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1.
iScience ; 25(5): 104195, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35479402

RESUMO

Archaeological and paleontological records offer tremendous yet often untapped potential for examining long-term biodiversity trends and the impact of climate change and human activity on ecosystems. Yet, zooarchaeological and fossil remains suffer various limitations, including that they are often highly fragmented and morphologically unidentifiable, preventing them from being optimally leveraged for addressing fundamental research questions in archaeology, paleontology, and conservation paleobiology. Here, we explore the potential of palaeoproteomics-the study of ancient proteins-to serve as a critical tool for creating richer, more informative datasets about biodiversity change that can be leveraged to generate more realistic, constructive, and effective conservation and restoration strategies into the future.

2.
Curr Biol ; 32(4): R181-R196, 2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231416

RESUMO

Two major environmental challenges of our time are responding to climate change and reversing biodiversity decline. Interventions that simultaneously tackle both challenges are highly desirable. To date, most studies aiming to find synergistic interventions for these two challenges have focused on protecting or restoring vegetation and soils but overlooked how conservation or restoration of large wild animals might influence the climate mitigation and adaptation potential of ecosystems. However, interactions between large animal conservation and climate change goals may not always be positive. Here, we review wildlife conservation and climate change mitigation in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. We elucidate general principles about the biome types where, and mechanisms by which, positive synergies and negative trade-offs between wildlife conservation and climate change mitigation are likely. We find that large animals have the greatest potential to facilitate climate change mitigation at a global scale via three mechanisms: changes in fire regime, especially in previously low-flammability biomes with a new or intensifying fire regime, such as mesic grasslands or warm temperate woodlands; changes in terrestrial albedo, particularly where there is potential to shift from closed canopy to open canopy systems at higher latitudes; and increases in vegetation and soil carbon stocks, especially through a shift towards below-ground carbon pools in temperate, tropical and sub-tropical grassland ecosystems. Large animals also contribute to ecosystem adaptation to climate change by promoting complexity of trophic webs, increasing habitat heterogeneity, enhancing plant dispersal, increasing resistance to abrupt ecosystem change and through microclimate modification.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Carbono , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Solo
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(11): 3683-3693, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246902

RESUMO

Humans have reshaped the distribution of biodiversity across the globe, extirpating species from regions otherwise suitable and restricting populations to a subset of their original ranges. Here, we ask if anthropogenic range contractions since the Late Pleistocene led to an under-representation of the realized niches for megafauna, an emblematic group of taxa often targeted for restoration actions. Using reconstructions of past geographic distributions (i.e., natural ranges) for 146 extant terrestrial large-bodied (>44 kg) mammals, we estimate their climatic niches as if they had retained their original distributions and evaluate their observed niche dynamics. We found that range contractions led to a sizeable under-representation of the realized niches of several species (i.e., niche unfilling). For 29 species, more than 10% of the environmental space once seen in their natural ranges has been lost due to anthropogenic activity, with at least 12 species undergoing reductions of more than 50% of their realized niches. Eighteen species may now be confined to low-suitability locations, where fitness and abundance are likely diminished; we consider these taxa 'climatic refugees'. For those species, conservation strategies supported by current ranges risk being misguided if current, suboptimal habitats are considered baseline for future restoration actions. Because most climate-based biodiversity forecasts rely exclusively on current occurrence records, we went on to test the effect of neglecting historical information on estimates of species' potential distribution - as a proxy of sensitivity to climate change. We found that niche unfilling driven by past range contraction leads to an overestimation of sensitivity to future climatic change, resulting in 50% higher rates of global extinction, and underestimating the potential for megafauna conservation and restoration under future climate change. In conclusion, range contractions since the Late Pleistocene have also left imprints on megafauna realized climatic niches. Therefore, niche truncation driven by defaunation can directly affect climate and habitat-based conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Mudança Climática , Previsões , Humanos , Mamíferos
4.
Ecol Lett ; 25(5): 1250-1262, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275608

