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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134881, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710900

RESUMO

During unplanned indirect potable reuse, treated wastewater that contains effluent organic matter (EOM) enters the drinking water source, resulting in different toxicity from natural organic matter (NOM) in surface water during chlorination. This study found that, during chlorination, EOM formed more total organic halogen (TOX) and highly toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (DBPs) like dichloroacetonitrile and trichloronitromethane than NOM did. Oxidative stress including both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells substantially increased when exposed to chlorinated EOM and chlorinated NOM. The excessive ROS damaged biological macromolecules including DNA, RNA to form 8-hydroxy-(deoxy)guanosine and proteins to form protein carbonyls. Impaired macromolecule further triggered cell cycle arrest at the S and G2 phases, led to cell apoptosis and eventual necrosis. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of chlorinated EOM were both higher than those of chlorinated NOM. Adding the blocker L-buthionine-sulfoximine of intracellular antioxidant glutathione demonstrating that oxidative stress might be responsible for toxicity. ROS was further identified to be the main cause of toxicity induction. These findings highlight the risk from chlorinated EOM in the case of unplanned indirect potable reuse, because it showed higher level of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than chlorinated NOM via inducing more ROS in mammalian cells.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134891, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726409

RESUMO

In the leachate system, Ca-Al-LDH was synthesized in situ by adding calcium aluminum material (AC) and Ca (OH)2. In the process of synthesis, the removal efficiencies of UV254, COD and TOC in the leachate reached 85.51%, 73.85% and 74.71%, respectively, and the organic matter could be effectively removed. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) characterization analysis displayed that when AC and Ca (OH)2 were added at a ratio of 3:1, Ca-Al-LDH could be synthesized efficiently. The effect of this method on the removal of pollutants in leachate was better than that of Ca-Al-LDH. EEM (Excitation Emission Matrix) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer) characterization analysis showed that these results could be attributed to the coagulation of calcium aluminum material AC, LDH surface adsorption and ion exchange.

3.
Telemed J E Health ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794684

RESUMO

Background: Since 1990s, directly observed therapy (DOT) has been the standard-of-care for tuberculosis (TB), although it is cumbersome for patients as well as service providers. For raising implementation, an alternative delivery method with good potential is telehealth. The current study assessed the clinical and cost benefit of video directly observed therapy (VDOT), compared with DOT service. Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial randomized adults with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB to the intervention (VDOT) or control (DOT) group. The observation data for DOT and VDOT were updated by observers until the end of treatment or until the study concluded. The primary outcome was the TB treatment result defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as used in some other studies conducted in North India and England as follows: good (cured and treatment completed), poor (death and failure), relocation, and lost to follow-up and others (refused, adverse reaction, not a TB case). Other secondary measures were treatment adherence, patient satisfaction, time and cost spent on DOT or VDOT. Results: On analyzing the results from 405 participants from each study arm, we found very high rates of treatment completion (96.1% with VDOT vs. 94.6% with DOT). The two observed treatment methods had no statistical differences, and all could accomplish their tasks well. Average time per dose observed was 16.5 min (standard deviation [SD] 12.1) for VDOT, while 44.1 min (SD 3.7) for DOT (including travel time), p < 0.01. And the cost incurred on VDOT was ï¿¥34.3 (SD 3.8) manmo, which was statistically lower compared with ï¿¥71.6 (SD 49.7) manmo in the DOT group, p < 0.01. Most of the patients in both groups believed that observed treatment (VDOT/DOT) helped them not to miss doses (185 [93.0%] vs. 171 [86.7%], p = 0.057). Patients in the VDOT group had a better experience compared with those in DOT group. They thought the way was convenient and comfortable (191 [96.0%] vs. 111 [56.6%], p < 0.001), would choose the original way if necessary (191 [96.0%] vs. 113 [57.7%], p < 0.001), and would recommend the method to other patients (191 [96.0%] vs. 113 [57.7%], p < 0.001). Conclusion: The study showed that VDOT enabled meaningful direct observation for TB patients through mobile devices, which was highly acceptable to patients and health care providers. It also saved time and is a cost-effective method, enabling the use of the saved money to other much-needed areas for TB.

5.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112212, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785552

RESUMO

Phenylpropanoids comprise a broad spectrum of biologically active natural products. As part of our ongoing research on antiepileptic active compounds from traditional Chinese herb, Acorus calamus var. angustatus Besser, three undescribed phenylpropanoids and twenty-two known ones were isolated. All the undescribed structures were determined by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS. In addition, γ-asaronol was identified as racemates and its absolute configuration were determined by the modified Mosher's method and ECD spectral data. Furthermore, some selected isolated compounds were evaluated for their cell viability and neuroprotective activities in H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cells. α-Asaronol, ß-asaronol, 3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propan-1-ol and 1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-(3-methoxypropyl)benzene exerted potential protective activity from neuronal oxidative stress in all test concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 µM, in which the neuroprotective activity of ß-asaronol was the best.

