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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113096, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693116

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disorder and one of the most prevalent conditions encountered in primary care settings. Rhubarb navel dressings have been used for more than 2,000 years in Chinese medicine to treat constipation. However, the effect of topical rhubarb administration has still not been well recognized and this strategy is not yet established as an evidence-based approach. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we performed a prospective multicentric randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhubarb navel plasters for patients with chronic constipation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 374 patients from six teaching hospitals were prospectively included between 09/2016 and 10/2017 in the study based on Rome III criteria. All participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into verum/placebo group and given either Rheum officinale rhubarb powder or a placebo flour stick on the navel for 6 h/day/8 days. Primary outcome measures were the Cleveland Constipation Score (CCS) for the feces condition and Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) for stool consistency and 24 h defecation frequency. RESULTS: The groups demonstrated no statistical differences in demographic data, clinical diagnoses and concomitant medication at baseline. In patients treated with the verum CCS was 5.61 (day 8, 95% CI 5.15-6.07) compared to 8.62 (95% CI 8.07-9.18) in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). The mean change of CCS at the end of treatment (day 8 versus [vs] day 0) was 6.04 in verum-treated vs 2.73 in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). Also 24 h defecation frequency (BSS) showed superior results (day 5: 0.84 vs 0.62, 95% CI 0.67-0.80, P < 0.001; day 6: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64-0.78, P < 0.01 and day 8: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64-0.78, P < 0.01) and better BSS type classification during treatment than controls (P < 0.05). No significant differences in adverse events between both groups became obvious. CONCLUSION: Rhubarb navel plaster administration over an 8-day-treatment period resulted in significantly improved bowel function as demonstrated by the CCS, 24 h defecating frequency and BSS. Our results suggest that rhubarb navel plasters represent a feasible, safe and efficient application route for the treatment of patients suffering from chronic constipation.

2.
Clin Biochem ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by a deficiency of ß-glucosidase (GCase), leading to accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcC) and glucosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb1). Lyso-Gb1 is a reliable biomarker for GD. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to develop a simple, effective and accurate method for the screening and diagnosis of GD using dried blood spot (DBS) samples. METHODS: Lyso-Gb1 in DBS was extracted by 50% acetonitrile aqueous solution containing isotope-labeled internal standard and analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A reference interval was established by analyzing samples from 277 healthy controls. Lyso-Gb1 was detected in the residual DBS samples from 142 high-risk patients with splenomegaly and/or thrombocytopenia. Based on GCase activity in DBS, samples were classified into four groups: confirmed GD patients (n = 52), GD carriers (n = 5), false positive (n = 36) and negative (n = 49). RESULTS: The optimized Lyso-Gb1 assay showed intra- and inter-assay variations ranged between 2.0%-8.2% and 3.8%-10.2%, respectively. Accuracies ranged from 93.5% to 112.6%. The lowest limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The normal reference interval of Lyso-Gb1 in DBS ranged from 2.1 to 9.9 ng/mL. Among the 142 subjects, except for one GD patient (Lyso-Gb1 > 2500 ng/mL), the Lyso-Gb1 concentrations in 51 GD patients ranged from 190.5 to 2380.6 ng/mL (the median 614.8 ng/mL). Also, one negative patient was found to have an elevated Lyso-Gb1 level (684.5 ng/mL), while the other patients were normal. The negative case was then confirmed to be an atypical GD patient with a c.1091A > G (p.Y364C) homozygous variant in PSAP gene by next generation sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: The optimized method to determine Lyso-Gb1 in DBS was demonstrated as a useful tool for the screening and diagnosis of GD.