RESUMO

Islands frequently harbour unique assemblages of species, yet their ecological roles and differences are largely ignored in island biogeography studies. Here, we examine eco-evolutionary processes structuring mammal assemblages on oceanic islands worldwide, including all extant and extinct late-Quaternary mammal species. We find island mammal assemblages tend to be phylogenetically clustered (share more recent evolutionary histories), with clustering increasing with island area and isolation. We also observe that mammal assemblages often tend to be functionally clustered (share similar traits), but the strength of clustering is weak and generally independent from island area or isolation. These findings indicate the important roles of in situ speciation and dispersal filtering in shaping island mammal assemblages under pre-anthropogenic conditions, notably through adaptive radiation of a few clades (e.g. bats, with generally high dispersal abilities). Our study demonstrates that considering the functional and phylogenetic axes of diversity can better reveal the eco-evolutionary processes of island community assembly.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Ilhas , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101981

RESUMO

One of the most fundamental questions in ecology is how many species inhabit the Earth. However, due to massive logistical and financial challenges and taxonomic difficulties connected to the species concept definition, the global numbers of species, including those of important and well-studied life forms such as trees, still remain largely unknown. Here, based on global ground-sourced data, we estimate the total tree species richness at global, continental, and biome levels. Our results indicate that there are ∼73,000 tree species globally, among which ∼9,000 tree species are yet to be discovered. Roughly 40% of undiscovered tree species are in South America. Moreover, almost one-third of all tree species to be discovered may be rare, with very low populations and limited spatial distribution (likely in remote tropical lowlands and mountains). These findings highlight the vulnerability of global forest biodiversity to anthropogenic changes in land use and climate, which disproportionately threaten rare species and thus, global tree richness.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Árvores/classificação , Planeta Terra , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Science ; 375(6577): 210-214, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025640

RESUMO

Half of all plant species rely on animals to disperse their seeds. Seed dispersal interactions lost through defaunation and gained during novel community assembly influence whether plants can adapt to climate change through migration. We develop trait-based models to predict pairwise interactions and dispersal function for fleshy-fruited plants globally. Using interactions with introduced species as an observable proxy for interactions in future novel seed dispersal networks, we find strong potential to forecast their assembly and functioning. We conservatively estimate that mammal and bird defaunation has already reduced the capacity of plants to track climate change by 60% globally. This strong reduction in the ability of plants to adapt to climate change through range shifts shows a synergy between defaunation and climate change that undermines vegetation resilience.


Assuntos
Aves , Mudança Climática , Mamíferos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Dispersão Vegetal , Dinâmica Populacional
7.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 8, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042854

RESUMO

The savannas of the Kenya-Tanzania borderland cover >100,000 km2 and is one of the most important regions globally for biodiversity conservation, particularly large mammals. The region also supports >1 million pastoralists and their livestock. In these systems, resources for both large mammals and pastoralists are highly variable in space and time and thus require connected landscapes. However, ongoing fragmentation of (semi-)natural vegetation by smallholder fencing and expansion of agriculture threatens this social-ecological system. Spatial data on fences and agricultural expansion are localized and dispersed among data owners and databases. Here, we synthesized data from several research groups and conservation NGOs and present the first release of the Landscape Dynamics (landDX) spatial-temporal database, covering ~30,000 km2 of southern Kenya. The data includes 31,000 livestock enclosures, nearly 40,000 kilometres of fencing, and 1,500 km2 of agricultural land. We provide caveats and interpretation of the different methodologies used. These data are useful to answer fundamental ecological questions, to quantify the rate of change of ecosystem function and wildlife populations, for conservation and livestock management, and for local and governmental spatial planning.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Pradaria , Agricultura , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Quênia , Gado , Mamíferos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tanzânia
8.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 37(2): 117-128, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801276