6.
Biomark Med ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789049

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the expression of circulating miR-208b and miR-499 and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Materials & methods: A total of 160 consecutive patients with ACS and 48 healthy control subjects were enrolled for primary analysis. The ACS patients (n = 160) were followed up for 6 months for further analysis regarding major adverse cardiac events. Results: Area under the curve values of miR-208b and miR-499 for predicting ACS were 0.910 and 0.851 (p < 0.001, respectively). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that miR-208b but not miR-499 was an independent predictor of major adverse cardiac events. Conclusion: Circulating miR-208b and miR-499 could be considered as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for patients with ACS.

7.
Oncogene ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801973

RESUMO

PINCH-1 is a cytoplasmic component of the cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion machine that is frequently overexpressed in cancer. The functions and mechanism of PINCH-1 in cancer, however, remain to be determined. Here, we show that PINCH-1 interacts with myoferlin, a transmembrane protein that is critical for cancer progression. High expression of both PINCH-1 and myoferlin correlates with poor clinical outcome in human breast cancer patients. Ablation of PINCH-1 from breast cancer cells diminished myoferlin level and suppressed breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and endothelial cell tube formation in vitro and breast tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, PINCH-1 controls myoferlin level through its interaction with myoferlin and regulation of its ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Functionally, re-expression of PINCH-1, but not that of a myoferlin-binding defectiveΔLIM2 mutant, effectively reversed the inhibition of myoferlin expression and breast cancer progression induced by loss of PINCH-1. Finally, restoration of myoferlin expression was sufficient to reverse PINCH-1-deficiency induced inhibition on breast cancer progression. These results reveal a PINCH-1-myoferlin signaling axis that is critical for breast cancer progression and suggest a new strategy for therapeutic control of breast cancer.

8.
Biomarkers ; : 1-6, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762333

RESUMO

Background: Permethrin is a type of widely used pyrethroid pesticide. Although acute toxicity of permethrin has been well-characterised, the non-acute toxicity of permethrin upon long-term exposure at low dose has been seldom studied yet. The current study investigates the time-course change of the metabolomic profiles of urine following the low level long-term exposure of permethrin and identified biomarkers of the chronic toxicity of permethrin.Methods: Male Wistar rats were administrated orally with permethrin (75 mg/kg body weight/day, 1/20 LD50) daily for consecutive 90 days. The urine samples from day 30, day 60, and day 90 after the first dosing were collected and analysed by 1H NMR spectrometry. Serum biochemical analysis was also carried out.Results: Permethrin caused significant changes in the urine metabolites such as taurine, creatinine, acetate, lactate, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide. These biological markers indicated prominent kidney and liver toxicity induced by permethrin. However, there was no change in serum biochemical parameters for the toxicity, indicating that metabolomic approach was much more sensitive in detecting the chronic toxicity.Conclusion: The time-course alteration of metabolomic profiles of the urine based on 1H NMR reflects the progressive development of the chronic toxicity with the long-term low-level exposure of permethrin.

9.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4583-4595, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675075

RESUMO

Purpose: Trabecular meshwork (TM) cells detect and coordinate responses to intraocular pressure (IOP) in the eye. TM cells become dysfunctional in glaucoma where IOP is often elevated. Recently, we showed that normal TM (NTM) cells communicate by forming tubular connections called tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). Here, we investigated TNTs in glaucomatous TM (GTM) cells. Methods: Primary GTM and NTM cells were established from cadaver eyes. Transfer of Vybrant DiO and DiD-labeled vesicles via TNT connections was measured. Imaris software measured the number and length of cell protrusions from immunofluorescent confocal images. Live-cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton was performed. The distribution of myosin-X, a regulator of TNTs/filopodia, was investigated in TM cells and tissue. Results: GTM cells contained significantly more transferred fluorescent vesicles than NTM cells (49.6% vs. 35%). Although NTM cells had more protrusions at the cell surface than GTM cells (7.61 vs. 4.65 protrusions/cell), GTM protrusions were significantly longer (12.1 µm vs. 9.76 µm). Live-cell imaging demonstrated that the GTM actin cytoskeleton was less dynamic, and vesicle transfer between cells was significantly slower than NTM cells. Furthermore, rearrangement of the actin cortex adjacent to the TNT may influence TNT formation. Myosin-X immunostaining was punctate and disorganized in GTM cells and tissue compared to age-matched NTM controls. Conclusions: Together, our data demonstrate that GTM cells have phenotypic and functional differences in their TNTs. Significantly slower vesicle transfer via TNTs in GTM cells may delay the timely propagation of cellular signals when pressures become elevated in glaucoma.

