide pollen tubes for sperm cell delivery. Therefore, egg and synergid cell functional specifications are prerequisites for successful fertilization. However, how the egg and synergid cells, referred to as the "egg apparatus," derived from one mother cell develop into distinct cell types remains an unanswered question. In this report, we show that the final position of the nuclei in female gametophyte determines the cell fate of the egg apparatus. We established a live imaging system to visualize the dynamics of nuclear positioning and cell identity establishment in the female gametophyte. We observed that free nuclei should migrate to a specific position before egg apparatus specialization. Artificial changing in the nuclear position on disturbance of the actin cytoskeleton, either in vitro or in vivo, could reset the cell fate of the egg apparatus. We also found that nuclei of the same origin moved to different positions and then showed different cell identities, whereas nuclei of different origins moved to the same position showed the same cell identity, indicating that the final positions of the nuclei, rather than specific nucleus lineage, play critical roles in the egg apparatus specification. Furthermore, the active auxin level was higher in the egg cell than in synergid cells. Auxin transport inhibitor could decrease the auxin level in egg cells and impair egg cell identity, suggesting that directional and accurate auxin distribution likely acts as a positional cue for egg apparatus specialization.

7.
J Immunol ; 206(5): 953-962, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483349

RESUMO

IL-17-secreting Th17 cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. IL-17-targeted biologics and small molecules are becoming promising treatments for these diseases. In this study, we report that SZB120, a derivative of the natural compound 3-acetyl-ß-boswellic acid, inhibits murine Th17 cell differentiation by interacting with the α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). We showed that SZB120 directly interacts with eIF2α and contributes to serine 51 phosphorylation of eIF2α. The suppressive effect of SZB120 on Th17 cell differentiation was reversed by GSK2606414, an inhibitor of eIF2α phosphokinase. Phosphorylation of eIF2α induced by SZB120 decreased the protein expression of IκBζ, which is important for Th17 cell differentiation. Notably, interaction with eIF2α by SZB120 also impaired glucose uptake and glycolysis in T cells. In vivo, SZB120 treatment of C57BL/6 mice significantly attenuated IL-17/Th17-mediated autoimmune disease. Our study indicates that SZB120 is a promising drug candidate for IL-17/Th17-mediated inflammatory diseases.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111247, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517191

RESUMO

Androgenic alopecia (AGA), also known as male pattern baldness, is one of the most common hair loss diseases worldwide. The main treatments of AGA include hair transplant surgery, oral medicines, and LDL laser irradiation, although no treatment to date can fully cure this disease. Animal models play important roles in the exploration of potential mechanisms of disease development and in assessing novel treatments. The present study describes androgen receptor (AR) in C57BL/6 mouse hair follicles that can be activated by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and translocate to the nucleus. This led to the design of a mouse model of androgen-induced AGA in vivo and in vitro. DHT was found to induce early hair regression, hair miniaturization, hair density loss, and changes in hair morphology in male C57BL/6 mice. These effects of DHT could be partly reversed by the AR antagonist bicalutamide. DHT had similar effects in an ex vivo model of hair loss. Evaluation of histology, organ culture, and protein expression could explain the mechanism by which DHT delayed hair regrowth.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107375, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517224

RESUMO

NOD-like receptors (NLRs), as a part of intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRR), are important regulators in innate immune system. The NLRP3 inflammasome which is a member of NLRs has been linked to several human inflammatory diseases. Gouty arthritis is triggered when the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints induces acute inflammation characterized by the recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils. In this study, we explored the curcumin analogue AI-44 alleviated the gouty arthritis in mice via suppressing MSU engaging NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AI-44 inhibited the interaction of cathepsin B and NLRP3 to prevent the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, we found AI-44 inhibited the enzyme activity of cathepsin B and bound to the key residue E122 in cytoplasm but not in lysosome. Collectively, these data suggest that AI-44 is a novel drug candidate for the treatment of gouty arthritis through targeting cathepsin B and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the highest mortality rate among urological cancers and tumor angiogenesis which plays critical roles in RCC progresss. Epidermal growth factor-like domain multiple 7 (EGFL7) has been recently identified as a regulator in RCC tumor angiogenesis and progression. Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) HOTAIR has been considered as a pro-oncogene in multiple cancers, but its precise mechanism of tumor angiogenesis has rarely been reported. MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) functions as a tumor suppressor in RCC. However, the underlying tumor angiogenesis mechanism of HOTAIR/miR-126 axis in RCC has not been studied. METHODS: The proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and the expression of EGFL7 and related proteins in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) / activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signal pathway were determined to examine the effect and mechanism of HOTAIR and miR-126 on RCC progress. The regulatory relationship of HOTAIR and miR-126, as well as miR-126 and EGFL7 were tested using dual-luciferase reporter assay. Aenograft RCC mice model was used to examine the effect of HOTAIR on RCC tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. RESULTS: HOTAIR knockdown and miR-126 overexpression suppressed the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of RCC cells. HOTAIR regulated EGFL7 expression by competitively binding to miR-126. Knockdown of HOTAIR significantly suppressed the RCC tumor progression and lung metastasis in vivo. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that lncRNA HOTAIR regulate RCC angiogenesis through miR-126/EGFL7 axis and provide a new perspective on the molecular pathways of angiogenesis in RCC development, which might be potential therapeutic targets for RCC treatment.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e2005993, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470482

