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1.
Patterns (N Y) ; 5(2): 100910, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370125

RESUMO

Big genomic data and artificial intelligence (AI) are ushering in an era of precision medicine, providing opportunities to study previously under-represented subtypes and rare diseases rather than categorize them as variances. However, clinical researchers face challenges in accessing such novel technologies as well as reliable methods to study small datasets or subcohorts with unique phenotypes. To address this need, we developed an integrative approach, GAiN, to capture patterns of gene expression from small datasets on the basis of an ensemble of generative adversarial networks (GANs) while leveraging big population data. Where conventional biostatistical methods fail, GAiN reliably discovers differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and enriched pathways between two cohorts with limited numbers of samples (n = 10) when benchmarked against a gold standard. GAiN is freely available at GitHub. Thus, GAiN may serve as a crucial tool for gene expression analysis in scenarios with limited samples, as in the context of rare diseases, under-represented populations, or limited investigator resources.

2.
Biol Psychiatry Glob Open Sci ; 4(1): 135-144, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298774

RESUMO

Background: Race is commonly used as a proxy for multiple features including socioeconomic status. It is critical to dissociate these factors, to identify mechanisms that affect infant outcomes, such as birth weight, gestational age, and brain development, and to direct appropriate interventions and shape public policy. Methods: Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were used to model infant outcomes. There were 351 participants included in the analysis for birth weight and gestational age. For the analysis using brain volumes, 280 participants were included after removing participants with missing magnetic resonance imaging scans and those matching our exclusion criteria. We modeled these three different infant outcomes, including infant brain, birth weight, and gestational age, with both linear and nonlinear models. Results: Nonlinear models were better predictors of infant birth weight than linear models (R2 = 0.172 vs. R2 = 0.145, p = .005). In contrast to linear models, nonlinear models ranked income, neighborhood disadvantage, and experiences of discrimination higher in importance than race while modeling birth weight. Race was not an important predictor for either gestational age or structural brain volumes. Conclusions: Consistent with the extant social science literature, the findings related to birth weight suggest that race is a linear proxy for nonlinear factors related to structural racism. Methods that can disentangle factors often correlated with race are important for policy in that they may better identify and rank the modifiable factors that influence outcomes.

4.
J Chem Inf Model ; 63(6): 1675-1694, 2023 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36926871

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 enzymes aid in the elimination of a preponderance of small molecule drugs, but can generate reactive metabolites that may adversely react with protein and DNA and prompt drug candidate attrition or market withdrawal. Previously developed models help understand how these enzymes modify molecule structure by predicting sites of metabolism or characterizing formation of metabolite-biomolecule adducts. However, the majority of reactive metabolites are formed by multiple metabolic steps, and understanding the progenitor molecule's network-level behavior necessitates an integrative approach that blends multiple site of metabolism and structure inference models. Our previously developed tool, XenoNet 1.0, generates metabolic networks, where nodes are molecules and weighted edges are metabolic transformations. We extend XenoNet with a bidirectional message passing neural network that integrates edge feature information and local network structure using edge-conditioned graph convolutions and jumping knowledge to predict the authenticity of inferred Phase I metabolite structures. Our model significantly outperformed prior work and algorithmic baselines on a data set of 311 networks and 6606 intermediates annotated using a chemically diverse set of 20 736 individual in vitro and in vivo reaction records accounting for 92.3% of all human Phase I metabolism in the Accelrys Metabolite Database. Cross-validated predictions resulted in area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 88.5% and 87.6% for separating experimentally observed and unobserved metabolites at global and network levels, respectively. Further analysis verified robustness to networks of varying depth and breadth, accurate detection of metabolites, such as d,l-methamphetamine, that are experimentally observed or unobserved in different network contexts, extraction of important metabolic subnetworks, and identification of known bioactivation pathways, such as for nimesulide and terbinafine. By exploiting network structures, our approach accurately suggests unreported metabolites for experimental study and may rationalize modifications for avoiding deleterious pathways antecedent to reactive metabolite formation.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Terbinafina/metabolismo
5.
iScience ; 26(2): 105991, 2023 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36824270

RESUMO

The gut microbiota in early childhood is linked to asthma risk, but may continue to affect older patients with asthma. Here, we profile the gut microbiota of 38 children (19 asthma, median age 8) and 57 adults (17 asthma, median age 28) by 16S rRNA sequencing and find individuals with asthma harbored compositional differences from healthy controls in both adults and children. We develop a model to aid the design of mechanistic experiments in gnotobiotic mice and show enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is more prevalent in the gut microbiota of patients with asthma compared to healthy controls. In mice, ETBF, modulated by community context, can increase oxidative stress in the lungs during allergic airway inflammation (AAI). Our results provide evidence that ETBF affects the phenotype of airway inflammation in a subset of patients with asthma which suggests that therapies targeting the gut microbiota may be helpful tools for asthma control.