10.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694931

RESUMO

Metastasis accounts for 90% of deaths caused by solid tumors, but the multitude of mechanisms underlying tumor metastasis remains poorly understood. CARMIL1 and 2 proteins are capping protein (CP) interactants and multidomain regulators of actin-based mobility. However, CARMIL3's function has not been explored. Through bioinformatic metadata analysis, we find that high CARMIL3 expression correlates with poor survival of patients with breast and prostate cancer. Functional studies in murine and xenograft tumor models by targeted diminution of CARMIL3 expression or forced expression demonstrate that CARMIL3 is vitally important for tumor metastasis, especially for metastatic colonization. Consistent with a predominantly cell-intrinsic mode of action, CARMIL3 is also crucial for tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro. Coimmunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometric analyses identifies a group of CARMIL3-interacting proteins, including capping protein, that are involved in actin cytoskeletal organization, which is required for cell polarization and focal adhesion formation. Moreover, molecular pathway enrichment analysis reveals that lack of CARMIL3 leads to loss of cell adhesions and low CARMIL3 expression in breast cancer patient specimens is implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We also find that CARMIL3 sustains adherens junction between tumor cells. This is accomplished by CARMIL3 maintaining E-cadherin transcription downstream of HDACs through inhibiting ZEB2 protein level, also via protecting ß-catenin from ubiquitination-mediated degradation initiated by the destruction complex. IMPLICATIONS: This study uncovers CARMIL3 as a novel and critical regulator of metastatic progression of cancers and suggests therapeutic potentials to target CARMIL3.

11.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 11-21, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711802

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver injury (ALI) is a part of alcohol-related liver diseases. These diseases include steatohepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accumulating data indicates that alcohol metabolism and circulating endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to macrophage activation, which leads to the development of ALI. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been shown to be involved in many tissue inflammations as well as liver fibrosis; however, the role of PTP1B in ALI is still unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was elevated in liver tissues and primary macrophages isolated from EtOH-fed mice. Moreover, PTP1B expression was elevated in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with alcohol and LPS. Additional studies showed that silencing of PTP1B reduced the inflammatory response and expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, while overexpression of PTP1B induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, we found that NF-κB pathway was activated in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with alcohol and LPS, and PTP1B silencing or overexpression could regulate NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, this study revealed the function of PTP1B in ALI via its regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and may provide theoretical support for further research on ALI.

12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 526, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plant science, the study of salinity tolerance is crucial to improving plant growth and productivity under saline conditions. Since quantile regression is a more robust, comprehensive and flexible method of statistical analysis than the commonly used mean regression methods, we applied a set of quantile analysis methods to barley field data. We use univariate and bivariate quantile analysis methods to study the effect of plant traits on yield and salinity tolerance at different quantiles. RESULTS: We evaluate the performance of barley accessions under fresh and saline water using quantile regression with covariates such as flowering time, ear number per plant, and grain number per ear. We identify the traits affecting the accessions with high yields, such as late flowering time has a negative impact on yield. Salinity tolerance indices evaluate plant performance under saline conditions relative to control conditions, so we identify the traits affecting the accessions with high values of indices using quantile regression. It was observed that an increase in ear number per plant and grain number per ear in saline conditions increases the salinity tolerance of plants. In the case of grain number per ear, the rate of increase being higher for plants with high yield than plants with average yield. Bivariate quantile analysis methods were used to link the salinity tolerance index with plant traits, and it was observed that the index remains stable for earlier flowering times but declines as the flowering time decreases. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis has revealed new dimensions of plant responses to salinity that could be relevant to salinity tolerance. Use of univariate quantile analyses for quantifying yield under both conditions facilitates the identification of traits affecting salinity tolerance and is more informative than mean regression. The bivariate quantile analyses allow linking plant traits to salinity tolerance index directly by predicting the joint distribution of yield and it also allows a nonlinear relationship between the yield and plant traits.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16989, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740703

