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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 549, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263406

RESUMO

Temperature is a fundamental driver of species distribution and ecosystem functioning. Yet, our knowledge of the microclimatic conditions experienced by organisms inside tropical forests remains limited. This is because ecological studies often rely on coarse-gridded temperature estimates representing the conditions at 2 m height in an open-air environment (i.e., macroclimate). In this study, we present a high-resolution pantropical estimate of near-ground (15 cm above the surface) temperatures inside forests. We quantify diurnal and seasonal variability, thus revealing both spatial and temporal microclimate patterns. We find that on average, understory near-ground temperatures are 1.6 °C cooler than the open-air temperatures. The diurnal temperature range is on average 1.7 °C lower inside the forests, in comparison to open-air conditions. More importantly, we demonstrate a substantial spatial variability in the microclimate characteristics of tropical forests. This variability is regulated by a combination of large-scale climate conditions, vegetation structure and topography, and hence could not be captured by existing macroclimate grids. Our results thus contribute to quantifying the actual thermal ranges experienced by organisms inside tropical forests and provide new insights into how these limits may be affected by climate change and ecosystem disturbances.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Temperatura , Mudança Climática , Sistemas Computacionais
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 906: 167759, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37832689

RESUMO

Surface ozone (O3) is a major air pollutant and greenhouse gas with significant risks to human health, vegetation, and climate. Uncertainties around the impacts of various critical factors on O3 is crucial to understand. We used the Community Earth System Model to investigate the impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC), climate, and emissions on global O3 air quality under selected Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Our findings show that increasing forest cover by 20 % under SSP1 in East China, Europe, and the eastern US leads to higher isoprene emissions leading 2-5 ppb increase in summer O3 levels. Climate-induced meteorological changes, like rising temperatures, further enhance BVOC emissions and increase O3 levels by 10-20 ppb in urban areas with high NOx levels. However, higher BVOC emissions can reduce O3 levels by 5-10 ppb in remote environments. Future NOx emissions control reduces O3 levels by 5-20 ppb in the US and Europe in all SSPs, but reductions in NOx and changes in oxidant titration increase O3 in southeast China in SSP5. Increased NOx emissions in southern Africa and India significantly elevate O3 levels up to 15 ppb under different SSPs. Climate change is equally important as emissions changes, sometimes countering the benefits of emissions control. The combined effects of emissions, climate, and land cover result in worse O3 air quality in northern India (+40 %) and East China (+20 %) under SSP3 due to anthropogenic NOx and climate-induced BVOC emissions. Over the northern hemisphere, surface O3 decreases due to reduced NOx emissions, although climate and land use changes can increase O3 levels regionally. By 2050, O3 levels in most Asian regions exceed the World Health Organization safety limit for over 150 days per year. Our study emphasizes the need to consider complex interactions for effective air pollution control and management in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 23(17): 9911-9961, 2023 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37990693

RESUMO

A primary sink of air pollutants and their precursors is dry deposition. Dry deposition estimates differ across chemical transport models, yet an understanding of the model spread is incomplete. Here, we introduce Activity 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative Phase 4 (AQMEII4). We examine 18 dry deposition schemes from regional and global chemical transport models as well as standalone models used for impact assessments or process understanding. We configure the schemes as single-point models at eight Northern Hemisphere locations with observed ozone fluxes. Single-point models are driven by a common set of site-specific meteorological and environmental conditions. Five of eight sites have at least 3 years and up to 12 years of ozone fluxes. The interquartile range across models in multiyear mean ozone deposition velocities ranges from a factor of 1.2 to 1.9 annually across sites and tends to be highest during winter compared with summer. No model is within 50 % of observed multiyear averages across all sites and seasons, but some models perform well for some sites and seasons. For the first time, we demonstrate how contributions from depositional pathways vary across models. Models can disagree with respect to relative contributions from the pathways, even when they predict similar deposition velocities, or agree with respect to the relative contributions but predict different deposition velocities. Both stomatal and nonstomatal uptake contribute to the large model spread across sites. Our findings are the beginning of results from AQMEII4 Activity 2, which brings scientists who model air quality and dry deposition together with scientists who measure ozone fluxes to evaluate and improve dry deposition schemes in the chemical transport models used for research, planning, and regulatory purposes.