3.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 1135-1141, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether hemodialysis (HD) patients exhibit future memory impairment (PM; the capability of remembering to perform expected future actions) and exploring relevant factors of PM task performance. METHODS: Sixty HD patients and 60 healthy controls matched by age are enrolled in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Finger Span Test (DST), Oral Fluency Test (VFT), Ray Auditory Oral Learning Test (RAVLT), Received Stroop Color Word Interference Test (SCWT), and event-based PM (EBPM) and time-based PM (TBPM). RESULTS: There were no significant difference between the patients and controls in the DST-Forward digit span (9.00 ± 1.25 versus 8.97 ± 1.33, p = 0.96), the DST-Backward digit span (5.23 ± 1.98 versus. 4.60 ± 1.65, p = 0.11), the RAVLT of delayed recall (7.28 ± 2.36 versus 6.87 ± 3.33, p = 0.09) and the VFT for animals (16.70 ± 3.50 versus 17.68 ± 5.45, p = 0.56). By comparison, patients had a much worse performance than controls on the MMSE (29.10 ± 0.84 versus 28.33 ± 0.77, p < 0.001), the RAVLT of total recall (44.47 ± 5.82 versus 40.03 ± 10.46, p < 0.001) and delayed recognition (6.93 ± 1.49 versus 5.4 ± 1.33, p < 0.001), the SCWT reaction time in reading (6.47 ± 1.05 versus 7.47 ± 1.86, p < 0.001), color naming (9.07 ± 1.29 versus 11.43 ± 2.34, p < 0.001), interference (8.78 ± 1.92 versus 10.22 ± 2.91, p < 0.001) and inhibition/switching (14.53 ± 2.90 versus 19.85 ± 4.69, p < 0.001), the VFT for fruit (17.47 ± 3.18 versus 15.92 ± 4.56, p < 0.001), the EBPM task (7.85 ± 0.40 versus 7.08 ± 1.43, p = 0.01), and the TBPM task (3.30 ± 1.31 versus 2.26 ± 1.82, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EBPM and TBPM are impaired in HD patients and that PM may be applied to help evaluate cognitive dysfunction in HD patients.

4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 509, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth-regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that control organ size. Nineteen GRF genes were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome and one was reported to control leaf size mainly by regulating cell expansion. In this study, we further characterize the roles of the other poplar GRFs in leaf size control in a similar manner. RESULTS: The 19 poplar GRF genes were clustered into six groups according to their phylogenetic relationship with Arabidopsis GRFs. Bioinformatic analysis, degradome, and transient transcription assays showed that 18 poplar GRFs were regulated by miR396, with GRF12b the only exception. The functions of PagGRF6b (Pag, Populus alba × P. glandulosa), PagGRF7a, PagGRF12a, and PagGRF12b, representing three different groups, were investigated. The results show that PagGRF6b may have no function on leaf size control, while PagGRF7a functions as a negative regulator of leaf size by regulating cell expansion. By contrast, PagGRF12a and PagGRF12b may function as positive regulators of leaf size control by regulating both cell proliferation and expansion, primarily cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of poplar GRFs in leaf size control may facilitate the specific, coordinated regulation of poplar leaf development through fine adjustment of cell proliferation and expansion.

5.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 233, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148263

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is independently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, these studies were mainly cross-sectional analyses, and cause was not clarified. In the present study, two bidirectional cohort studies were conducted to investigate the bidirectional associations between CEA and MetS using a Chinese male sample cohort. METHODS: The initial longitudinal cohort included 9629 Chinese males enrolled from January 2010 to December 2015. Two bidirectional cohorts were conducted in the study: subcohort A (from CEA to MetS, n = 6439) included participants without MetS at baseline to estimate the risk of developing incident MetS; subcohort B (from MetS to CEA, n = 8533) included participants without an elevated CEA level (Hyper-CEA) at baseline to examine the risk of developing incident Hyper-CEA. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In subcohort A, the incidence densities of MetS among participants with and without Hyper-CEA were 84.56 and 99.28 per 1000 person-years, respectively. No significant effects of Hyper-CEA on incident MetS were observed in subcohort A (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.12; P = 0.326). In subcohort B, a higher incidence density of Hyper-CEA was found among participants with MetS (33.42 and 29.13 per 1000 person-years for those with and without MetS, respectively). For nonsmoking participants aged > 65 years, MetS increased the risk of incident Hyper-CEA (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.20; P = 0.022). CONCLUSION: For the direction of CEA on incident MetS, no significant association was observed. For the direction of MetS on incident Hyper-CEA, MetS in nonsmoking elderly men could increase the risk of incident Hyper-CEA, while this association was not found in other stratified participants. The clinical implications of the association between CEA and MetS should be interpreted with caution.

