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1.
Neuron ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619093

RESUMO

The convergent evolution of the fly and mouse olfactory system led us to ask whether the anatomic connectivity and functional logic of olfactory circuits would evolve in artificial neural networks trained to perform olfactory tasks. Artificial networks trained to classify odor identity recapitulate the connectivity inherent in the olfactory system. Input units are driven by a single receptor type, and units driven by the same receptor converge to form a glomerulus. Glomeruli exhibit sparse, unstructured connectivity onto a larger expansion layer of Kenyon cells. When trained to both classify odor identity and to impart innate valence onto odors, the network develops independent pathways for identity and valence classification. Thus, the defining features of fly and mouse olfactory systems also evolved in artificial neural networks trained to perform olfactory tasks. This implies that convergent evolution reflects an underlying logic rather than shared developmental principles.

2.
Cell Cycle ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606419

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable hematological malignancy characterized by proliferation and accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Innovative and effective therapeutic approaches that are able to improve the outcome and the survival of MM sufferers, especially the identification of novel natural compounds and investigation of their anti-MM mechanisms, are needed. Here, we investigated the effects and the potential mechanisms against MM of forskolin, a diterpene derived from the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii, in MM cell line MM.1S. CCK-8 assay showed that forskolin significantly inhibited MM.1S cells viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that forskolin induced G2/M phase arrest with a remarkable increase of p-cdc25c, p-cdc2, and a decrease of cyclin B1, indicating the suppression of cdc25C/cdc2/cyclin B pathway. Moreover, we found that forskolin induced mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis which was accompanied by the increase of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Bim and Bid, the decrease of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, the changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. Of note, we demonstrated that forskolin induced a decrease of p-C-Raf, p-MEK, p-ERK1/2 and p-p90Rsk, and an increase of p-PERK, p-eIF2α and CHOP, which indicated that the inhibition of Raf/MEK/ERK pathway and activation of PERK/eIF2α/CHOP pathway were involved, at least partially, in forskolin-induced MM.1S cells apoptosis. These findings confirm the anti-MM action of forskolin and extend the understanding of its anti-MM mechanism in MM.1S cells, as well as reinforcing the evidence for forskolin as a natural chemotherapeutic compound against MM.

3.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(12): e12153, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623756

RESUMO

Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) fuse with not only the plasma membranes to release extracellular vesicles (EVs) but also lysosomes for degradation. Rab7 participates in the lysosomal targeting of MVBs. However, the proteins on MVB that directly bind Rab7, causing MVB recruitment of Rab7 remain unidentified. Here, we show that Coro1a undergoes neddylation modification at K233 by TRIM4. Neddylated Coro1a is associated with the MVB membrane and facilitates MVB recruitment and activation of Rab7 by directly binding Rab7. Subsequently, MVBs are targeted to lysosomes for degradation in a Rab7-dependent manner, leading to reduced EV secretion. Furthermore, a decrease in neddylated Coro1a enhances the production of tumour EVs, thereby promoting tumour progression, indicating that neddylated Coro1a is an ideal target for the regulation of EV biogenesis. Altogether, our data identify a novel substrate of neddylation and reveal an unknown mechanism for MVB recruitment of Rab7, thus providing new insight into the regulation of EV biogenesis.

4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641100

RESUMO

Cellular media materials are used for automobiles, aircrafts, energy-efficient buildings, transportation, and other fields due to their light weight, designability, and good impact resistance. To devise a buffer structure reasonably and avoid resource and economic loss, it is necessary to completely comprehend the constitutive relationship of the buffer structure. This paper introduces the progress on research of the mechanical properties characterization, constitutive equations, and numerical simulation of porous structures. Currently, various methods can be used to construct cellular media mechanical models including simplified phenomenological constitutive models, homogenization algorithm models, single cell models, and multi-cell models. This paper reviews current key mechanical models for cellular media, attempting to track their evolution from their inception to their latest development. These models are categorized in terms of their mechanical modeling methods. This paper focuses on the importance of constitutive relationships and microstructure models in studying mechanical properties and optimizing structural design. The key issues concerning this topic and future directions for research are also discussed.