5.
Nat Food ; 2(12): 997-1004, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37118261

RESUMO

Shifting towards more meat-intensive diets may have indirect health consequences through environmental degradation. Here we examine how trends in dietary patterns in China over 1980-2010 have worsened fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution, thereby inducing indirect health impacts. We show that changes in dietary composition alone, mainly by driving the rising demands for meat and animal feed, have enhanced ammonia (NH3) emissions from Chinese agriculture by 63% and increased annual PM2.5 by up to ~10 µg m-3 (~20% of total PM2.5 increase) over the period. Such effects are more than double that driven by increased food production solely due to population growth. Shifting the current diet towards a less meat-intensive recommended diet can decrease NH3 emission by ~17% and PM2.5 by 2-6 µg m-3, and avoid ~75,000 Chinese annual premature deaths related to PM2.5.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137958, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208283

RESUMO

Maize is the second most important crop per harvested area in the world. The North China Plain (NCP) is a highly populated and relevant agricultural region in China, experiencing some of the highest ozone (O3) concentrations worldwide. It produces ~24% of the total maize production of China in years 2014-2017. For these years, we used observational O3 data in combination with geostatistic methods to estimate county-level production and economic losses due to O3 in the NCP. AOT40 (accumulated ozone exposure over an hourly threshold of 40 ppb) values during the maize growing season (90 days before maturity) progressively increased in the four consecutive years: 13.7 ppm h, 15.4 ppm h, 16.9 ppm h and 22.7 ppm h. Mean relative yield losses were 8.2% in 2014, 9.2% in 2015, 10.4% in 2016 and 13.4% in 2017. These yield losses, derived from exposure-response functions, resulted in crop production losses of 530.3 × 104 t, 617.8 × 104 t, 713.8 × 104 t, and 953.4 × 104 t, as well as economic losses of 2343 million USD, 2672 million USD, 1887 million USD, and 2404 million USD from 2014 to 2017. The NCP is a key area in China for monitoring the effectiveness of the clean air action policies aiming at reducing emissions of air pollutants. Despite these measures, O3 concentrations have increased in NCP, and reduction of this pollutant are challenging. We suggest an increase in the number of rural air quality stations for better characterizing O3 trends in cropland areas, as well as the application of different mitigation measures. They may involve more stringent air quality regulations and changes in crops, breeding tolerant cultivars and a crop management taking into account O3 pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Zea mays , Poluentes Atmosféricos , China , Ozônio
7.
Rev Geophys ; 58(1)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748825

RESUMO

Dry deposition of ozone is an important sink of ozone in near surface air. When dry deposition occurs through plant stomata, ozone can injure the plant, altering water and carbon cycling and reducing crop yields. Quantifying both stomatal and nonstomatal uptake accurately is relevant for understanding ozone's impact on human health as an air pollutant and on climate as a potent short-lived greenhouse gas and primary control on the removal of several reactive greenhouse gases and air pollutants. Robust ozone dry deposition estimates require knowledge of the relative importance of individual deposition pathways, but spatiotemporal variability in nonstomatal deposition is poorly understood. Here we integrate understanding of ozone deposition processes by synthesizing research from fields such as atmospheric chemistry, ecology, and meteorology. We critically review methods for measurements and modeling, highlighting the empiricism that underpins modeling and thus the interpretation of observations. Our unprecedented synthesis of knowledge on deposition pathways, particularly soil and leaf cuticles, reveals process understanding not yet included in widely-used models. If coordinated with short-term field intensives, laboratory studies, and mechanistic modeling, measurements from a few long-term sites would bridge the molecular to ecosystem scales necessary to establish the relative importance of individual deposition pathways and the extent to which they vary in space and time. Our recommended approaches seek to close knowledge gaps that currently limit quantifying the impact of ozone dry deposition on air quality, ecosystems, and climate.