RESUMO

There is growing interest in aligning the wildlife conservation and restoration agenda with climate change mitigation goals. However, the presence of large herbivores tends to reduce aboveground biomass in some open-canopy ecosystems, leading to the possibility that large herbivore restoration may negatively influence ecosystem carbon storage. Belowground carbon storage is often ignored in these systems, despite the wide recognition of soils as the largest actively-cycling terrestrial carbon pool. Here, we suggest a shift away from a main focus on vegetation carbon stocks, towards inclusion of whole ecosystem carbon persistence, in future assessments of large herbivore effects on long-term carbon storage. Failure to do so may lead to counterproductive biodiversity and climate impacts of land management actions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Carbono , Mudança Climática , Solo
9.
Conserv Biol ; 36(1): e13726, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634491

RESUMO

Proactive approaches that anticipate the long-term effects of current and future conservation threats could increase the effectiveness and efficiency of biodiversity conservation. However, such approaches can be obstructed by a lack of knowledge of habitat requirements for wildlife. To aggregate and assess the suitability of current information available on habitat requirements needed for proactive conservation, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on elephant and rhinoceros habitat requirements and synthesized data by combining a vote counting assessment with bibliometric and term maps. We contextualized these numeric and terminological results with a narrative review. We mapped current methods, results, terminology, and collaborations of 693 studies. Quantitative evidence for factors that influence the suitability of an area for elephants and rhinoceros was biased toward African savanna elephants and ecological variables. Less than one third of holistic approaches considered equal amounts of ecological and anthropogenic variables in their assessments. There was a general lack of quantitative evidence for direct proxies of anthropogenic variables that were expected to play an important role based on qualitative evidence and policy documents. However, there was evidence for a segregation in conceptual frameworks among countries and species and between science versus policy literature. There was also evidence of unused potential for collaborations among southern hemisphere researchers. Our results indicated that the success of proactive conservation interventions can be increased if ecological and anthropogenic dimensions are integrated into holistic habitat assessments and holistic carrying capacities and quantitative evidence for anthropogenic variables is improved. To avoid wasting limited resources, it is necessary to form inclusive collaborations within and across networks of researchers studying different species across regional and continental borders and in the science-policy realm.


Colaboración de Fuerzas hacia la Conservación Proactiva de Elefantes y Rinocerontes Resumen Los enfoques proactivos que anticipan los efectos a largo plazo de las amenazas a la conservación actuales y futuras podrían incrementar la efectividad y la eficiencia de la conservación de la biodiversidad. Sin embargo, dichos enfoques pueden ser frenados por una falta de conocimiento de los requerimientos de hábitat para la vida silvestre. Para sumar y evaluar la idoneidad de la información disponible sobre los requerimientos del hábitat necesitados para la conservación proactiva realizamos una revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre los requerimientos de hábitat de los elefantes y rinocerontes y sintetizamos los datos combinándolos en una evaluación de conteo de votos con mapas bibliométricos y de términos. Contextualizamos estos resultados numéricos y terminológicos con una revisión narrativa. Mapeamos los métodos, resultados, terminologías y colaboraciones actuales de 693 estudios. La evidencia cuantitativa de los factores que influyen sobre la idoneidad de un área para los elefantes y los rinocerontes estuvo sesgada hacia los elefantes de la sabana africana y las variables ecológicas. Menos de un tercio de las estrategias holísticas consideró cantidades iguales de variables ecológicas y antropogénicas en sus evaluaciones. Hubo una carencia generalizada de evidencias cuantitativas para los indicadores directos de las variables antropogénicas que se esperaba tendrían un papel importante con base en la evidencia cualitativa y los documentos de las políticas. Sin embargo, hubo evidencias de una segregación en el marco conceptual entre los países y las especies y entre la ciencia versus la literatura política. También hubo evidencias de un potencial sin explotar para las colaboraciones entre los investigadores del hemisferio sur. Nuestros resultados indicaron que el éxito de las intervenciones de conservación proactiva puede incrementarse si las dimensiones ecológicas y antropogénicas se integran a las evaluaciones holísticas del hábitat y si se mejoran las capacidades de carga holísticas y las evidencias cuantitativas de las variables antropogénicas. Para evitar gastar los recursos limitados, es necesario formar colaboraciones inclusivas dentro y a lo largo de las redes de investigadores que están estudiando a diferentes especies en las fronteras regionales y continentales y dentro del ámbito de la ciencia política.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Perissodáctilos
10.
Conserv Biol ; : e13873, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865262