RESUMO

Alloying anodes exhibit very high capacity when used in potassium-ion batteries, but their severe capacity fading hinders their practical applications. The failure mechanism has traditionally been attributed to the large volumetric change and/or their fragile solid electrolyte interphase. Herein, it is reported that an antimony (Sb) alloying anode, even in bulk form, can be stabilized readily by electrolyte engineering. The Sb anode delivers an extremely high capacity of 628 and 305 mAh g-1 at current densities of 100 and 3000 mA g-1 , respectively, and remains stable for more than 200 cycles. Interestingly, there is no need to do nanostructural engineering and/or carbon modification to achieve this excellent performance. It is shown that the change in K+ solvation structure, which is tuned by electrolyte composition (i.e., anion, solvent, and concentration), is the main reason for achieving this excellent performance. Moreover, an interfacial model based on the K+ -solvent-anion complex behavior is presented. The electronegativity of the K+ -solvent-anion complex, which can be tuned by changing the solvent type and anion species, is used to predict and control electrode stability. The results shed new light on the failure mechanism of alloying anodes, and provide a new guideline for electrolyte design that stabilizes metal-ion batteries using alloying anodes.

13.
Nature ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494096

RESUMO

Although infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some individuals1-3, many others experience milder symptoms. Here, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the distinction between severe and mild phenotypes in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its origins, we performed a whole-blood-preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major immune cell types of the blood-including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of the serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 exhibit a coordinated pattern of expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)3 across every cell population, whereas these ISG-expressing cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Paradoxically, individuals with severe COVID-19 produce very high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and have a lower viral load compared to individuals with mild disease. Examination of the serum from patients with severe COVID-19 shows that these patients uniquely produce antibodies that functionally block the production of the ISG-expressing cells associated with mild disease, by activating conserved signalling circuits that dampen cellular responses to interferons. Overzealous antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many patients with COVID-19, and perhaps also in individuals with other viral infections. Our findings reveal potential targets for immunotherapies in patients with severe COVID-19 to re-engage viral defence.

14.
J Biomater Appl ; : 885328220985662, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an excellent xenotransplant, the pig trachea can be decellularized and cryopreserved to reduce its immunogenicity. However, few reports are found on the changes of its mechanical properties after cryopreservation and decellularization. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the structure and biomechanical properties in pig tracheal scaffolds resulting from decellularized and cryopreserved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five pig tracheal segments were separated into five groups: untreated (group A), only decellularized (group B), only cryopreserved (group C), decellularized after cryopreserved (group D) and cryopreserved after decellularized (group E). Tracheal segments were subjected to uniaxial tension or compression using a universal testing machine to determine structural biomechanical changes. RESULTS: It showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the tensile strength of the trachea in each group. The compressive strength of group B, C and D were same as the group A (P > 0.05), while the group E was lower than that of the group A (P < 0.05).Conclusions and significance: The histological examination of the decellularization after cryopreservation shows that the removal of epithelial cells and submucosal cells is more thorough, and the biomechanical structure of the trachea is better preserved. This proved to be a new method to prepare xenotransplantation of trachea graft.

15.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450880

RESUMO

We developed a new nanowire for enhancing the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. In this study, we synthesized WO3 nanowires (WNWs) via a simple hydrothermal method. WNWs and one-dimensional materials are easily mixed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form interlayers. The WNW interacts with lithium polysulfides through a thiosulfate mediator, retaining the lithium polysulfide near the cathode to increase the reaction kinetics. The lithium-sulfur cell achieves a very high initial discharge capacity of 1558 and 656 mAh g-1 at 0.1 and 3 C, respectively. Moreover, a cell with a high sulfur mass loading of 4.2 mg cm-2 still delivers a high capacity of 1136 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.2 C and it showed a capacity of 939 mAh g-1 even after 100 cycles. The WNW/CNT interlayer maintains structural stability even after electrochemical testing. This excellent performance and structural stability are due to the chemical adsorption and catalytic effects of the thiosulfate mediator on WNW.