6.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(12): 642, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155077

RESUMO

A molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for the detection of serum amyloid A (MAA) in milk was established for early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The electrochemical sensor was initially constructed using a nanocomposite material (reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticles, AuNPs@rGO) to modify the working electrode. The template protein, MAA, was then immobilized using pyrrole as the functional monomer to carry out the electropolymerization. Finally, the template protein was removed to form a molecular imprint film with the capability to qualitatively and quantitatively signaling of MAA. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the modification process of the molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensors. Under optimized conditions, the sensor shows two well-behaved linear relationships in the MAA concentration range 0.01 to 200 ng/mL. A lower detection limit was estimated to be 5 pg/mL (S/N = 3). Other parameters including the selectivity, reproducibility (RSD 3.2%), and recovery rate (96.1-103%) are all satisfactory. Compared with the traditional methods, detection of MAA to determine the subclinical mastitis of dairy cows can efficiently be diagnosed and hence prevent an outbreak of dairy cow mastitis. The electrochemical sensor can detect MAA more rapidly, sensitively, and inexpensively than the ELISA-based MAA detection. These advantages indicate that the method is promising for early diagnosis of dairy cows.

7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 473, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are signaling enzymes that play pivotal roles in response to abiotic and biotic stresses by phosphorylating diacylglycerol (DAG) to form phosphatidic acid (PA). However, no comprehensive analysis of the DGK gene family had previously been reported in B. napus and its diploid progenitors (B. rapa and B. oleracea). RESULTS: In present study, we identified 21, 10, and 11 DGK genes from B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea, respectively, which all contained conserved catalytic domain and were further divided into three clusters. Molecular evolutionary analysis showed that speciation and whole-genome triplication (WGT) was critical for the divergence of duplicated DGK genes. RNA-seq transcriptome data revealed that, with the exception of BnaDGK4 and BnaDGK6, BnaDGK genes have divergent expression patterns in most tissues. Furthermore, some DGK genes were upregulated or downregulated in response to hormone treatment and metal ion (arsenic and cadmium) stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that different BnaDGK genes contribute to seed oil content. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results indicate that DGK genes have diverse roles in plant growth and development, hormone response, and metal ion stress, and in determining seed oil content, and lay a foundation for further elucidating the roles of DGKs in Brassica species.

8.
Health Place ; 66: 102455, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011489

RESUMO

Childhood overweight and obesity have shown an increase in recent birth cohorts. China has undergone rapid socioeconomic transitions accompanied by lifestyle changes that have profoundly affected the physical growth of children. Less empirical research has considered the role of community context on the cohort effects of children's body mass index (BMI) z-score trajectories. We used the mixed effect models for repeated measurements with restricted cubic spline to predict the BMI z-score trajectories in children aged 1-17 years, influenced by different birth cohorts and community context using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991 to 2011, and stratified by sex. Results indicated that the mean of BMI z-scores of children aged 1-17 years have increased in the 2000s cohort. Community context contributed to significant differences in BMI z-score increase with age from middle childhood, and this trend of community inequalities divergences in middle childhood in recent birth cohorts. Therefore, to promote equitable growth for all children in China, policy interventions focusing on the community context may have far-reaching effects on the health of children and adolescents.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15909, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985611

RESUMO

Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) is an important pest in the world. Serratia marcescens have a high lethal effect on O. formosanus, but the specific insecticidal mechanisms of S. marcescens on O. formosanus are unclear, and the immune responses of O. formosanus to S. marcescens have not been clarified. At present, genetic database resources of O. formosanus are extremely scarce. Therefore, using O. formosanus workers infected by S. marcescens and the control as experimental materials, a full-length transcriptome was sequenced using the PacBio Sequel sequencing platform. A total of 10,364 isoforms were obtained as the final transcriptome. The unigenes were further annotated with the Nr, Swiss-Prot, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Ortholog public databases. In a comparison between the control group and a Serratia marcescens-infected group, a total of 259 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 132 upregulated and 127 downregulated genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, oxidative stress genes and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in O. formosanus may be associated with S. marcescens treatment. This research intensively studied O. formosanus at the high-throughput full-length transcriptome level, laying a foundation for further development of molecular markers and mining of target genes in this species and thereby promoting the biological control of O. formosanus. Furthermore, these results will be helpful to clarify the action mechanisms of S. marcescens on O. formosanus, and also explore the relationship between O. formosanus and S. marcescens. In addition, this study will identify the immune response of O. formosanus to S. marcescens, which will provide a theoretical foundation for the development of new immunosuppressants for O. formosanus.