RESUMO

Tree diversity in Asia's tropical and subtropical forests is central to nature-based solutions. Species vulnerability to multiple threats, which affect provision of ecosystem services, is poorly understood. We conducted a region-wide, spatially explicit assessment of the vulnerability of 63 socioeconomically important tree species to overexploitation, fire, overgrazing, habitat conversion, and climate change. Trees were selected for assessment from national priority lists, and selections were validated by an expert network representing 20 countries. We used Maxent suitability modeling to predict species distribution ranges, freely accessible spatial data sets to map threat exposures, and functional traits to estimate threat sensitivities. Species-specific vulnerability maps were created as the product of exposure maps and sensitivity estimates. Based on vulnerability to current threats and climate change, we identified priority areas for conservation and restoration. Overall, 74% of the most important areas for conservation of these trees fell outside protected areas, and all species were severely threatened across an average of 47% of their native ranges. The most imminent threats were overexploitation and habitat conversion; populations were severely threatened by these factors in an average of 24% and 16% of their ranges, respectively. Our model predicted limited overall climate change impacts, although some study species were likely to lose over 15% of their habitat by 2050 due to climate change. We pinpointed specific natural areas in Borneo rain forests as hotspots for in situ conservation of forest genetic resources, more than 82% of which fell outside designated protected areas. We also identified degraded areas in Western Ghats, Indochina dry forests, and Sumatran rain forests as hotspots for restoration, where planting or assisted natural regeneration will help conserve these species, and croplands in southern India and Thailand as potentially important agroforestry options. Our results highlight the need for regionally coordinated action for effective conservation and restoration.


Especies de Árboles Valoradas y Amenazadas de Asia Tropical y Subtropical Resumen La diversidad de árboles en los bosques tropicales y subtropicales de Asia es un eje central para las soluciones basadas en la naturaleza. La vulnerabilidad de las especies ante las múltiples amenazas, las cuales afectan el suministro de servicios ambientales, es un tema poco comprendido. Realizamos una evaluación regional espacialmente explícita de la vulnerabilidad de 63 especies de árboles de importancia socioeconómica ante la sobreexplotación, incendios, sobrepastoreo, conversión del hábitat y cambio climático. Los árboles se seleccionaron para su evaluación a partir de listas nacionales de prioridades, y las selecciones fueron validadas por una red de expertos de 20 países. Usamos el modelado de idoneidad Maxent para predecir el rango de distribución de las especies, conjuntos de datos espaciales de libre acceso para mapear la exposición a las amenazas y rasgos funcionales para estimar la susceptibilidad a las amenazas. Con base en la vulnerabilidad a las amenazas actuales y al cambio climático, identificamos las áreas prioritarias para su conservación y restauración. En general, el 74% de las áreas más importantes para la conservación de estos árboles quedó fuera de las áreas protegidas y todas las especies estaban seriamente amenazadas en promedio en el 47% de su distribución nativa. Las amenazas más inminentes fueron la sobreexplotación y la conversión del hábitat; las poblaciones estuvieron seriamente amenazadas por estos factores en promedio en el 24% y 16% de su distribución, respectivamente. Nuestro modelo predijo un impacto general limitado del cambio climático, aunque algunas especies estudiadas tuvieron la probabilidad de perder más del 15% de su hábitat para el 2050 debido a este factor. Identificamos áreas naturales específicas en las selvas de Borneo como puntos calientes para la conservación in situ de los recursos genéticos forestales, más del 82% de los cuales estaban fuera de las áreas protegidas designadas. También identificamos áreas degradadas en los Ghats Occidentales, los bosques secos de Indochina y las selvas de Sumatra como puntos calientes para la restauración, en donde la siembra o la regeneración natural asistida ayudarán a conservar estas especies. Además, identificamos campos de cultivo al sur de India y Tailandia como potenciales opciones importantes de agrosilvicultura. Nuestros resultados resaltan la necesidad de acciones regionales coordinadas para la conservación y restauración efectivas.