6.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 31(3): 251-257, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165248

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of pathology is currently undergoing a significant transformation from traditional glass slides to a digital format dependent on whole slide imaging. Transitioning from glass to digital has opened the field to development and application of image analysis technology, commonly deep learning methods (artificial intelligence [AI]) to assist pathologists with tissue examination. Nephropathology is poised to leverage this technology to improve precision, accuracy, and efficiency in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Through a multidisciplinary approach, nephropathologists, and computer scientists have made significant recent advances in developing AI technology to identify histological structures within whole slide images (segmentation), quantification of histologic structures, prediction of clinical outcomes, and classifying disease. Virtual staining of tissue and automation of electron microscopy imaging are emerging applications with particular significance for nephropathology. SUMMARY: AI applied to image analysis in nephropathology has potential to transform the field by improving diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility, efficiency, and prognostic power. Reimbursement, demonstration of clinical utility, and seamless workflow integration are essential to widespread adoption.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Computadores , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
IEEE Trans Nanobioscience ; 21(4): 560-569, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100119

RESUMO

An accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is clinically crucial for kidney disease diagnosis and predicting the prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Machine learning methodologies such as deep neural networks provide a potential avenue for increasing accuracy in GFR estimation. We developed a novel deep learning architecture, a deep and shallow neural network, to estimate GFR (dlGFR for short) and examined its comparative performance with estimated GFR from Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. The dlGFR model jointly trains a shallow learning model and a deep neural network to enable both linear transformation from input features to a log GFR target, and non-linear feature embedding for stage of kidney function classification. We validate the proposed methods on the data from multiple studies obtained from the NIDDK Central Database Repository. The deep learning model predicted values of GFR within 30% of measured GFR with 88.3% accuracy, compared to the 87.1% and 84.7% of the accuracy achieved by CKD-EPI and MDRD equations (p = 0.051 and p < 0.001, respectively). Our results suggest that deep learning methods are superior to equations resulting from traditional statistical methods in estimating glomerular filtration rate. Based on these results, an end-to-end predication system has been deployed to facilitate use of the proposed dlGFR algorithm.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Algoritmos , Creatinina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
8.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(40): 8978-8986, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609871

RESUMO

Computing quantum chemical properties of small molecules and polymers can provide insights valuable into physicists, chemists, and biologists when designing new materials, catalysts, biological probes, and drugs. Deep learning can compute quantum chemical properties accurately in a fraction of time required by commonly used methods such as density functional theory. Most current approaches to deep learning in quantum chemistry begin with geometric information from experimentally derived molecular structures or pre-calculated atom coordinates. These approaches have many useful applications, but they can be costly in time and computational resources. In this study, we demonstrate that accurate quantum chemical computations can be performed without geometric information by operating in the coordinate-free domain using deep learning on graph encodings. Coordinate-free methods rely only on molecular graphs, the connectivity of atoms and bonds, without atom coordinates or bond distances. We also find that the choice of graph-encoding architecture substantially affects the performance of these methods. The structures of these graph-encoding architectures provide an opportunity to probe an important, outstanding question in quantum mechanics: what types of quantum chemical properties can be represented by local variable models? We find that Wave, a local variable model, accurately calculates the quantum chemical properties, while graph convolutional architectures require global variables. Furthermore, local variable Wave models outperform global variable graph convolution models on complex molecules with large, correlated systems.

