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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105177, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350170

RESUMO

Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows is often misdiagnosed because it lacks clinical signs and detection indicators. However, it is highly prevalent and may transform into clinical ketosis if not treated promptly. Due to the negative energy balance, a large amount of fat is mobilized, producing NEFA that exceeds the upper limit of liver processing, which in turn leads to the disturbance of liver lipid metabolism. The silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is closely related to hepatic lipid metabolism disorders. Exosomes as signal transmitters, also play a role in the circulatory system. We hypothesize that the circulating exosome-mediated adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα)-SIRT1 pathway regulates lipid metabolism disorders in SCK cows. We extracted the exosomes required for the experiment from the peripheral circulating blood of non-ketotic (NK) and SCK cows. We investigated the effect of circulating exosomes on the expression levels of mRNA and protein of the AMPKα-SIRT1 pathway in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)-induced dairy cow primary hepatocytes using in vitro cell experiments. The results showed that circulating exosomes increased the expression levels of Lipolysis-related genes and proteins (AMPKα, SIRT1, and PGC-1α) in hepatocytes treated with 1.2 mM NEFA, and inhibited the expression of lipid synthesis-related genes and protein (SREBP-1C). The regulation of exosomes on lipid metabolism disorders caused by 1.2 mM NEFA treatment showed the same trend as for SIRT1-overexpressing adenovirus. The added exosomes could regulate NEFA-induced lipid metabolism in hepatocytes by mediating the AMPKα-SIRT1 pathway, consistent with the effect of transfected SIRT1 adenovirus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Exossomos , Cetose , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Exossomos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/veterinária , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Cetose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 107(1): 625-640, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37709032

RESUMO

Excessive free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation and related metabolism are the major cause of oxidative stress and liver injury in dairy cows during the early postpartum period. In nonruminants, activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) can improve cell damage and reduce the overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. As a downstream target of TFEB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α, gene name PPARGC1A) is a critical regulator of oxidative metabolism. Nuciferine (Nuc), a major bioactive compound isolated from the lotus leaf, has been reported to possess hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether Nuc could protect bovine hepatocytes from FFA-induced lipotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. A mixture of FFA was diluted in RPMI-1640 basic medium containing 2% low fatty acid bovine serum albumin to treat hepatocytes. Bovine hepatocytes were isolated from newborn calves and treated with various concentrations of FFA mixture (0, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.2 mM) or Nuc (0, 25, 50, or 100 µM), as well as co-treated with 1.2 mM FFA and different concentrations of Nuc. For the experiments of gene silencing, bovine hepatocytes were transfected with small interfering RNA targeted against TFEB or PPARGC1A for 36 h followed by treatment with 1.2 mM FFA for 12 h in presence or absence of 100 µΜ Nuc. The results revealed that FFA treatment decreased protein abundance of nuclear TFEB, cytosolic TFEB, total (t)-TFEB, lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and PGC-1α and mRNA abundance of LAMP1, but increased phosphorylated (p)-TFEB. In addition, FFA treatment increased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and decreased the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in bovine hepatocytes. Moreover, FFA administration enhanced the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) in the medium of FFA-treated hepatocytes, but reduced the content of urea. In FFA-treated bovine hepatocytes, Nuc administration increased TFEB nuclear localization and the protein abundance of t-TFEB, LAMP1, and PGC-1α and mRNA abundance of LAMP1, decreased the contents of MDA and H2O2 and the protein abundance of p-TFEB, and enhanced the activities of CAT and GSH-Px in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, Nuc administration reduced the activities of ALT, AST, and LDH and increased the content of urea in the medium of FFA-treated hepatocytes. Importantly, knockdown of TFEB reduced the protein abundance of p-TFEB, t-TFEB, LAMP1, and PGC-1α and mRNA abundance of LAMP1, and impeded the beneficial effects of Nuc on FFA-induced oxidative damage in bovine hepatocytes. In addition, PPARGC1A silencing did not alter Nuc-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB, increase of the protein abundance of t-TFEB, LAMP1, and PGC-1α and mRNA abundance of LAMP1, or decrease of the protein abundance of p-TFEB, whereas it partially reduced the beneficial effects of Nuc on FFA-caused oxidative injury. Taken together, Nuc exerts protective effects against FFA-induced oxidative damage in bovine hepatocytes through activation of the TFEB/PGC-1α signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Aporfinas , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , PPAR gama , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/farmacologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ureia
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 106(7): 5182-5195, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37268580