11.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(7): nwab032, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694304

RESUMO

Biodiversity science in China has seen rapid growth over recent decades, ranging from baseline biodiversity studies to understanding the processes behind evolution across dynamic regions such as the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We review research, including species catalogues; biodiversity monitoring; the origins, distributions, maintenance and threats to biodiversity; biodiversity-related ecosystem function and services; and species and ecosystems' responses to global change. Next, we identify priority topics and offer suggestions and priorities for future biodiversity research in China. These priorities include (i) the ecology and biogeography of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains, and that of subtropical and tropical forests across China; (ii) marine and inland aquatic biodiversity; and (iii) effective conservation and management to identify and maintain synergies between biodiversity and socio-economic development to fulfil China's vision for becoming an ecological civilization. In addition, we propose three future strategies: (i) translate advanced biodiversity science into practice for biodiversity conservation; (ii) strengthen capacity building and application of advanced technologies, including high-throughput sequencing, genomics and remote sensing; and (iii) strengthen and expand international collaborations. Based on the recent rapid progress of biodiversity research, China is well positioned to become a global leader in biodiversity research in the near future.

12.
Health Place ; 72: 102678, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610547

RESUMO

Natural environments have been associated with mental health benefits, but globally access to these benefits is threatened by urban development and densification. However, it remains unclear how natural environments relate to mental health and how consistent the association is across populations. Here we use a life-course approach with a population consisting of 66 194 individuals from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) to investigate the association between green and blue space (e.g. parks and lakes) and self-evaluated mental well-being. Green and blue space was identified from remotely-sensed images from the Landsat program, while mental well-being was based on the mental component score (MCS) calculated using the 12-item short form health survey. We use multivariate linear regression models and logistic regression models to quantify the associations. We adjust for additional environmental (urbanization, and air pollution) and lifestyle factors (smoking, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and physical activity) and specifically evaluate the role of physical activity and air pollution as possible mediating factors. We found a positive association between the MCS and current and childhood green space, and a non-significant association for current and childhood blue space. Adjusting for environmental and the other factors attenuated the effect sizes indicating that a broad range of factors determine mental well-being. Physical activity and air pollution were both associated with the MCS as possible mediators of green space associations. In addition, the odds for successfully completing tasks', seeing others, and feeling less downhearted increased with higher levels of green space, and the odds of feeling calm increased with higher levels of blue space. In conclusion, we found support for an association between green and, to less degree, blue space and mental well-being throughout different life stages. In addition, we found a positive association with individual indicators of mental well-being such as being productive, feeling less downhearted and calmer, and being social. The healthy blood donor effect and the bias towards urban residency may explain why we found smaller effect sizes between green and blue space and mental well-being for this generally healthy and resourceful cohort compared to previous studies.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Saúde Mental , Doadores de Sangue , Criança , Dinamarca , Meio Ambiente , Humanos
13.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(2): 100092, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557746

RESUMO

The recent mass mortality event of more than 330 African elephants in Botswana has been attributed to biotoxins produced by cyanobacteria; however, scientific evidence for this is lacking. Here, by synthesizing multiple sources of data, we show that, during the past decades, the widespread hypertrophic waters in Southern Africa have entailed an extremely high risk and frequent exposure of cyanotoxins to the wildlife within this area, which functions as a hotspot of mammal species richness. The hot and dry climatic extremes have most likely acted as the primary trigger of the recent and perhaps also of prehistoric mass mortality events. As such climate extremes are projected to become more frequent in Southern Africa in the near future, there is a risk that similar tragedies may take place, rendering African megafauna species, especially those that are already endangered, in risk of extinction. Moreover, cyanotoxin poisoning amplified by climate change may have unexpected cascading effects on human societies. Seen within this perspective, the tragic mass death of the world's largest terrestrial mammal species serves as an alarming early warning signal of future environmental catastrophes in Southern Africa. We suggest that systematic, quantitative cyanotoxin risk assessments are made and precautionary actions to mitigate the risks are taken without hesitation to ensure the health and sustainability of the megafauna and human societies within the region.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504011