5.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 431: 115739, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619160

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers with high mortality and poor prognosis, and the investigation on new approaches and effective drugs for HCC therapy is of great significance. In our study, we demonstrate that treatment with cinobufagin, a natural compound isolated from traditional chinese medicine Chansu, reduces proliferation and the colony formation capacity of the human hepatoma cells in vitro, in addition, cinobufagin induces mitotic arrest in human hepatoma cells. The results of a network pharmacology-based analysis show that EGFR, MAPK1, PTK2, CDK2, MAPK3, ESR1, CDK1, PRKCA, AR, and CSNK2A1 are the key targets involved in the anti-tumor activities of cinobufagin, additionally, several signaling pathways such as proteoglycans in cancer, pathways in cancer, HIF-1 signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathway are identified as the potential pathways involved in the inhibitory effects of cinobufagin against HCC. Furthermore, at the molecular level, we find that cinobufagin decreases EGFR expression and CDK2 activity in human hepatoma cells. Inhibition of EGFR or CDK2 expression could not only suppress the growth of tumor cells but also enhance the inhibitory effects of cinobufagin on the proliferative potential of human hepatoma cells. We also demonstrate that EGFR positively regulates CDK2 expression. Furthermore, EGFR inhibitor gefitinib or CDK2 inhibitor CVT-313 synergistically enhances anticancer effects of cinobufagin in human hepatoma cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that cinobufagin may exert antitumor effects by suppressing EGFR-CDK2 signaling, and our study suggests that cinobufagin may be a novel, promising anticancer agent for the treatment of HCC.

6.
J Control Release ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655677

RESUMO

The combination of nitric oxide (NO) and siRNA is highly desirable for cancer therapy. Here, the furoxans-grafted PEI polymer (FDP) with caspase-3 responsive cleavable DEVD linker was synthesized, and used to bind siRNAs via electrostatic interaction and self-assembled into FDP/siRNA nanoplexes by hydrophobic force. After cellular uptake and lysosomal escape, the FDP/siRNA nanoplexes could achieve GSH-triggered NO release, and then increase the activity of caspase-3. The activated caspase-3 could specifically cleave the DEVD peptide sequence and enhance cell apoptosis. With the cleavage of DEVD peptide sequence, the disassembly of FDP/siRNA nanoplexes was further promoted, thereby resulting in increased siRNAs of ~40% were released at 48 h compared with the caspase-3 non-responsive FDnP/siRNA nanoplexes. By this way, cell apoptosis promotion and cell proliferation inhibition was achieved by siRNA-based downregulation of EGFR protein and the upregulated activity of caspase-3, followed by the enhanced cascade release of NO from FDP/siRNA nanoplexes. Furthermore, in vivo results demonstrated the improved anti-cancer efficiency of FDP/siEGFR nanoplexes without any detectable side effects. Therefore, it is believed that the caspase-3 responsive cleavable furoxans-grafted PEI polymers could provide a potential and efficient enhancement for cancer therapeutic efficiency by the co-delivery of nitric oxide and siRNA.

7.
Arch Virol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595553

RESUMO

There have been five waves of influenza A (H7N9) epidemics in Zhejiang Province between 2013 and 2017. Although the epidemiological characteristics of the five waves have been reported, the molecular genetics aspects, including the phylogeny, evolution, and mutation of hemagglutinin (HA), have not been systematically investigated. A total of 154 H7N9 samples from Zhejiang Province were collected between 2013 and 2017 and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. The starting dates of the waves were 16 March 2013, 1 July 2013, 1 July 2014, 1 July 2015, and 1 July 2016. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and amino acid mutations were counted after the HA sequences were aligned. The evolution of H7N9 matched the temporal order of the five waves, among which wave 3 played an important role. The 55 SNPs and 14 amino acid mutations with high frequency identified among the five waves revealed the dynamic occurrence of mutation in the process of viral dissemination. Wave 3 contributed greatly to the subsequent epidemic of waves 4 and 5 of H7N9. Compared with wave 1, wave 5 was characterized by more mutations, including A143V and R148K, two mutations that have been reported to weaken the immune response. In addition, some amino acid mutations were observed in wave 5 that led to more lineages. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of subsequent H7N9 influenza outbreaks.