9.
Metabolites ; 11(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203690

RESUMO

The 3,5-dimethylisoxazole motif has become a useful and popular acetyl-lysine mimic employed in isoxazole-containing bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors but may introduce the potential for bioactivations into toxic reactive metabolites. As a test, we coupled deep neural models for quinone formation, metabolite structures, and biomolecule reactivity to predict bioactivation pathways for 32 BET inhibitors and validate the bioactivation of select inhibitors experimentally. Based on model predictions, inhibitors were more likely to undergo bioactivation than reported non-bioactivated molecules containing isoxazoles. The model outputs varied with substituents indicating the ability to scale their impact on bioactivation. We selected OXFBD02, OXFBD04, and I-BET151 for more in-depth analysis. OXFBD's bioactivations were evenly split between traditional quinones and novel extended quinone-methides involving the isoxazole yet strongly favored the latter quinones. Subsequent experimental studies confirmed the formation of both types of quinones for OXFBD molecules, yet traditional quinones were the dominant reactive metabolites. Modeled I-BET151 bioactivations led to extended quinone-methides, which were not verified experimentally. The differences in observed and predicted bioactivations reflected the need to improve overall bioactivation scaling. Nevertheless, our coupled modeling approach predicted BET inhibitor bioactivations including novel extended quinone methides, and we experimentally verified those pathways highlighting potential concerns for toxicity in the development of these new drug leads.

10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(7): e1009053, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228716

RESUMO

Drug-drug interactions account for up to 30% of adverse drug reactions. Increasing prevalence of electronic health records (EHRs) offers a unique opportunity to build machine learning algorithms to identify drug-drug interactions that drive adverse events. In this study, we investigated hospitalizations' data to study drug interactions with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) that result in drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We propose a logistic regression based machine learning algorithm that unearths several known interactions from an EHR dataset of about 400,000 hospitalization. Our proposed modeling framework is successful in detecting 87.5% of the positive controls, which are defined by drugs known to interact with diclofenac causing an increased risk of DILI, and correctly ranks aggregate risk of DILI for eight commonly prescribed NSAIDs. We found that our modeling framework is particularly successful in inferring associations of drug-drug interactions from relatively small EHR datasets. Furthermore, we have identified a novel and potentially hepatotoxic interaction that might occur during concomitant use of meloxicam and esomeprazole, which are commonly prescribed together to allay NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Empirically, we validate our approach against prior methods for signal detection on EHR datasets, in which our proposed approach outperforms all the compared methods across most metrics, such as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Interações Medicamentosas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Toxicology ; 458: 152832, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107285

RESUMO

Diphenylamine NSAIDs are highly prescribed therapeutics for chronic pain despite causing symptomatic hepatotoxicity through mitochondrial damage in five percent of patients taking them. Differences in toxicity are attributed to structural modifications to the diphenylamine scaffold rather than its inherent toxicity. We hypothesize that marketed diphenylamine NSAID substituents affect preference and efficiency of bioactivation pathways and clearance. We parsed the FDA DILIrank hepatotoxicity database and modeled marketed drug bioactivation into quinone-species metabolites to identify a family of seven clinically relevant diphenylamine NSAIDs. These drugs fell into two subgroups, i.e., acetic acid and propionic acid diphenylamines, varying in hepatotoxicity risks and modeled bioactivation propensities. We carried out steady-state kinetic studies to assess bioactivation pathways by trapping quinone-species metabolites with dansyl glutathione. Analysis of the glutathione adducts by mass spectrometry characterized structures while dansyl fluorescence provided quantitative yields for their formation. Resulting kinetics identified four possible bioactivation pathways among the drugs, but reaction preference and efficiency depended upon structural modifications to the diphenylamine scaffold. Strikingly, diphenylamine dihalogenation promotes formation of quinone metabolites through four distinct metabolic pathways with high efficiency, whereas those without aromatic halogen atoms were metabolized less efficiently through two or fewer metabolic pathways. Overall metabolism of the drugs was comparable with bioactivation accounting for 4-13% of clearance. Lastly, we calculated daily bioload exposure of quinone-species metabolites based on bioactivation efficiency, bioavailability, and maximal daily dose. The results revealed stratification into the two subgroups; propionic acid diphenylamines had an average four-fold greater daily bioload compared to acetic acid diphenylamines. However, the lack of sufficient study on the hepatotoxicity for all drugs prevents further correlative analyses. These findings provide critical insights on the impact of diphenylamine bioactivation as a precursor to hepatotoxicity and thus, provide a foundation for better risk assessment in drug discovery and development.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Difenilamina/química , Difenilamina/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Ativação Metabólica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Difenilamina/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Halogenação , Humanos , Cinética , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Quinonas/metabolismo
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2030939, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471115