RESUMO

The tropical conservatism hypothesis (TCH) posits that the latitudinal gradient in biological diversity arises because most extant clades of animals and plants originated when tropical environments were more widespread and because the colonization of colder and more seasonal temperate environments is limited by the phylogenetically conserved environmental tolerances of these tropical clades. Recent studies have claimed support of the TCH, indicating that temperate plant diversity stems from a few more recently derived lineages that are nested within tropical clades, with the colonization of the temperate zone being associated with key adaptations to survive colder temperatures and regular freezing. Drought, however, is an additional physiological stress that could shape diversity gradients. Here, we evaluate patterns of evolutionary diversity in plant assemblages spanning the full extent of climatic gradients in North and South America. We find that in both hemispheres, extratropical dry biomes house the lowest evolutionary diversity, while tropical moist forests and many temperate mixed forests harbor the highest. Together, our results support a more nuanced view of the TCH, with environments that are radically different from the ancestral niche of angiosperms having limited, phylogenetically clustered diversity relative to environments that show lower levels of deviation from this niche. Thus, we argue that ongoing expansion of arid environments is likely to entail higher loss of evolutionary diversity not just in the wet tropics but in many extratropical moist regions as well.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Filogeografia , Florestas , Filogenia
16.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(11): 1499-1509, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429536

RESUMO

To meet the ambitious objectives of biodiversity and climate conventions, the international community requires clarity on how these objectives can be operationalized spatially and how multiple targets can be pursued concurrently. To support goal setting and the implementation of international strategies and action plans, spatial guidance is needed to identify which land areas have the potential to generate the greatest synergies between conserving biodiversity and nature's contributions to people. Here we present results from a joint optimization that minimizes the number of threatened species, maximizes carbon retention and water quality regulation, and ranks terrestrial conservation priorities globally. We found that selecting the top-ranked 30% and 50% of terrestrial land area would conserve respectively 60.7% and 85.3% of the estimated total carbon stock and 66% and 89.8% of all clean water, in addition to meeting conservation targets for 57.9% and 79% of all species considered. Our data and prioritization further suggest that adequately conserving all species considered (vertebrates and plants) would require giving conservation attention to ~70% of the terrestrial land surface. If priority was given to biodiversity only, managing 30% of optimally located land area for conservation may be sufficient to meet conservation targets for 81.3% of the terrestrial plant and vertebrate species considered. Our results provide a global assessment of where land could be optimally managed for conservation. We discuss how such a spatial prioritization framework can support the implementation of the biodiversity and climate conventions.


Assuntos
Carbono , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Biodiversidade , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Vertebrados
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253148, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242225

RESUMO

Defaunation is a global threat to biodiversity that can be counteracted through trophic rewilding, a restoration strategy that promotes self-regulating ecosystems through active reintroductions or passive management. In order to estimate success in restoration initiatives, progress of the rewilding projects is measured and monitored. However, a spatially explicit understanding of rewilding and rewilding potential in a rewilding site has been absent so far. We present a novel approach for monitoring rewilding progress that focuses on a spatially explicit estimate of progress and ecological integrity within rewilding initiatives. This framework uses habitat classification of the site and tracking data of the reintroduced animals, to model their habitat selection. Through this we measure and map realized and potential rewilding. We operationalize the framework in an ongoing rewilding project in the Iberá Wetlands, Corrientes, Argentina. The majority of areas (76%) predicted to be occupied by reintroduced fauna were only predicted to be selected by one species. Of the four species in the rewilding project, only the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) filled the majority of its potential distribution, whereas pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) filled less than 23% of theirs. After rewilding we found a 10% increase in the proportion of the study area with high ecological integrity. Through this case study, we showed that this framework can be used to assess the spatial progress of a rewilding site. By incorporating wildlife tracking and satellite-based remote sensing, we are integrating a spatial component to monitoring of rewilding projects that should lead to more detailed understanding of the progress of rewilding. Applying this framework would facilitate decision-making for practitioners and inform species management plans.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Animais , Argentina , Biodiversidade , Cervos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Ecology ; 102(9): e03448, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161604