10.
IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst ; 14(5): 931-941, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746360

RESUMO

To improve the SpO 2 sensing system performance for hypoperfusion (low perfusion index) applications, this paper proposes a low-noise light-to-frequency converter scheme from two aspects. First, a low-noise photocurrent buffer is proposed by reducing the amplifier noise floor with a transconductance-boost ( gm-boost) circuit structure. Second, a digital processing unit of pulse-frequency-duty-cycle modulation is proposed to minimize the quantization noise in the following timer by limiting the maximum output frequency. The proposed light-to-frequency sensor chip is designed and fabricated with a 0.35- µm CMOS process. The overall chip area is 1 × 0.9 mm 2 and the typical total current consumption is about 1.8 mA from a 3.3-V power supply at room temperature. The measurement results prove the proposed functionality of output pulse duty cycle modulation, while the SNR of a typical 10-kHz output frequency is 59 dB with about 9-dB improvement when compared with the previous design. Among them, 2-3 dB SNR improvement stems from the gm-boosting and the rest comes from the layout design. In-system experimental results show that the minimum measurable PI using the proposed blood SpO 2 sensor could be as low as 0.06% with 2-percentage-point error of SpO 2. The proposed chip is suitable for portable low-power high-performance blood oximeter devices especially for hypoperfusion applications.

11.
Postgrad Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A questionnaire which provides desirable reliability and validity has been previously developed to assess the disease awareness of diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, conventional paper questionnaires often have disadvantages, including recall bias. To substantially improve this, we therefore aimed to explore the feasibility of developing a smartphone-based electronic version (e-version) based upon its original paper version and subsequently tested its validity, reliability, and applicability. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted at Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine in Guangzhou, China, during August 2019. The e-version had identical content to the paper version and was adapted in terms of layout and assisted functions via the Wechat-incorporated Wen-Juan-Xing platform. Eligible patients with diagnosed CKD were invited to participate and were assigned the e-version. Randomly selected respondents received a test-retest of the same e-version 2 weeks after their first completion. In some instances, psychometric properties, including validity and reliability of the e-version, were examined. In others, its clinical application was also tested, which included comparisons among the clinical profiles of patients who had/had not responded to the questionnaire as well as patients with above or below average questionnaire scores. RESULTS: Of the 225 patients screened, 217 were enrolled to participate, with a response rate of 52.5%. Desirable reliability (Cronbachα = 0.962, ICC for total scores = 0.948), while good convergent validity (Cronbachα = 0.962) and low discriminant validity (one extracted component), of the e-version were detected. Performing inter-group comparisons highlighted statistical differences in terms of higher education level (z = -2.436, P = 0.015) and earlier CKD stages (z = -1.978, P = 0.048), with these patients often preferring to respond. No significant differences were detected in the clinical profiles between respondents who obtained an above or below average questionnaire score. CONCLUSION: The e-version is reliable but was not shown to be a valid approach. Audiences with higher education levels and less advanced disease condition may prefer to respond to the e-version. Adaptation of this e-questionnaire, from its original paper version, may not be a direct transition and meticulous modifications may be required during the transition process. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1900024633).

12.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108752, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768206

RESUMO

Avian colibacillosis caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide and is also a leading potential threat to human health. Bacteriophages integrate into the host bacterial chromosome, and are an important source of genetic variation and have a major impact on bacterial evolution. Previously, we predicted prophage phiv205-1 in APEC strain DE205B. Here, to determine the function of prophage phiv205-1, we constructed the prophage deletion mutant DE205BΔphiv205-1. Compared with the wild-type (WT) APEC strain DE205B, the adherence and invasive abilities of DE205BΔphiv205-1 were reduced by 41.88 %(P < 0.05). Further, the mutant strain had 52.38 % reduced biofilm formation compared with the WT strain (P < 0.001). Chick challenge showed that the median lethal dose (LD50) of the mutant strain and WT strain was 3.13 × 105 colony-forming units (CFU) and 3.86 × 104 CFU, respectively, indicating that the mutant strain had decreased virulence compared with the WT strain. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that, compared with the WT strain, DE205BΔphiv205-1 bacterial loads were reduced by 1.6-fold (P < 0.05) and 4.8-fold (P < 0.001) in the lungs and brains, respectively, of the infected chicks. In conclusion, the prophage phiv205-1 contributes to the virulence of APEC strain DE205B by facilitating the adherence, biofilm formation, and colonization abilities of its host strain.