RESUMO

Importance: A chronic shortage of donor kidneys is compounded by a high discard rate, and this rate is directly associated with biopsy specimen evaluation, which shows poor reproducibility among pathologists. A deep learning algorithm for measuring percent global glomerulosclerosis (an important predictor of outcome) on images of kidney biopsy specimens could enable pathologists to more reproducibly and accurately quantify percent global glomerulosclerosis, potentially saving organs that would have been discarded. Objective: To compare the performances of pathologists with a deep learning model on quantification of percent global glomerulosclerosis in whole-slide images of donor kidney biopsy specimens, and to determine the potential benefit of a deep learning model on organ discard rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study used whole-slide images acquired from 98 hematoxylin-eosin-stained frozen and 51 permanent donor biopsy specimen sections retrieved from 83 kidneys. Serial annotation by 3 board-certified pathologists served as ground truth for model training and for evaluation. Images of kidney biopsy specimens were obtained from the Washington University database (retrieved between June 2015 and June 2017). Cases were selected randomly from a database of more than 1000 cases to include biopsy specimens representing an equitable distribution within 0% to 5%, 6% to 10%, 11% to 15%, 16% to 20%, and more than 20% global glomerulosclerosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Correlation coefficient (r) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) with respect to annotations were computed for cross-validated model predictions and on-call pathologists' estimates of percent global glomerulosclerosis when using individual and pooled slide results. Data were analyzed from March 2018 to August 2020. Results: The cross-validated model results of section images retrieved from 83 donor kidneys showed higher correlation with annotations (r = 0.916; 95% CI, 0.886-0.939) than on-call pathologists (r = 0.884; 95% CI, 0.825-0.923) that was enhanced when pooling glomeruli counts from multiple levels (r = 0.933; 95% CI, 0.898-0.956). Model prediction error for single levels (RMSE, 5.631; 95% CI, 4.735-6.517) was 14% lower than on-call pathologists (RMSE, 6.523; 95% CI, 5.191-7.783), improving to 22% with multiple levels (RMSE, 5.094; 95% CI, 3.972-6.301). The model decreased the likelihood of unnecessary organ discard by 37% compared with pathologists. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this prognostic study suggest that this deep learning model provided a scalable and robust method to quantify percent global glomerulosclerosis in whole-slide images of donor kidneys. The model performance improved by analyzing multiple levels of a section, surpassing the capacity of pathologists in the time-sensitive setting of examining donor biopsy specimens. The results indicate the potential of a deep learning model to prevent erroneous donor organ discard.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Glomerulonefrite , Rim/patologia , Algoritmos , Glomerulonefrite/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Humanos , Patologistas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 34(2): 584-600, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496184

RESUMO

Electrophilically reactive drug metabolites are implicated in many adverse drug reactions. In this mechanism-termed bioactivation-metabolic enzymes convert drugs into reactive metabolites that often conjugate to nucleophilic sites within biological macromolecules like proteins. Toxic metabolite-product adducts induce severe immune responses that can cause sometimes fatal disorders, most commonly in the form of liver injury, blood dyscrasia, or the dermatologic conditions toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. This study models four of the most common metabolic transformations that result in bioactivation: quinone formation, epoxidation, thiophene sulfur-oxidation, and nitroaromatic reduction, by synthesizing models of metabolism and reactivity. First, the metabolism models predict the formation probabilities of all possible metabolites among the pathways studied. Second, the exact structures of these metabolites are enumerated. Third, using these structures, the reactivity model predicts the reactivity of each metabolite. Finally, a feedfoward neural network converts the metabolism and reactivity predictions to a bioactivation prediction for each possible metabolite. These bioactivation predictions represent the joint probability that a metabolite forms and that this metabolite subsequently conjugates to protein or glutathione. Among molecules bioactivated by these pathways, we predicted the correct pathway with an AUC accuracy of 89.98%. Furthermore, the model predicts whether molecules will be bioactivated, distinguishing bioactivated and nonbioactivated molecules with 81.06% AUC. We applied this algorithm to withdrawn drugs. The known bioactivation pathways of alclofenac and benzbromarone were identified by the algorithm, and high probability bioactivation pathways not yet confirmed were identified for safrazine, zimelidine, and astemizole. This bioactivation model-the first of its kind that jointly considers both metabolism and reactivity-enables drug candidates to be quickly evaluated for a toxicity risk that often evades detection during preclinical trials. The XenoSite bioactivation model is available at http://swami.wustl.edu/xenosite/p/bioactivation.