16.
Int J STD AIDS ; : 956462420972854, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494655

RESUMO

The current evidence regarding the prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (SCA) for people living with HIV(PLWH) is inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to synthesize data on the prevalence and association of SCA patients with HIV infection. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Medline, SinoMed, and CNKI from inception to March 2, 2020. The pooled proportion, odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. For inclusion, SCA was measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), with a B-mode ultrasound machine. Twenty-six studies consisting of 6590 participants were identified. The overall prevalence of SCA was 31.6% (95% CI 13.4-53.3; I2 = 99%; 4 studies) according to CIMT ≥ 0.78 mm criteria, and 32.3% (19.6-46.4; 97%; 10 studies) according to CIMT ≥ 0.90 mm criteria. SCA prevalence was higher in Europe, over 40 years old and male. What's more, PLWH have a higher likelihood of developing SCA comorbidity than HIV-negative controls (pooled OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.57-4.50, I2 = 74%; 9 studies), even after sensitivity analysis (pooled OR 2.58, 1.54-4.31, 73%). This study suggests a high prevalence and risk of SCA in the global population with HIV. As a result, subclinical carotid atherosclerosis deserves more attention from policymakers, HIV health-care providers, researchers, and stakeholders.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(3): 982-991, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427450

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury is the main factor in acute liver failure. The current study aims to investigate the protection of limonin, an antioxidant compound from citrus fruit, against LPS-induced liver toxicity and elucidate the potential mechanisms. We found that limonin elevated cell viability and reduced LDH release in LPS-treated HepG2 cells. Limonin also inhibited LPS-induced pyroptosis by inhibiting membrane rupture, reducing ROS generation, and decreasing gasdermin D activation. Moreover, limonin inhibited the formation of a NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)/Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) complex by reducing the related protein expression and the colocalization cytosolic of NLRP3 and caspase-1 and then suppressed IL-1ß maturation. Ultimately, we established LPS-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo by using C57BL/6 mice administrated LPS (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally and limonin (50 and 100 mg/kg) orally. We found that limonin dereased the serum ALT and AST activity and LDH release and increased the hepatic GSH amount in LPS-treated mice. Additionally, the liver histological evaluation revealed that limonin protects against LPS-induced liver damage. We further demonstrated that limonin ameliorated LPS-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting pyroptosis via the NLRP3/gasdermin D signaling pathway. In summary, this study uncovered the mechanism whereby limonin mitigated LPS-induced hepatotoxicity and documented that limonin might be a promising candidate drug for LPS-induced hepatotoxicity.

18.
J Bioenerg Biomembr ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462751

RESUMO

MicroRNA-17 (miR-17) was reported to promote cell proliferation and migration of various types of cancers. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This present study was designed to explore the potential mechanism. Downregulation of miR-17 in CAL-27 cells was performed by transfecting anti-miR-27 plasmids. Xenograft tumor model was carried out to detect the effect of inhibition of microRNA-17 on tongue squamous carcinoma growth. MiR-17 inhibition promotes cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating the expression of apoptotic molecules. MiR-17 inhibition promotes cisplatin-induced autophagy of CAL-27 cells. Mechanically, miR-17 inhibition promotes apoptosis and autophagy through STAT3 signaling pathway. Xenograft tumor model showed that miR-17 inhibition attenuates tongue squamous carcinoma growth and promotes tongue squamous carcinoma cell apoptosis in vivo. MiR-17 inhibition enhances cisplatin-induced apoptosis of human tongue squamous carcinoma cell. Our study supplies the evidence that miR-17 may serve as the potential target for human tongue squamous carcinoma treatment.

20.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 3D computer-simulated technology is becoming popular in China. Rhinoplasty with costal cartilage is a good option for Asians. However, the application of 3D imaging in Asian rhinoplasty with costal cartilage has not been systematically assessed. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of 3D imaging in Asian rhinoplasty with costal cartilage. METHODS: In this study, 44 patients were included and randomly divided into 3D and non-3D imaging groups. We performed a prospective survey on the aesthetic scores for preoperative, simulated, and postoperative images and calculated the relative nasal index scores of patients in both groups. Additionally, surveys on satisfactions with surgical outcomes and doctor-patient communication in both groups were conducted. RESULTS: The actual postoperative result was well consistent with the preoperative simulation result. The 3D computer simulation did not impact the satisfaction with surgical outcomes but increased that with doctor-patient communication. The 3D computer-simulated technology was an effective tool for doctor-patient communication and surgery planning in Asian rhinoplasty with costal cartilage. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

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