RESUMO

Adiponectin (encoded by ADIPOQ) is an adipokine that orchestrates energy homeostasis by modulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism in peripheral tissues. During the periparturient period, dairy cows often develop adipose tissue inflammation and decreased plasma adiponectin levels. Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a pivotal role in regulating the endocrine functions of adipocytes, but whether it affects adiponectin production in calf adipocytes remains obscure. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether TNF-α could affect adiponectin production in calf adipocytes and to identify the underlying mechanism. Adipocytes isolated from Holstein calves were differentiated and used for (1) BODIPY493/503 staining; (2) treatment with 0.1 ng/mL TNF-α for different times (0, 8, 16, 24, or 48 h); (3) transfection with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) small interfering RNA for 48 h followed by treatment with or without 0.1 ng/mL TNF-α for 24 h; and (4) overexpression of PPARG for 48 h followed by treatment with or without 0.1 ng/mL TNF-α for 24 h. After differentiation, obvious lipid droplets and secretion of adiponectin were observed in adipocytes. Treatment with TNF-α did not alter mRNA abundance of ADIPOQ but reduced the total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin content in the supernatant of adipocytes. Quantification of mRNA abundance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi resident chaperones involved in adiponectin assembly revealed that ER protein 44 (ERP44), ER oxidoreductase 1α (ERO1A), and disulfide bond-forming oxidoreductase A-like protein (GSTK1) were downregulated in TNF-α-treated adipocytes, while 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein and Golgi-localizing γ-adaptin ear homology domain ARF binding protein-1 were unaltered. Moreover, TNF-α diminished nuclear translocation of PPARγ and downregulated mRNA abundance of PPARG and its downstream target gene fatty acid synthase, suggesting that TNF-α suppressed the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. In the absence of TNF-α, overexpression of PPARG enhanced the total and HMW adiponectin content in supernatant and upregulated the mRNA abundance of ADIPOQ, ERP44, ERO1A, and GSTK1 in adipocytes. However, knockdown of PPARG reduced the total and HMW adiponectin content in supernatant and downregulated the mRNA abundance of ADIPOQ, ERP44, ERO1A, and GSTK1 in adipocytes. In the presence of TNF-α, overexpression of PPARG decreased, while knockdown of PPARG further exacerbated TNF-α-induced reductions in total and HMW adiponectin secretion and gene expression of ERP44, ERO1A, and GSTK1. Overall, TNF-α reduces adiponectin assembly in the calf adipocyte, which may be partly mediated by attenuation of PPARγ transcriptional activity. Thus, locally elevated levels of TNF-α in adipose tissue may be one reason for the decrease in circulating adiponectin in periparturient dairy cows.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , PPAR gama , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Adiponectina/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo
4.
Talanta ; 257: 124344, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36801758

RESUMO

Due to the serious risks of lead pollution to human health, it plays a great role in constructing a simple, inexpensive, portable, and user-friendly strategy for Pb2+ detection in environmental samples. Herein, a paper-based distance sensor is developed to detect Pb2+ assisted with the target-responsive DNA hydrogel. Pb2+ can activate DNAzyme to cleave its substrate strand, which results in the hydrolysis of the DNA hydrogel. The released water molecules trapped in the hydrogel can flow along the patterned pH paper due to the capillary force. The water flow distance (WFD) is significantly influenced by the amount of water released from the collapsed DNA hydrogel triggered by the addition of various Pb2+ concentrations. In this way, Pb2+ can be quantitatively detected without using specialized instruments and labeled molecules, and the limit of detection (LOD) of Pb2+ is 3.0 nM. Additionally, the Pb2+ sensor works well in lake water and tap water. Overall, this simple, inexpensive, portable, and user-friendly method is very promising for quantitative and in-field detection of Pb2+ with excellent sensitivity and selectivity.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , DNA Catalítico , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Chumbo , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Ouro/química , DNA/química , DNA Catalítico/química , Água , Limite de Detecção
5.
Autophagy ; 19(8): 2240-2256, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36779633