Assuntos
Compostos de Epóxi/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Nitrobenzenos/metabolismo , Quinonas/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Tiofenos/metabolismo , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrobenzenos/química , Oxirredução , Quinonas/química , Enxofre/química , Tiofenos/química
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 805133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35095511

RESUMO

Coumadin (R/S-warfarin) anticoagulant therapy is highly efficacious in preventing the formation of blood clots; however, significant inter-individual variations in response risks over or under dosing resulting in adverse bleeding events or ineffective therapy, respectively. Levels of pharmacologically active forms of the drug and metabolites depend on a diversity of metabolic pathways. Cytochromes P450 play a major role in oxidizing R- and S-warfarin to 6-, 7-, 8-, 10-, and 4'-hydroxywarfarin, and warfarin alcohols form through a minor metabolic pathway involving reduction at the C11 position. We hypothesized that due to structural similarities with warfarin, hydroxywarfarins undergo reduction, possibly impacting their pharmacological activity and elimination. We modeled reduction reactions and carried out experimental steady-state reactions with human liver cytosol for conversion of rac-6-, 7-, 8-, 4'-hydroxywarfarin and 10-hydroxywarfarin isomers to the corresponding alcohols. The modeling correctly predicted the more efficient reduction of 10-hydroxywarfarin over warfarin but not the order of the remaining hydroxywarfarins. Experimental studies did not indicate any clear trends in the reduction for rac-hydroxywarfarins or 10-hydroxywarfarin into alcohol 1 and 2. The collective findings indicated the location of the hydroxyl group significantly impacted reduction selectivity among the hydroxywarfarins, as well as the specificity for the resulting metabolites. Based on studies with R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin, we predicted that all hydroxywarfarin reductions are enantioselective toward R substrates and enantiospecific for S alcohol metabolites. CBR1 and to a lesser extent AKR1C3 reductases are responsible for those reactions. Due to the inefficiency of reactions, only reduction of 10-hydroxywarfarin is likely to be important in clearance of the metabolite. This pathway for 10-hydroxywarfarin may have clinical relevance as well given its anticoagulant activity and capacity to inhibit S-warfarin metabolism.

15.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 49(2): 133-141, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239334

RESUMO

Meclofenamate is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain yet poses a rare risk of hepatotoxicity through an unknown mechanism. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) bioactivation is a common molecular initiating event for hepatotoxicity. Thus, we hypothesized a similar mechanism for meclofenamate and leveraged computational and experimental approaches to identify and characterize its bioactivation. Analyses employing our XenoNet model indicated possible pathways to meclofenamate bioactivation into 19 reactive metabolites subsequently trapped into glutathione adducts. We describe the first reported bioactivation kinetics for meclofenamate and relative importance of those pathways using human liver microsomes. The findings validated only four of the many bioactivation pathways predicted by modeling. For experimental studies, dansyl glutathione was a critical trap for reactive quinone metabolites and provided a way to characterize adduct structures by mass spectrometry and quantitate yields during reactions. Of the four quinone adducts, we were able to characterize structures for three of them. Based on kinetics, the most efficient bioactivation pathway led to the monohydroxy para-quinone-imine followed by the dechloro-ortho-quinone-imine. Two very inefficient pathways led to the dihydroxy ortho-quinone and a likely multiply adducted quinone. When taken together, bioactivation pathways for meclofenamate accounted for approximately 13% of total metabolism. In sum, XenoNet facilitated prediction of reactive metabolite structures, whereas quantitative experimental studies provided a tractable approach to validate actual bioactivation pathways for meclofenamate. Our results provide a foundation for assessing reactive metabolite load more accurately for future comparative studies with other NSAIDs and drugs in general. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Meclofenamate bioactivation may initiate hepatotoxicity, yet common risk assessment approaches are often cumbersome and inefficient and yield qualitative insights that do not scale relative bioactivation risks. We developed and applied innovative computational modeling and quantitative kinetics to identify and validate meclofenamate bioactivation pathways and relevance as a function of time and concentration. This strategy yielded novel insights on meclofenamate bioactivation and provides a tractable approach to more accurately and efficiently assess other drug bioactivations and correlate risks to toxicological outcomes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Ácido Meclofenâmico/farmacocinética , Ativação Metabólica , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 338: 10-20, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253783