RESUMO

As a major kind of carbamate insecticide, propoxur plays an important role in agriculture, veterinary medicine, and public health. The acute toxicity of propoxur is mainly neurotoxicity due to the inhibition of cholinesterase. However, little is known regarding the toxicity of propoxur upon long-term exposure at low dose. In this study, Wistar rats were orally administrated with low dose (4.25 mg/kg body weight/day) for consecutive 90 days. And the urine samples in rats treated with propoxur for 30, 60, and 90 days were collected and analyzed by employing 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. We found that propoxur caused significant changes in the urine metabolites, including taurine, creatinine, citrate, succinate, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide. And the alteration of the metabolites was getting more difference compared with that of the control as the exposure time extending. The present study not only indicated that the changed metabolites could be used as biomarkers of propoxur-induced toxicity but also suggested that the time-course alteration of the urine metabolomic profiles could reflect the progressive development of the toxicity following propoxur exposure.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1115, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the prognostic value of MR apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) using histogram analysis (HA) in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) of cervical cancer after chemo-radiation therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 103 women with pathologically proven squamous cell uterine cancer who received chemo-radiation therapy between 2009 and 2013. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. Pre-treatment MR images were retrieved and imported for HA using an in-house developed software program based on 3D Slicer. Regions of interest of whole tumors were drawn manually on DWI with reference to T2WI. HA features (mean, max, min, 50, 10, 90%, kurtosis, and skewness) were extracted from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and compared between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups after the 2-year follow-up. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to correlate ADC HA features and relevant clinical variables (age, grade, maximal diameter of tumor, FIGO stage, SCC-Ag) with DFS. RESULTS: One hundred three patients with stage IB-IV cervical cancers were followed up for 2.0-94.6 months (median 48.9 months). Twenty patients developed recurrence within 2 years. In the recurrence group, the min (P = 0.001) and 10% (P = 0.048) ADC values were significantly lower than those of the non-recurrence group. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that ADCmin (P = 0.006, HR = 0.110) was significantly correlated with DFS. CONCLUSION: Pre-treatment volumetric ADCmin in histogram analysis is an independent factor that is correlated with DFS in cervical cancer patients treated with chemo-radiation therapy.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(12): 893, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772150

RESUMO

Cell death plays a pivotal role in animal development and tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of this process is associated with a wide variety of human diseases, including developmental and immunological disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. While the fundamental role of JNK pathway in cell death has been extensively studied, its down-stream regulators and the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. From a Drosophila genetic screen, we identified Snail (Sna), a Zinc-finger transcription factor, as a novel modulator of ectopic Egr-induced JNK-mediated cell death. In addition, sna is essential for the physiological function of JNK signaling in development. Our genetic epistasis data suggest that Sna acts downstream of JNK to promote cell death. Mechanistically, JNK signaling triggers dFoxO-dependent transcriptional activation of sna. Thus, our findings not only reveal a novel function and the underlying mechanism of Sna in modulating JNK-mediated cell death, but also provide a potential drug target and therapeutic strategies for JNK signaling-related diseases.

16.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(11): 742, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686237

RESUMO

Cellulose paper was coated with the metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) in a chitosan matrix and utilized for thin-film microextraction (TFME). The coated paper possesses excellent extraction efficiency for the triazine herbicides atraton, desmetryn, secbumeton, prometon, ametryn, dipropetryn, and dimethametryn. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to quantify target analytes. The effects of mass ratio of MIL-101(Cr) to chitosan, sample pH value, time of adsorption and desorption, and type and volume of desorption solvent on extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method has limits of detection between 1.5 and 22 ng·L-1. The recoveries of triazines from spiked tap water, drinking water, lake water and river water range from 77.0 to 125.3%, with relative standard deviations of <17.4%. Graphical abstract Cellulose paper was modified with metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr)/chitosan by using a simple, efficient and environmentally friendly approach. The modified cellulose paper was then used as a novel extraction phase in thin-film microextraction (TFME).

17.
Theranostics ; 9(25): 7648-7665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695792

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) has emerged as a key event in tumor development and microenvironment formation. However, comprehensive analysis of AS and its clinical significance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) is urgently required. Methods: Genome-wide profiling of AS events using RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program was performed in a cohort of 464 patients with HNSC. Cancer-associated AS events (CASEs) were identified between paired HNSC and adjacent normal tissues and evaluated in functional enrichment analysis. Splicing networks and prognostic models were constructed using bioinformatics tools. Unsupervised clustering of the CASEs identified was conducted and associations with clinical, molecular and immune features were analyzed. Results: We detected a total of 32,309 AS events and identified 473 CASEs in HNSC; among these, 91 were validated in an independent cohort (n = 15). Functional protein domains were frequently altered, especially by CASEs affecting cancer drivers, such as PCSK5. CASE parent genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to HNSC and the tumor immune microenvironment, such as the viral carcinogenesis (FDR < 0.001), Human Papillomavirus infection (FDR < 0.001), chemokine (FDR < 0.001) and T cell receptor (FDR < 0.001) signaling pathways. CASEs enriched in immune-related pathways were closely associated with immune cell infiltration and cytolytic activity. AS regulatory networks suggested a significant association between splicing factor (SF) expression and CASEs and might be regulated by SF methylation. Eighteen CASEs were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall and disease-free survival. Unsupervised clustering analysis revealed distinct correlations between AS-based clusters and prognosis, molecular characteristics and immune features. Immunogenic features and immune subgroups cooperatively depict the immune features of AS-based clusters. Conclusion: This comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the AS landscape in HNSC revealed novel AS events related to carcinogenesis and immune microenvironment, with implications for prognosis and therapeutic responses.