RESUMO

Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the predominant cause of drug-induced liver injury worldwide. The macroautophagy/autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) is involved in the APAP hepatotoxicity. TFEB (transcription factor EB) promotes the expression of genes related to autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, thus, pharmacological activation of TFEB-mediated ALP may be an effective therapeutic approach for treating APAP-induced liver injury. We aimed to reveal the effects of narirutin (NR), the main bioactive constituents isolated from citrus peels, on APAP hepatotoxicity and to explore its underlying mechanism. Administration of NR enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, improved mitochondrial dysfunction and alleviated liver injury in APAP-treated mice, whereas NR did not affect APAP metabolism and MAPK/JNK activation. NR enhanced TFEB transcriptional activity and activated ALP in an MTOR complex 1 (MTORC1)-independent but PPP3/calcineurin-dependent manner. Moreover, knockout of Tfeb or knockdown of PPP3CB/CNA2 (protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isoform) in the liver abolished the beneficial effects of NR on APAP overdose. Mechanistically, NR bound to PPP3CB via PRO31, LYS61 and PRO347 residues and enhanced PPP3/calcineurin activity, thereby eliciting dephosphorylation of TFEB and promoting ALP, which alleviated APAP-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. Together, NR protects against APAP-induced liver injury by activating a PPP3/calcineurin-TFEB-ALP axis, indicating NR may be a potential agent for treating APAP overdose.Abbreviations: ALP: autophagy-lysosomal pathway; APAP: acetaminophen; APAP-AD: APAP-protein adducts; APAP-Cys: acetaminophen-cysteine adducts; CAT: catalase; CETSA: cellular thermal shift assay; CQ: chloroquine; CYP2E1: cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily e, polypeptide 1; CYCS/Cyt c: cytochrome c, somatic; DARTS: drug affinity responsive target stability assay; ENGASE/NAG: endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase; GOT1/AST: glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1, soluble; GPT/ALT: glutamic pyruvic transaminase, soluble; GSH: glutathione; GPX/GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase; KD: dissociation constant; Leu: leupeptin; MCOLN1: mucolipin 1; MTORC1: MTOR complex 1; NAC: N-acetylcysteine; NAPQI: N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine; NFAT: nuclear factor of activated T cells; NR: narirutin; OA: okadaic acid; RRAG: Ras related GTP binding; ROS: reactive oxygen species; PPP3CB/CNA2: protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isoform; PPP3R1/CNB1: protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha isoform (calcineurin B, type I); SOD: superoxide dismutase; SPR: surface plasmon resonance analysis; TFEB: transcription factor EB.


Assuntos
Calcineurina , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Camundongos , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Acetaminofen , Autofagia/genética , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8426-8438, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965124

