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1.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 35(11)2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603227

RESUMO

The dynamic structure factorS(Q,E), whereQandEare momentum and energy transfer, respectively, has been measured for liquid Eu8Ga16Ge30(EGG), using inelastic x-ray scattering. The excitation energy of the longitudinal acoustic mode in the liquid was scaled to that in liquid Ba8Ga16Sn30(BGS) with the effective mass. This result means that the local structure in both liquids are similar. The longitudinal acoustic excitation energy of type-I clathrate compound EGG disperses faster than that in the liquid, suggesting that the interatomic force is weakened on melting. The lower energy excitation was observed in both liquid EGG and liquid BGS. In comparison with the longitudinal phonon dispersion in crystalline clathrate compound EGG obtained by density functional theory-based calculations, the lower energy in the liquid was found to be near the optical mode energy. The result indicates that the lower energy mode arises from the relative motion between Eu and (Ga, Ge) atoms.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 60(15): 11364-11373, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269565

RESUMO

Copper-based sulfides are promising materials for thermoelectric applications, which can convert waste heat into electricity. This study reports the enhanced thermoelectric performance of Cu26V2Ge6S32 colusite via substitution of antimony (Sb) for germanium (Ge) and introduction of copper (Cu) as an interstitial atom. The crystal structure of the solid solutions and Cu-rich compounds were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both chemical approaches decrease the hole carrier concentration, which leads to a reduction in the electronic thermal conductivity while keeping the thermoelectric power factor at a high value. Furthermore, the interstitial Cu atoms act as phonon scatterers, thereby decreasing the lattice thermal conductivity. The combined effects increase the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT from 0.3 (Cu26V2Ge6S32) to 0.8 (Cu29V2Ge5SbS32) at 673 K.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(2): 1425-1432, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620579

RESUMO

We report the preparations, thermoelectric and magnetic properties, and electronic structures of Cu-Ti-S systems, namely, cubic thiospinel c-Cu1- xTi2S4 ( x ≤ 0.375), a derivative cubic and Ti-rich phase c-Cu1- xTi2.25S4 ( x = 0.5, 0.625), and a rhombohedral phase r-CuTi2S4. All samples have the target compositions except for r-CuTi2S4, whose actual composition is Cu1.14Ti1.80S4. All of the phases have n-type metallic character and exhibit Pauli paramagnetism, as proven by experiments and first-principles calculations. The Cu and Ti deficiencies in c-Cu1- xTi2S4 and r-CuTi2S4, respectively, decrease the electron-carrier concentration, whereas the "excess" of Ti ions in c-Cu1- xTi2.25S4 largely increases it. For r-CuTi2S4, the reduced carrier concentration increases the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient, leading to the highest thermoelectric power factor of 0.5 mW K-2 m-1 at 670 K. For all of the Cu-Ti-S phases, the thermal conductivity at 670 K is 3.5-5 W K-1 m-1, where the lattice part of the conductivity is as low as 1 W K-1 m-1 at 670 K. As a result, r-CuTi2S4 shows the highest dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of 0.2. The present systematic study on the Cu-Ti-S systems provides insights into the structural design of thermoelectric materials based on Cu-M-S (M = transition-metal elements).

4.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(12): 125603, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641513

RESUMO

The crystalline electric field (CEF) level scheme and magnetic structure of a tetragonal antiferromagnet CePd5Al2 with [Formula: see text] K and [Formula: see text] K were studied by neutron scattering, magnetization and magnetoresistance measurements. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on the powder sample revealed CEF excitations at 21.3 and 22.4 meV. The derived wave functions of the CEF ground state for the Ce3+ ion consist primarily of [Formula: see text] under the tetragonal symmetry. By means of single-crystal neutron diffraction, magnetic Bragg peaks characterized by a propagation vector [Formula: see text] were observed at [Formula: see text]. Our analysis indicates a sinusoidally modulated magnetic structure with amplitude of 2.0(1) [Formula: see text]/Ce, where the magnetic moments point to the [Formula: see text]-axis. The intensity of the third-order harmonic at 0.8 K is 1/30 as small as that expected for an antiphase structure, suggesting that the modulated structure remains at least down to 0.8 K. Both the magnetization and magnetoresistance show several anomalies in the magnetically ordered phase, indicating field-induced successive changes of the magnetic structure.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(13): 3273-3278, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531069

RESUMO

One initial and essential question of magnetism is whether the magnetic properties of a material are governed by localized moments or itinerant electrons. Here, we expose the case for the weakly ferromagnetic system FeGa3-y Ge y , wherein these two opposite models are reconciled, such that the magnetic susceptibility is quantitatively explained by taking into account the effects of spin-spin correlation. With the electron doping introduced by Ge substitution, the diamagnetic insulating parent compound FeGa3 becomes a paramagnetic metal as early as at y=0.01, and turns into a weakly ferromagnetic metal around the quantum critical point y=0.15. Within the ferromagnetic regime of FeGa3-y Ge y , the magnetic properties are of a weakly itinerant ferromagnetic nature, located in the intermediate regime between the localized and the itinerant dominance. Our analysis implies a potential universality for all itinerant-electron ferromagnets.