RESUMO

Measures of ß-diversity are known to be biased by differences in γ-diversity (i.e., γ-dependence), making it challenging to compare ß-diversity across regions. Undersampling corrections have been designed to reduce effects of γ-dependence on ß-diversity arising from the problem of incomplete sampling. However, no study has systematically tested the effectiveness of these corrections or examined how well they reflect ß-diversity patterns across ecological gradients. Here, we conduct these tests by comparing two undersampling corrections with the widely used individual-based null model approach, using both simulated communities along an ecological gradient and empirical data across a wide range of γ-diversity and sample sizes. We found that undersampling corrections using diversity accumulation curves were more effective than the null-model approaches in removing γ-dependence. In particular, the corrected ß-Shannon diversity index was least dependent on γ-diversity, and was the most reflective of the ß-diversity pattern along a simulated ecological gradient. Moreover, a corrected Jaccard-Chao index applied to null model results removed γ-dependence more effectively than either the correction alone or the null model alone. Undersampling corrections are effective tools for removing γ-dependence bias, thus facilitating comparisons of ß-diversity across regions.

19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1948): 20203045, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849320

RESUMO

The decline in species richness at higher latitudes is among the most fundamental patterns in ecology. Whether changes in species composition across space (beta-diversity) contribute to this gradient of overall species richness (gamma-diversity) remains hotly debated. Previous studies that failed to resolve the issue suffered from a well-known tendency for small samples in areas with high gamma-diversity to have inflated measures of beta-diversity. Here, we provide a novel analytical test, using beta-diversity metrics that correct the gamma-diversity and sampling biases, to compare beta-diversity and species packing across a latitudinal gradient in tree species richness of 21 large forest plots along a large environmental gradient in East Asia. We demonstrate that after accounting for topography and correcting the gamma-diversity bias, tropical forests still have higher beta-diversity than temperate analogues. This suggests that beta-diversity contributes to the latitudinal species richness gradient as a component of gamma-diversity. Moreover, both niche specialization and niche marginality (a measure of niche spacing along an environmental gradient) also increase towards the equator, after controlling for the effect of topographical heterogeneity. This supports the joint importance of tighter species packing and larger niche space in tropical forests while also demonstrating the importance of local processes in controlling beta-diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Árvores , Ecologia , Extremo Oriente
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875599

RESUMO

Archaeological and paleoecological evidence shows that by 10,000 BCE, all human societies employed varying degrees of ecologically transformative land use practices, including burning, hunting, species propagation, domestication, cultivation, and others that have left long-term legacies across the terrestrial biosphere. Yet, a lingering paradigm among natural scientists, conservationists, and policymakers is that human transformation of terrestrial nature is mostly recent and inherently destructive. Here, we use the most up-to-date, spatially explicit global reconstruction of historical human populations and land use to show that this paradigm is likely wrong. Even 12,000 y ago, nearly three quarters of Earth's land was inhabited and therefore shaped by human societies, including more than 95% of temperate and 90% of tropical woodlands. Lands now characterized as "natural," "intact," and "wild" generally exhibit long histories of use, as do protected areas and Indigenous lands, and current global patterns of vertebrate species richness and key biodiversity areas are more strongly associated with past patterns of land use than with present ones in regional landscapes now characterized as natural. The current biodiversity crisis can seldom be explained by the loss of uninhabited wildlands, resulting instead from the appropriation, colonization, and intensifying use of the biodiverse cultural landscapes long shaped and sustained by prior societies. Recognizing this deep cultural connection with biodiversity will therefore be essential to resolve the crisis.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/história , Povos Indígenas/história , Natureza , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Migração Humana , Humanos
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