RESUMO

Sustained lipolysis and insulin resistance increase the risk of metabolic dysfunction in dairy cows during the transition period. Proinflammatory cytokines are key regulators of adipose tissue metabolism in nonruminants, but biological functions of these molecules in ruminants are not well known. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) could affect insulin sensitivity and lipolysis in bovine adipocytes as well as the underlying mechanisms. Bovine adipocytes (obtained from the omental and mesenteric adipose depots) isolated from 5 Holstein female calves (1 d old) with similar body weight (median: 36.9 kg, range: 35.5-41.2 kg) were differentiated and used for (1) treatment with different concentrations of TNF-α (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 ng/mL) for 12 h; (2) pretreatment with 10 µM lipolytic agonist isoproterenol (ISO) for 3 h, followed by treatment with or without 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 12 h; and (3) pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 (20 µM for 2 h) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor BAY 11-7082 (10 µM for 1 h) followed by treatment with or without 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 12 h. The TNF-α increased glycerol content in supernatant, decreased triglyceride content and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B suggesting activation of lipolysis and impairment of insulin sensitivity. The TNF-α reduced cell viability, upregulated mRNA abundance of Caspase 3 (CASP3), an apoptosis marker, and increased activity of Caspase 3. In addition, increased phosphorylation of NF-κB and JNK, upregulation of mRNA abundance of interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNFA, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) suggested that TNF-α activated NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways. Furthermore, ISO plus TNF-α-activated NF-κB and JNK signaling pathway to a greater extent than TNF-α alone. Combining TNF-α and ISO aggravated TNF-α-induced apoptosis, insulin insensitivity and lipolysis. In the absence of TNF-α, inhibition of NF-κB and JNK did not alter glycerol content in supernatant, triglyceride content or insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B. In the presence of TNF-α, inhibition of NF-κB and JNK alleviated TNF-α-induced apoptosis, insulin insensitivity and lipolysis. Overall, TNF-α impairs insulin sensitivity and induces lipolysis and apoptosis in bovine adipocytes, which may be partly mediated by activation of NF-κB and JNK. Thus, the data suggested that NF-κB and JNK are potential therapeutic targets for alleviating lipolysis dysregulation and insulin resistance in adipocytes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Resistência à Insulina , Insulinas , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicerol/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Lipólise , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Anal Chem ; 94(11): 4643-4649, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258931

RESUMO

Hyaluronidase (HAase) is implicated in inflammation, cancer development, and allergic reaction. The detection of HAase is significantly important in clinical diagnosis and medical treatment. Herein, we propose a new principle for the development of equipment-free and label-free paper-based flow sensors based on the enzymatic hydrolysis-induced viscosity change in a stimuli-responsive polymer solution, which increases the water flow distance on the pH indicator paper. The detection of HAase is demonstrated as an example. This facile and versatile method can overcome the potential drawbacks of traditional hydrogel-based sensors, including complex preparation steps, slow response time, or low sensitivity. Moreover, it can also avoid the use of specialized instruments, labeled molecules, or functionalized nanoparticles in the sensors developed using the polymer solutions. Using this strategy, the detection of HAase is achieved with a limit of detection as low as 0.2 U/mL. Also, it works well in human urine. Additionally, the detection of tannic acid, which is an inhibitor of HAase, is also fulfilled. Overall, a simple, efficient, high-throughput, and low-cost detection method is developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of HAase and its inhibitor without the use of labeled molecules, synthetic particles, and specialized instruments. As only minimal reagents of HAase, HA, and paper are used, it is very promising in the development of commercial kits for point-of-care testing.


Assuntos
Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Polímeros , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/urina , Hidrólise , Viscosidade
8.
Anal Chem ; 92(3): 2748-2755, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927942

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) is closely related to lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, is prone to addition with biomacromolecules, resulting in a secondary cerebral injury. However, desirable tools for in vivo-determining cerebral MDA are scarce. Thus, we devised innovative polymer carbon dots carbonized by benzoyl hydrazine and named them BH-PCDs. BH-PCDs covered with hydrazine groups directly form from one-pot synthesis. The functional nanoparticle specifically identifies MDA via a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism from other similar biological species, especially reactive carbonyl species. BH-PCDs afforded several valuable traits of a simple preparation, a large two-photon absorption cross section, and exceptional biocompatibility, as well as the ability of traversing the blood-brain barrier. Relying on BH-PCDs, we real-time portrayed the increased cerebral MDA under CIRI. Furthermore, combining with a commercial indicator of the superoxide anion (O2•-), an O2•--regulated MDA level under CIRI was visualized in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated MDA inactivated glutamine synthetase under CIRI, mediating the glutamate level. Overall, we provide a perspective nanolight serviceable for treating CIRI, which could reveal the physiopathology mechanism of brain MDA.