8.
Plant Cell Environ ; 42(1): 373-385, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30329164

RESUMO

The superior agronomic and human nutritional properties of grain legumes (pulses) make them an ideal foundation for future sustainable agriculture. Legume-based farming is particularly important in Africa, where small-scale agricultural systems dominate the food production landscape. Legumes provide an inexpensive source of protein and nutrients to African households as well as natural fertilization for the soil. Although the consumption of traditionally grown legumes has started to decline, the production of soybeans (Glycine max Merr.) is spreading fast, especially across southern Africa. Predictions of future land-use allocation and production show that the soybean is poised to dominate future production across Africa. Land use models project an expansion of harvest area, whereas crop models project possible yield increases. Moreover, a seed change in farming strategy is underway. This is being driven largely by the combined cash crop value of products such as oils and the high nutritional benefits of soybean as an animal feed. Intensification of soybean production has the potential to reduce the dependence of Africa on soybean imports. However, a successful "soybean bonanza" across Africa necessitates an intensive research, development, extension, and policy agenda to ensure that soybean genetic improvements and production technology meet future demands for sustainable production.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Grão Comestível , África , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produção Agrícola/tendências , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Previsões , Modelos Estatísticos , /crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(8): 4275-82, 2012 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22380547

RESUMO

In jurisdictions including the US and the EU ground transportation and marine fuels have recently been required to contain lower concentrations of sulfur, which has resulted in reduced atmospheric SO(x) emissions. In contrast, the maximum sulfur content of aviation fuel has remained unchanged at 3000 ppm (although sulfur levels average 600 ppm in practice). We assess the costs and benefits of a potential ultra-low sulfur (15 ppm) jet fuel standard ("ULSJ"). We estimate that global implementation of ULSJ will cost US$1-4bn per year and prevent 900-4000 air quality-related premature mortalities per year. Radiative forcing associated with reduction in atmospheric sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium loading is estimated at +3.4 mW/m(2) (equivalent to about 1/10th of the warming due to CO(2) emissions from aviation) and ULSJ increases life cycle CO(2) emissions by approximately 2%. The public health benefits are dominated by the reduction in cruise SO(x) emissions, so a key uncertainty is the atmospheric modeling of vertical transport of pollution from cruise altitudes to the ground. Comparisons of modeled and measured vertical profiles of CO, PAN, O(3), and (7)Be indicate that this uncertainty is low relative to uncertainties regarding the value of statistical life and the toxicity of fine particulate matter.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/normas , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Hidrocarbonetos/normas , Óxidos de Enxofre/normas , Enxofre/normas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/economia , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Mudança Climática , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado/economia , Material Particulado/normas , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Enxofre/economia , Óxidos de Enxofre/economia , Incerteza
11.
Environ Microbiol ; 11(4): 823-32, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19021692

RESUMO

In order to expand our understanding of the diversity and biogeography of Prochlorococcus ribotypes, we PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced the 16S/23S rRNA ITS region from sites in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Ninety-three per cent of the ITS sequences could be assigned to existing Prochlorococcus clades, although many novel subclades were detected. We assigned the sequences to operational taxonomic units using a graduated scale of sequence identity from 80% to 99.5% and correlated Prochlorococcus diversity with respect to environmental variables and dispersal time between the sites. Dispersal time was estimated using a global ocean circulation model. The significance of specific environmental variables was dependent on the degree of sequence identity used to define a taxon: light correlates with broad-scale diversity (90% cut-off), temperature with intermediate scale (95%) whereas no correlation with phosphate was observed. Community structure was correlated with dispersal time between sample sites only when taxa were defined using the finest sequence similarity cut-off. Surprisingly, the concentration of nitrate, which cannot be used as N source by the Prochlorococcus strains in culture, explains some variation in community structure for some definitions of taxa. This study suggests that the spatial distribution of Prochlorococcus ecotypes is shaped by a hierarchy of environmental factors as well dispersal limitation.


Assuntos
Prochlorococcus/classificação , Prochlorococcus/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Oceano Atlântico , Biodiversidade , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Geografia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Tempo
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