RESUMO

Meloxicam is a thiazole-containing NSAID that was approved for marketing with favorable clinical outcomes despite being structurally similar to the hepatotoxic sudoxicam. Introduction of a single methyl group on the thiazole results in an overall lower toxic risk, yet the group's impact on P450 isozyme bioactivation is unclear. Through analytical methods, we used inhibitor phenotyping and recombinant P450s to identify contributing P450s, and then measured steady-state kinetics for bioactivation of sudoxicam and meloxicam by the recombinant P450s to determine relative efficiencies. Experiments showed that CYP2C8, 2C19, and 3A4 catalyze sudoxicam bioactivation, and CYP1A2 catalyzes meloxicam bioactivation, indicating that the methyl group not only impacts enzyme affinity for the drugs, but also alters which isozymes catalyze the metabolic pathways. Scaling of relative P450 efficiencies based on average liver concentration revealed that CYP2C8 dominates the sudoxicam bioactivation pathway and CYP2C9 dominates meloxicam detoxification. Dominant P450s were applied for an informatics assessment of electronic health records to identify potential correlations between meloxicam drug-drug interactions and drug-induced liver injury. Overall, our findings provide a cautionary tale on assumed impacts of even simple structural modifications on drug bioactivation while also revealing specific targets for clinical investigations of predictive factors that determine meloxicam-induced idiosyncratic liver injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Meloxicam/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Tiazinas/metabolismo , Ativação Metabólica , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Mineração de Dados , Aprendizado Profundo , Interações Medicamentosas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica , Cinética , Masculino , Meloxicam/toxicidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade por Substrato , Tiazinas/toxicidade
17.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(44): 9194-9202, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084331

RESUMO

Atom- or bond-level chemical properties of interest in medicinal chemistry, such as drug metabolism and electrophilic reactivity, are important to understand and predict across arbitrary new molecules. Deep learning can be used to map molecular structures to their chemical properties, but the data sets for these tasks are relatively small, which can limit accuracy and generalizability. To overcome this limitation, it would be preferable to model these properties on the basis of the underlying quantum chemical characteristics of small molecules. However, it is difficult to learn higher level chemical properties from lower level quantum calculations. To overcome this challenge, we pretrained deep learning models to compute quantum chemical properties and then reused the intermediate representations constructed by the pretrained network. Transfer learning, in this way, substantially outperformed models based on chemical graphs alone or quantum chemical properties alone. This result was robust, observable in five prediction tasks: identifying sites of epoxidation by metabolic enzymes and identifying sites of covalent reactivity with cyanide, glutathione, DNA and protein. We see that this approach may substantially improve the accuracy of deep learning models for specific chemical structures, such as aromatic systems.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Teoria Quântica , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
18.
EBioMedicine ; 60: 103029, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathologist evaluation of donor liver biopsies provides information for accepting or discarding potential donor livers. Due to the urgent nature of the decision process, this is regularly performed using frozen sectioning at the time of biopsy. The percent steatosis in a donor liver biopsy correlates with transplant outcome, however there is significant inter- and intra-observer variability in quantifying steatosis, compounded by frozen section artifact. We hypothesized that a deep learning model could identify and quantify steatosis in donor liver biopsies. METHODS: We developed a deep learning convolutional neural network that generates a steatosis probability map from an input whole slide image (WSI) of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained frozen section, and subsequently calculates the percent steatosis. Ninety-six WSI of frozen donor liver sections from our transplant pathology service were annotated for steatosis and used to train (n = 30 WSI) and test (n = 66 WSI) the deep learning model. FINDINGS: The model had good correlation and agreement with the annotation in both the training set (r of 0.88, intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.88) and novel input test sets (r = 0.85 and ICC=0.85). These measurements were superior to the estimates of the on-service pathologist at the time of initial evaluation (r = 0.52 and ICC=0.52 for the training set, and r = 0.74 and ICC=0.72 for the test set). INTERPRETATION: Use of this deep learning algorithm could be incorporated into routine pathology workflows for fast, accurate, and reproducible donor liver evaluation. FUNDING: Mid-America Transplant Society.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Doadores Vivos , Algoritmos , Biópsia , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Transplante de Fígado , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Redes Neurais de Computação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(10): 4702-4716, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881497