18.
Adv Mater ; : e1903945, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746050

RESUMO

Silicon and other inorganic semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been extensively investigated in the last two decades for constructing high-performance nanoelectronics, sensors, and optoelectronics. For many of these applications, these tiny building blocks have to be integrated into the existing planar electronic platform, where precise location, orientation, and layout controls are indispensable. In the advent of More-than-Moore's era, there are also emerging demands for a programmable growth engineering of the geometry, composition, and line-shape of NWs on planar or out-of-plane 3D sidewall surfaces. Here, the critical technologies established for synthesis, transferring, and assembly of NWs upon planar surface are examined; then, the recent progress of in-plane growth of horizontal NWs directly upon crystalline or patterned substrates, constrained by using nanochannels, an epitaxial interface, or amorphous thin film precursors is discussed. Finally, the unique capabilities of planar growth of NWs in achieving precise guided growth control, programmable geometry, composition, and line-shape engineering are reviewed, followed by their latest device applications in building high-performance field-effect transistors, photodetectors, stretchable electronics, and 3D stacked-channel integration.

19.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 204, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain innate immunity is vital for maintaining normal brain functions. Immune homeostatic imbalances play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the regulation of brain innate immunity and their significance in PD pathogenesis are still largely unknown. METHODS: Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR) and diphtheria toxin-mediated cell ablation was performed to investigate the impact of neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) glia on the brain innate immunity. RNA sequencing analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed genes in mouse brain with ablated NG2 glia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice were used to evaluate neuroinflammatory response in the presence or absence of NG2 glia. The survival of dopaminergic neurons or glial cell activation was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Co-cultures of NG2 glia and microglia were used to examine the influence of NG2 glia to microglial activation. RESULTS: We show that NG2 glia are required for the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the brain via transforming growth factor-ß2 (TGF-ß2)-TGF-ß type II receptor (TGFBR2)-CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling, which suppresses the activation of microglia. We demonstrate that mice with ablated NG2 glia display a profound downregulation of the expression of microglia-specific signature genes and remarkable inflammatory response in the brain following exposure to endotoxin lipopolysaccharides. Gain- or loss-of-function studies show that NG2 glia-derived TGF-ß2 and its receptor TGFBR2 in microglia are key regulators of the CX3CR1-modulated immune response. Furthermore, deficiency of NG2 glia contributes to neuroinflammation and nigral dopaminergic neuron loss in MPTP-induced mouse PD model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that NG2 glia play a critical role in modulation of neuroinflammation and provide a compelling rationale for the development of new therapeutics for neurological disorders.

20.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 117: 105639, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669139

RESUMO

The main event in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis is the appearance of myofibroblasts. Recent evidence supports pericytes as a major source of myofibroblasts. TGFß/Smad2/3 and PDGF/Erk signaling pathways are important for regulating pericyte activation. Previous studies have demonstrated that PDGFßR and TGFßR are modified by core fucosylation (CF) catalyzed by α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of inhibiting CF versus the PDGFßR and TGFßR signaling pathways on pericyte activation and lung fibrosis. FUT8shRNA was used to knock down FUT8-mediated CF both in vivo and in isolated lung pericytes. The small molecule receptor antagonists, ST1571 (imatinib) and LY2109761, were used to block the PDGFß/pErk and TGFß/pSmad2/3 signaling pathways, respectively. Pericyte detachment and myofibroblastic transformation were assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings demonstrate that FUT8shRNA significantly blocked pericyte activation and the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, achieving intervention effects superior to the small molecule inhibitors. The PDGFß and TGFß pathways were simultaneously affected by the CF blockade. FUT8 expression was upregulated with the transformation of pericytes into myofibroblasts, and silencing FUT8 expression inhibited this transformation. In addition, there is a causal relationship between CF modification catalyzed by FUT8 and pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings suggest that FUT8 may be a novel therapeutic target for pulmonary fibrosis.

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