6.
Adv Mater ; 30(13): e1706230, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388262

RESUMO

Thermoelectric devices convert heat flow to charge flow, providing electricity. Materials for highly efficient devices must satisfy conflicting requirements of high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity in caged compounds is known to be suppressed by a large vibration of guest atoms, so-called rattling, which effectively scatters phonons. Here, the crystal structure and phonon dynamics of tetrahedrites (Cu,Zn)12 (Sb,As)4 S13 are studied. The results reveal that the Cu atoms in a planar coordination are rattling. In contrast to caged compounds, chemical pressure enlarges the amplitude of the rattling vibration in the tetrahedrites so that the rattling atom is squeezed out of the planar coordination. Furthermore, the rattling vibration shakes neighbors through lone pairs of the metalloids, Sb and As, which is responsible for the low thermal conductivity of tetrahedrites. These findings provide a new strategy for the development of highly efficient thermoelectric materials with planar coordination.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(13): 8874-8879, 2017 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28294254

RESUMO

The synthetic tetrahedrites Cu12-yTrySb4S13 (Tr: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) have been extensively studied due to interest in metal-semiconductor transition as well as in superior thermoelectric performance. We have prepared Ge- and Sn-bearing tetrahedrites, Cu12-xMxSb4S13 (M = Ge, Sn; x ≤ 0.6), and investigated the effects of the substitutions on the phase transition and the thermoelectric properties. The substitutions of Ge and Sn for Cu suppress the metal-semiconductor transition and increase the electrical resistivity ρ and the positive thermopower S. This finding suggests that the phase transition is prevented by electron doping into the unoccupied states of the valence band. The variations of ρ, S, and magnetic susceptibility for the present systems correspond well with those for the system with Tr = Zn2+, confirming the tetravalent states for Ge and Sn. The substitution of M4+ for Cu1+ decreases the power factor S2/ρ but enhances the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT, due to reductions in both the charge carrier contribution and lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity. As a result, ZT has a maximum value of ∼0.65 at 665 K for x = 0.3-0.5 in Cu12-xMxSb4S13 with M = Ge and Sn.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(21): 216401, 2016 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27911533

RESUMO

The "failed Kondo insulator" CeNiSn has long been suspected to be a nodal metal, with a node in the hybridization matrix elements. Here we carry out a series of Nernst effect experiments to delineate whether the severely anisotropic magnetotransport coefficients do indeed derive from a nodal metal or can simply be explained by a highly anisotropic Fermi surface. Our experiments reveal that despite an almost twentyfold anisotropy in the Hall conductivity, the large Nernst signal is isotropic. Taken in conjunction with the magnetotransport anisotropy, these results provide strong support for an isotropic Fermi surface with a large anisotropy in quasiparticle mass derived from a nodal hybridization.

9.
Sci Adv ; 1(3): e1500001, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26601165

RESUMO

Geometrical frustration describes situations where interactions are incompatible with the lattice geometry and stabilizes exotic phases such as spin liquids. Whether geometrical frustration of magnetic interactions in metals can induce unconventional quantum critical points is an active area of research. We focus on the hexagonal heavy fermion metal CeRhSn, where the Kondo ions are located on distorted kagome planes stacked along the c axis. Low-temperature specific heat, thermal expansion, and magnetic Grüneisen parameter measurements prove a zero-field quantum critical point. The linear thermal expansion, which measures the initial uniaxial pressure derivative of the entropy, displays a striking anisotropy. Critical and noncritical behaviors along and perpendicular to the kagome planes, respectively, prove that quantum criticality is driven be geometrical frustration. We also discovered a spin flop-type metamagnetic crossover. This excludes an itinerant scenario and suggests that quantum criticality is related to local moments in a spin liquid-like state.

11.
Sci Rep ; 5: 10309, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25974047

RESUMO

There are many interests to achieve long-range magnetic order in topological insulators of Bi2Se3 or Bi2Te3 by doping magnetic transition metals such as Fe and Mn. The transition metals act as not only magnetic dopants but also electric dopants because they are usually divalent. However, if the doping elements are rare-earth metals such as Gd, which are trivalent, only magnetic moments can be introduced. We fabricated single crystals of Bi2-xGdxTe3 (0 ≤ × ≤ 0.2), in which we observed magnetic phase change from paramagnetic (PM) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase by increasing x. This PM-to-AFM phase transition agrees with the density functional theory calculations showing a weak and short-ranged Gd-Gd AFM coupling via the intervening Te ions. The critical point corresponding to the magnetic phase transition is x = 0.09, where large linear magnetoresistance and highly anisotropic Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are observed. These results are discussed with two-dimensional properties of topological surface state electrons.