8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1183: 338973, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627508

RESUMO

In this study, the application of carbon dots (CDs) modified NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles (UCNPs@CDs) as the fluorescent nanoprobe for simultaneous detection of Fe2+ and Fe3+ was investigated. Fe3+ quantification (5-80 µmol L-1) was achieved, as a result of Fe3+ induced fluorescence quenching of UCNPs@CDs at 434 nm (under the 336 nm excitation). The chelate (Fe2+-phen) formed by Fe2+ and 1,10-phenanthroline had a broad absorption centered at 510 nm, due to inner filter effect (IFE), Fe2+ quantification (4-120 µmol L-1) was achieved as a result of (Fe2+-phen) induced fluorescence quenching of UCNPs@CDs at 545 nm (under the 980 nm excitation). The resultant UCNPs@CDs probe, with excellent anti-interference capability, favorable fluorescence stability, and convincing performance in real sample analysis, showed promising application in simultaneous detection of Fe2+ and Fe3+.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nanopartículas , Íons , Ferro , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5857, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615877

RESUMO

The recently identified G-protein-coupled receptor GPR171 and its ligand BigLEN are thought to regulate food uptake and anxiety. Though GPR171 is commonly used as a T cell signature gene in transcriptomic studies, its potential role in T cell immunity has not been explored. Here we show that GPR171 is transcribed in T cells and its protein expression is induced upon antigen stimulation. The neuropeptide ligand BigLEN interacts with GPR171 to suppress T cell receptor-mediated signalling pathways and to inhibit T cell proliferation. Loss of GPR171 in T cells leads to hyperactivity to antigen stimulation and GPR171 knockout mice exhibit enhanced antitumor immunity. Blockade of GPR171 signalling by an antagonist promotes antitumor T cell immunity and improves immune checkpoint blockade therapies. Together, our study identifies the GPR171/BigLEN axis as a T cell checkpoint pathway that can be modulated for cancer immunotherapy.

10.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664796

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Growing efforts are being invested in investigating various molecular approaches to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) and predict disease recurrence. In our study, we investigated the utility of parallel longitudinal analysis of mutation and DNA methylation profiles for predicting MRD in postoperative non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: Tumor tissues and longitudinal blood samples were obtained from 65 patients with resected stage IA-IIIB NSCLC. Somatic mutation and DNA methylation profiling were performed using ultra-deep targeted sequencing and targeted bisulfite sequencing, respectively. Dynamic changes in plasma-based mutation and tumor-informed methylation profiles, reflected as MRD score, were observed from before surgery (baseline) to postoperative followup, reflecting the decrease in tumor burden of the patients with resected NSCLC. RESULTS: Mutations were detected from plasma samples in 63% of the patients at baseline, which significantly reduced to 23-25% during post-operative follow-ups. MRD score positive rate was 95.7% at baseline, which reduced to 74% at the first and 70% at the second follow-up. Among the 5 relapsed patients with parallel longitudinal analysis of mutation and methylation profile, elevated MRD score was observed at follow-up between 0.5-7 months prior to radiologic recurrence for all 5 patients. Of them, 4 patients also had concomitant increase in allelic fraction of mutations in at least 1 follow-up time point, but one patient had no mutation detected throughout all follow-ups. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that longitudinal profiling of mutation and DNA methylation may have potential for detecting MRD and predicting recurrence in postoperative NSCLC patients.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664947