Assuntos
Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Animais , Carbono/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidrazinas/química , Malondialdeído/análise , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Fótons , Polímeros/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Transdução de Sinais
9.
J Surg Res ; 178(2): 578-85, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22749532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors investigated the cardioprotection afforded by postconditioning with intravenous infusion of emulsified isoflurane in a rat model in vivo and determined the role of Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway in such procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were subjected to a 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by a 120-min reperfusion. Postconditioning was achieved by inhalation of 1 minimum alveolar concentration isoflurane or intravenous infusion of emulsified isoflurane (8% vol/vol) during the last 3 min of coronary artery occlusion and the first 5 min of reperfusion. AG490 was used to inhibit the activity of JAK2. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Expressions of JAK2, STAT1, and STAT3 were measured by Western blot. RESULTS: Infarct size was significantly reduced from 51.6% ± 7.6% in the control group to 29.8% ± 7.0% in rats postconditioned with inhalation of isoflurane (P < 0.01). A powerful infarct-sparing effect was also induced by postconditioning with intravenous infusion of emulsified isoflurane (33.7% ± 5.6% versus control group, P < 0.01). Pretreatment with AG490 abolished the anti-infarct effects conducted by either inhalation of isoflurane (44.1% ± 7.1% versus control group, P > 0.05) or intravenous infusion of emulsified isoflurane (51.4% ± 6.8% versus control group, P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, postconditioning with inhalation of isoflurane or infusion of emulsified isoflurane remarkably enhanced the expression of phosphorylation of JAK2 Tyr(1007)/Tyr(1008) and STAT3 Tyr(705), but not phosphorylation of STAT1 Tyr(701). CONCLUSIONS: Postconditioning with intravenous infusion of emulsified isoflurane induces powerful cardioprotection, which is mediated, at least in part, by activating JAK-STAT pathway.


Assuntos
Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Janus Quinase 2/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/fisiologia , Animais , Emulsões , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
10.
J Surg Res ; 178(1): 96-104, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22482760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We measured the cardioprotection afforded by sevoflurane postconditioning in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (DRs) and determined the roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in such a procedure. METHODS: DRs and nondiabetic rats (NDRs) were subjected to a 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by a 120-min reperfusion. Postconditioning was achieved by inhalation of 1 minimum alveolar concentration sevoflurane at the first 5 min of reperfusion. The infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Expressions of GSK-3ß, Akt, and ERK1/2 were measured using Western blotting. RESULTS: In NDRs, the infarct size was significantly decreased from 53.4% ± 7.6% to 34.9% ± 5.6% by sevoflurane postconditioning (P < 0.01). Such an anti-infarct effect was abolished completely in the DRs, as evidenced by a similar infarct size observed between the sevoflurane-treated and untreated DRs (49.3% ± 8.6% and 49.6% ± 9.3%, respectively, P > 0.05). Direct inhibition of GSK-3ß by injection of SB216763 just before the start of reperfusion induced equivalent infarct-sparing effects in both NDRs (37.8% ± 3.9% and 53.4% ± 7.6% in SB216763-treated and untreated NDRs, respectively; P < 0.01) and DRs (38.8% ± 3.2% and 49.3% ± 8.6% in SB216763-treated and untreated DRs, respectively; P < 0.05). Sevoflurane postconditioning remarkably enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK-3ß Ser(9), Akt Ser(473), and ERK1/2 in NDRs, which were blocked in DRs. CONCLUSIONS: The cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane postconditioning is abolished by diabetes. This might be due to the impairment of phosphorylation of GSK-3ß and its upstream signaling pathways of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt and ERK1/2 in the presence of diabetes.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Éteres Metílicos/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sevoflurano
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