RESUMO

Adverse drug metabolism often severely impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, drug metabolism experimental assays are costly, inefficient, and slow. Instead, computational modeling could rapidly flag potentially toxic molecules across thousands of candidates in the early stages of drug development. Most metabolism models focus on predicting sites of metabolism (SOMs): the specific substrate atoms targeted by metabolic enzymes. However, SOMs are merely a proxy for metabolic structures: knowledge of an SOM does not explicitly provide the actual metabolite structure. Without an explicit metabolite structure, computational systems cannot evaluate the new molecule's properties. For example, the metabolite's reactivity cannot be automatically predicted, a crucial limitation because reactive drug metabolites are a key driver of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Additionally, further metabolic events cannot be forecast, even though the metabolic path of the majority of substrates includes two or more sequential steps. To overcome the myopia of the SOM paradigm, this study constructs a well-defined system-termed the metabolic forest-for generating exact metabolite structures. We validate the metabolic forest with the substrate and product structures from a large, chemically diverse, literature-derived dataset of 20 736 records. The metabolic forest finds a pathway linking each substrate and product for 79.42% of these records. By performing a breadth-first search of depth two or three, we improve performance to 88.43 and 88.77%, respectively. The metabolic forest includes a specialized algorithm for producing accurate quinone structures, the most common type of reactive metabolite. To our knowledge, this quinone structure algorithm is the first of its kind, as the diverse mechanisms of quinone formation are difficult to systematically reproduce. We validate the metabolic forest on a previously published dataset of 576 quinone reactions, predicting their structures with a depth three performance of 91.84%. The metabolic forest accurately enumerates metabolite structures, enabling promising new directions such as joint metabolism and reactivity modeling.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Florestas , Humanos
20.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(7): 3431-3449, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525671

RESUMO

Drug metabolism is a common cause of adverse drug reactions. Drug molecules can be metabolized into reactive metabolites, which can conjugate to biomolecules, like protein and DNA, in a process termed bioactivation. To mitigate adverse reactions caused by bioactivation, both experimental and computational screening assays are utilized. Experimental assays for assessing the formation of reactive metabolites are low throughput and expensive to perform, so they are often reserved until later stages of the drug development pipeline when the drug candidate pools are already significantly narrowed. In contrast, computational methods are high throughput and cheap to perform to screen thousands to millions of compounds for potentially toxic molecules during the early stages of the drug development pipeline. Commonly used computational methods focus on detecting and structurally characterizing reactive metabolite-biomolecule adducts or predicting sites on a drug molecule that are liable to form reactive metabolites. However, such methods are often only concerned with the structure of the initial drug molecule or of the adduct formed when a biomolecule conjugates to a reactive metabolite. Thus, these methods are likely to miss intermediate metabolites that may lead to subsequent reactive metabolite formation. To address these shortcomings, we create XenoNet, a metabolic network predictor, that can take a pair of a substrate and a target product as input and (1) enumerate pathways, or sequences of intermediate metabolite structures, between the pair, and (2) compute the likelihood of those pathways and intermediate metabolites. We validate XenoNet on a large, chemically diverse data set of 17 054 metabolic networks built from a literature-derived reaction database. Each metabolic network has a defined substrate molecule that has been experimentally observed to undergo metabolism into a defined product metabolite. XenoNet can predict experimentally observed pathways and intermediate metabolites linking the input substrate and product pair with a recall of 88 and 46%, respectively. Using likelihood scoring, XenoNet also achieves a top-one pathway and intermediate metabolite accuracy of 93.6 and 51.9%, respectively. We further validate XenoNet against prior methods for metabolite prediction. XenoNet significantly outperforms all prior methods across multiple metrics. XenoNet is available at https://swami.wustl.edu/xenonet.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
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