RESUMO

Neovascularization is crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration and long-term functional restoration. Previous studies have emphasized strategies that enhance axonal repair over vascularization. Here, we describe the development and application of an in situ prevascularization strategy that uses 3D porous nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) to achieve angiogenesis-mediated neural regeneration. The optimal porosity of the NGC is a critical feature for achieving neovascularization and nerve growth patency. Hollow silk fibroin/poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) NGCs with 3D sponge-like walls were fabricated using electrospinning and freeze-drying. In vitro results showed that 3D porous NGC favored cell biocompatibility had neuroregeneration potential and, most importantly, had angiogenic activity. Results from our mechanistic studies suggest that activation of HIF-1α signaling might be associated with this process. We also tested in situ prevascularized 3D porous NGCs in vivo by transplanting them into a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve defect model with the aim of regenerating the severed nerve. The prevascularized 3D porous NGCs greatly enhanced intraneural angiogenesis, resulting in demonstrable neurogenesis. Eight weeks after transplantation, the performance of the prevascularized 3D NGCs was similar to that of traditional autografts in terms of improved anatomical structure, morphology, and neural function. In conclusion, combining a reasonably fabricated 3D-pore conduit structure with in situ prevascularization promoted functional nerve regeneration, suggesting an alternative strategy for achieving functional recovery after peripheral nerve trauma.

12.
Small ; : e2103206, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608755

RESUMO

Morphology and size of the nanoparticles are highly related to the properties; establishing a library to summarize the relationship between the morphology/size and property is very helpful for associated applications. However, the NaYF4 library and thus the correlation between the morphology and property are still absent. Here NaYF4 library is presented and their morphologies and structures are illustrated at atomic scale for the first time. How about the crystal formation affects the morphology is further used to guide the property. Through rational doping, upconversion luminescence, magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography are investigated with the nanoprisms, nanoflowers, and nanoplates as models to reveal the effect of the size and morphology. The difference of the properties provides strong evidence on the importance of the library. In particular, the "imperfect structure" of nanoflower is observed on atomic scale and enhances the MR response. The different upconversion intensity ratio for the emissions at 475 and 693 nm is observed from doped NaYF4 with different morphology. Thus, controllable fabrication of NaYF4 with desired morphology is indispensable to achieve the optimal properties as the guidance on how to choose matrix from the library to meet the specific applications.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 736484, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621258

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus, a vector that can transmit many pathogens to humans and domestic animals, is widely distributed in Yunnan province, China. However, few reports on the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in Rh. microplus in Yunnan are available. The aim of this study was to detect TBPs in Rh. microplus in Yunnan and to analyze the phylogenetic characterization of TBPs detected in these ticks. The adult Rh. microplus (n = 516) feeding on cattle were collected. The pooled DNA samples of these ticks were evaluated using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and then TBPs in individual ticks were identified using genus- or group-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with DNA sequencing assay. As a result, Candidatus Rickettsia jingxinensis (24.61%, 127/516), Anaplasma marginale (13.18%, 68/516), Coxiella burnetii (3.10%, 16/516), and Coxiella-like endosymbiont (CLE) (8.33%, 43/516) were detected. The dual coinfection with Ca. R. jingxinensis and A. marginale and the triple coinfection with Ca. R. jingxinensis, A. marginale, and CLE were most frequent and detected in 3.68% (19/516) and 3.10% (16/516) of these ticks, respectively. The results provide insight into the diversity of TBPs and their coinfections in Rh. microplus in Yunnan province of China, reporting for the first time that C. burnetii had been found in Rh. microplus in China. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis with 6 loci (MLVA-6) discriminated the C. burnetii detected in Rh. microplus in Yunnan into MLVA genotype 1, which is closely related to previously described genotypes found primarily in tick and human samples from different regions of the globe, indicating a potential public health threat posed by C. burnetii in Rh. microplus in Yunnan.