12.
Dalton Trans ; 42(41): 14766-75, 2013 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23982481

RESUMO

We report detailed structural investigations of the dimorphic clathrate Ba8Ga16Sn30 that crystallizes in both type I and VIII clathrate structures. Single crystals of type I and VIII have been examined using single crystal X-ray and Laue neutron diffraction in the temperature range T = 10 K-500 K. The utilization of both X-ray and neutron diffraction gives a unique ability to reveal the occurrence of minute vacancy occupancies in the host structure. The vacancies are shown to be located on the 6c (type I) and 24g (type VIII) framework sites. Largest vacancy densities are observed for type I p-Ba8Ga16Sn30, 1.3(4)%, and type VIII n-Ba8Ga16Sn30, 0.7(2)%. The relation between guest atom disorder and occurrence of glasslike thermal conductivity in intermetallic clathrates was also investigated. In type VIII Ba8Ga16Sn30 neither n-type (crystalline thermal conductivity) nor p-type (glasslike thermal conductivity) showed any significant disorder of the guest atoms; they do however show anharmonic motion. The glasslike thermal conductivity of p-type Ba8Ga16Sn30 is interpretable as a result of higher effective mass of p-type charge-carriers affecting phonon scattering. In type I Ba8Ga16Sn30 guest atoms are highly disordered for both carrier types and samples of both charge carrier types have glasslike thermal conductivity.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 106(5): 056404, 2011 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21405416

RESUMO

We report the anisotropic changes in the electronic structure of a Kondo semiconductor CeOs(2)Al(10) across an anomalous antiferromagnetic ordering temperature (T(0)) of 29 K, using optical conductivity spectra. The spectra along the a and c axes indicate that an energy gap due to the hybridization between conduction bands and nearly local 4f states, namely the c-f hybridization gap, emerges from a higher temperature continuously across T(0). Along the b axis, on the other hand, another energy gap with a peak at 20 meV becomes visible at 39 K (>T(0)) and fully opens at T(0) because of a charge instability. This result implies that the appearance of the energy gap, as well as the change in the electronic structure along the b axis, induces the antiferromagnetic ordering below T(0).

14.
Anal Chem ; 81(4): 1522-8, 2009 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19170607

RESUMO

EuLgamma(4) emission spectra of EuS, EuF(3), EuCl(3), and Eu(2)O(3) were measured using a multicrystal, multidetector spectrometer. Splitting of the EuLgamma(4) band was observed in the EuS spectra and attributed to exchange interactions between Eu5p and Eu4f. It was shown that because of this splitting, the EuLgamma(4) emission could be used for performing spin-selective measurements. This emission exhibited a large chemical shift (approximately 5 eV), depending on the valence state of a compound. The applicability of this emission to valence-selective X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was demonstrated through partial fluorescence yield measurements performed on a 1:1 mixture of EuS and Eu(2)O(3) and on a valence-fluctuating compound Eu(3)Pd(20)Ge(6).

15.
Sci Technol Adv Mater ; 9(4): 044207, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27878024

RESUMO

Extensive soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies are performed on Ba8 Ga16 Ge30 (BGG) and Sr8Ga16Ge30 (SGG) single crystals ranging from Fermi to core levels, at a high-energy facility. Valence band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments with theoretical calculations revealed that the valence band is mainly constructed by the Ge/Ga 4s and 4p wave functions with little contribution of the Ba/Sr atomic orbitals. Surprisingly, unexpected features evidencing the different shift for the 2a- and 6d- sites between Ba 4d and Sr 3d are observed. The detailed analyses including theoretical support by first-principles band-structure calculations lead to the conclusion that the component distributions of the larger tetrakaidecahedral cage are different depending on the endohedral atoms, which contrasts with the past consensus that BGG and SGG have the same framework structure. This may give thorough reconsiderations on earlier interpretations of experimental data.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 44(5): 1460-5, 2005 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15732987

RESUMO

A new germanide, SrGe6-delta (delta congruent with 0.5), was synthesized by the reaction of Sr and Ge mixtures under a pressure of 5 GPa at 1200 degrees C. It crystallized in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63) with a = 4.0981(6) A, b = 11.159(1) A, c = 12.6825(8) A, V = 580.0(1) A3, and Z = 4. SrGe6-delta is composed of a Ge covalent network having a cagelike structure and Sr atoms situated in the cages. Each Ge atom is coordinated by four neighboring Ge atoms. The coordination polyhedra are fairly distorted from an ideal tetrahedron, and the Ge network contains vacancies and disordering. The resistivity shows metallic behavior down to 2 K, and the positive thermoelectric power indicates the dominant carriers to be holes.

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