15.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 261, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare inflammatory arthritis, with a higher incidence of malignancy. The aim of this study is to identify biomarkers for predicting malignancy in RS3PE. METHODS: A total of 51 patients with RS3PE from September 2007 to May 2019 were retrospectively reviewed and followed for up to 5 years, with 15 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and 14 patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) as disease controls. Serum levels of angiogenesis cytokines were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay and Luminex Human Magnetic Assay. Clinical data and laboratory parameters were analyzed to identify risk factors for malignancy. RESULTS: A total of forty-eight RS3PE patients (94.1%) were available with follow-up data; 8 patients (16.7%) were diagnosed with malignancy, of which 6 patients were hematological tumor; and 2 patients were solid tumors. Serum levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were exclusively higher in RS3PE patients with malignancy [14.21 (7.52, 23.18) ng/mL] than RS3PE patients without malignancy [4.32 (2.88, 7.42) ng/mL], OA [3.20 (2.20, 5.30) ng/mL], and EORA [3.20 (2.20, 5.30) ng/mL]. The optimal cut-off value of bFGF for malignancy was 10ng/mL in RS3PE. Logistic regression analysis indicated that elevation of bFGF was a risk factor for malignancy in RS3PE. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that bFGF was elevated in RS3PE patients with malignancy and could serve as a biomarker for predicting paraneoplastic RS3PE.

16.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 432: 115737, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662668

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most harmful environmental pollutants and has been found to have adverse effects on the gut. However, the toxic effects and potential mechanism of Cd on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are poorly understood. This study evaluated the effects of Cd exposure (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 µM) on IEC-6 cells in terms of cell viability and apoptosis, as well as apoptosis-associated gene expression. The results indicated that low doses (0.25- 1 µM) of Cd exhibited hormetic effects, while high doses of Cd (2 and 4 µM) reduced cell viability. The apoptotic effect increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase 3 genes were altered, which was in agreement with their protein expression. Based on sequencing analysis, the expression pattern of the microRNAs (miRNAs) changed significantly in the 2 µM Cd-treated group. QRT-PCR verified that 7 miRNAs, including miR-124-3p and miR-370-3p, were all upregulated with dose-effect relationship. Besides, transfection of miR-124-3p and miR-370-3p mimics /inhibitor and Bcl-2 siRNA into IEC-6 cells verified that these two miRNAs could regulate Cd-induced apoptosis by targeting Bcl-2. Finally, the direct targeting relationship between miR-370-3p and Bcl-2 gene was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Overall, the results demonstrated that Cd exposure could induce apoptosis in IEC-6 cells. The potential mechanism may be interference with the regulation of Bcl-2 gene expression by miR-370-3p and miR-124-3p.

17.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(6)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608504

RESUMO

Angina pectoris is cardiac pain that is a common clinical symptom often resulting from myocardial ischemia. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is effective in treating refractory angina pectoris, but its underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The spinal dorsal horn is the first region of the central nervous system that receives nociceptive information; it is also the target of SCS. In the spinal cord, glial (astrocytes and microglia) activation is involved in the initiation and persistence of chronic pain. Thus, the present study investigated the possible cardiac pain­relieving effects of SCS on spinal dorsal horn glia in chronic myocardial ischemia (CMI). CMI was established by left anterior descending artery ligation surgery, which induced significant spontaneous/ongoing cardiac pain behaviors, as measured using the open field test in rats. SCS effectively improved such behaviors as shown by open field and conditioned place preference tests in CMI model rats. SCS suppressed CMI­induced spinal dorsal horn microglial activation, with downregulation of ionized calcium­binding adaptor protein­1 expression. Moreover, SCS inhibited CMI­induced spinal expression of phosphorylated­p38 MAPK, which was specifically colocalized with the spinal dorsal horn microglia rather than astrocytes and neurons. Furthermore, SCS could depress spinal neuroinflammation by suppressing CMI­induced IL­1ß and TNF­α release. Intrathecal administration of minocycline, a microglial inhibitor, alleviated the cardiac pain behaviors in CMI model rats. In addition, the injection of fractalkine (microglia­activating factor) partially reversed the SCS­produced analgesic effects on CMI­induced cardiac pain. These results indicated that the therapeutic mechanism of SCS on CMI may occur partially through the inhibition of spinal microglial p38 MAPK pathway activation. The present study identified a novel mechanism underlying the SCS­produced analgesic effects on chronic cardiac pain.

18.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(10): 2096-2104, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the disease progression of Parkinson's disease patients with subjective cognitive complaint (PD-SCC). This longitudinal cohort study aims to compare the progression of clinical features and quality of life (QoL) in PD patients with normal cognition (NC), SCC, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: A total of 383 PD patients were enrolled, including 189 PD-NC patients, 59 PD-SCC patients, and 135 PD-MCI patients, with 1-7 years of follow-up. Linear mixed models were applied to evaluate longitudinal changes in motor symptoms, nonmotor features (cognitive impairment, depression, and excessive daytime sleepiness), and QoL in PD. RESULTS: At baseline, PD-SCC patients had lower Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) scores than PD-NC patients (all p < 0.05). Longitudinal analyses revealed that the PD-SCC group exhibited faster progression in terms of BDI scores (p = 0.042) and PDQ-39 scores (p = 0.035) than the PD-NC group. The PD-MCI group exhibited faster progression rates in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores (p = 0.001) and PDQ-39 scores (p = 0.005) than the PD-NC group. In addition, the PD-SCC group exhibited a greater reduction in attention (Trail Making Test Part A, p = 0.047) and executive function (Stroop Color-Word Test, p = 0.037) than the PD-NC group. INTERPRETATION: PD-SCC patients exhibited faster deterioration of depression and QoL than PD-NC patients, and SCC may be an indicator of initial attention and executive function decline in PD. Our findings provided a more accurate prognosis in PD-SCC patients.

19.
Free Radic Res ; : 1-14, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670466

RESUMO

Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) represents a noninvasive therapeutic method via the activation of certain chemical sensitizers using low intensity ultrasound to generate various reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, we conducted systematic experiments to evaluate the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS) mediated SDT (DVDMS-SDT). We found that the fluorescence intensities of H2O2 specific probe BES-H2O2 and Amplex Red increased significantly exposure to DVDMS-SDT while decreased with the introduction of catalase (H2O2 scavenger), indicating the production of H2O2. And the fluorescence intensity of H2O2 susceptible probes were positively correlated with DVDMS concentration, ultrasound intensity and irradiation time. Under the same molarity concentration, DVDMS has advantages over proto-porphyrin IX (PpIX) and hemoporrin monomethyl ether (HMME) in H2O2 production, indicating that the yield of H2O2 depends on the properties of sensitizer. More importantly, DVDMS-SDT is involved in the process of H2O2 even in the oxygen-free condition, showing its greater superiority for the treatment of tumor under hypoxia environment.

20.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112016, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509485

RESUMO

This study was carried out to determine the effect of influent nitrate loading on nitrite accumulation during elemental-sulfur based denitrification process, and proposed to enhance the nitrogen removal efficiency by mitigating nitrite accumulation with thiosulfate as external electron donor. Along with increasing the nitrate influent loading (from 0.09 kg N/m3/d to 1.73 kg N/m3/d) by shortening the empty bed contact time (EBCT) (from 5 h to 0.25 h), the nitrate removal loading increased from 0.08 to 0.83 kg N/m3/d. Meanwhile, the raise of the nitrate influent loading obviously aggravated the nitrite accumulation. Herein, nitrite began to accumulate since the nitrate influent loading was over 0.86 kg N/m3/d, and a maximum nitrite accumulation of 2.39 mg/L was observed under the 0.25 h of EBCT and 15 mg/L of nitrate influent concentration condition. Thiosulfate was used as the external electron donor to accelerate the nitrite reduction rate in order to mitigate the nitrite accumulation. As a result, the nitrite accumulation significantly decreased from 2.39 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L with the thiosulfate dosage of 13.36 mg/L. However, the nitrite accumulation bounced with the on-going increase of the thiosulfate dosage, indicating that the nitrate reduction rate and nitrite reduction rate were accelerated alternatively. After dosing thiosulfate, the relative abundances of sulfurimonas and ferritrophicum grew up significantly.

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