13.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(6): 1947-1963, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656613

RESUMO

Oxidative stress contributes a lot to initiation and progression of pathological conditions. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), a cytoprotective enzyme, is usually upregulated to alleviate oxidative stress in vivo. The function of teleost HO1 in the response to oxidative stress induced by heavy metal exposure and in pathogenic bacterial infection remains uncertain. In the present study, both complementary DNA and genomic sequence of a HO1-like gene cloned from the liver of swamp eel (Monopterus albus) are reported. Sequence analysis showed that the putative amino acid sequence contained a conserved heme oxygenase signature and displayed higher similarity to HO1 genes of other teleosts. Expression profile of swamp eel HO1 was investigated in healthy tissues and in tissues following stimulation with pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) or cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure. Results demonstrated that HO1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was highly expressed in the liver and relatively less in other tissues. Bacterial infection with A. hydrophila significantly changed HO1 mRNA expression in the liver, spleen, and kidney, and the mRNA expression of HO1 and Nrf2 in the liver was elevated after the fish were exposed to CdCl2. Subsequently, the swamp eel HO1 was subcloned into a pET28a expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Recombinant HO1 (rHO1) was successfully induced by 0.1 mmol/l IPTG and purified by Ni-NTA His Bind Resin purification system. To determine whether the rHO1 could confer stress tolerance in vitro, the viability of control and HO1-expressing E. coli under CdCl2 stress was compared by spot assay. The rHO1 protein significantly increased survival rates of the bacterial hosts. To evaluate whether intraperitoneal injection with rHO1 protected the liver of swamp eel against A. hydrophila-induced oxidative stress, mRNA expression of HO1, Nrf2, hepcidin, and IL-1ß as well as the oxidative stress-related parameters (ROS and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) in the liver were examined. The results showed that exogenous rHO1 could significantly upgrade the mRNA expression of HO1 and hepcidin, coupled with increased ROS and T-AOC levels. However, Nrf2 and IL-1ß expression levels were significantly downregulated and upregulated, respectively. These results suggested that HO1 should not only play a protective role in oxidative stress response and its adverse effects deserved further investigation.

14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722875

RESUMO

ExPEC is an important pathogen that causes diverse infection in the human extraintestinal sites. Although avian-source phylogroup F Escherichia coli isolates hold a high level of virulence traits, few studies have systematically assessed the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of E. coli isolates within phylogroup F. A total of 1,332 E. coli strains were recovered from chicken colibacillosis in China from 2012 to 2017. About 21.7% of chicken-source E. coli isolates were presented in phylogroup F. We characterized phylogroup F E. coli isolates both genotypically and phenotypically. There was a widespread prevalence of ExPEC virulence-related genes among chicken-source E. coli isolates within phylogroup F. ColV/BM plasmid-related genes (i.e. hlyF, mig-14p, ompTp, iutA and tsh) occurred in the nearly 65% of phylogroup F E. coli isolates. Population structure of chicken-source E. coli isolates within phylogroup F was revealed and contained several dominant STs (such as ST59, ST354, ST362, ST405, ST457 and ST648). Most chicken-source phylogroup F E. coli held the property to produce biofilm and exhibited strongly swimming and swarming motilities. Our result showed that the complement resistance of phylogroup F E. coli isolates was closely associated with its virulence genotype. Our research further demonstrated the zoonotic potential of chicken-source phylogroup F E. coli isolates. The phylogroup F E. coli isolates were able to cause multiple diseases in animal models of avian colibacillosis and human infections (sepsis, meningitis and UTI). The chicken-source phylogroup F isolates, especially dominant ST types, might be recognized as a high-risk food-borne pathogen. This was the first study to identify that chicken-source E. coli isolates within phylogroup F were associated with human ExPEC pathotypes and exhibited zoonotic potential.

15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) provides not only visualisation but also quantitative measurement of foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Media opacity is common in elderly subjects with cataracts. This study aimed to investigate the impact of media opacity on automated and manual FAZ measurement. METHODS: Cirrus 5000 OCTA and Triton OCTA were used to image FAZ using a 3×3 mm scanning protocol from 30 eyes of 30 healthy normal subjects. Media opacity was simulated with neutral-density filters (optical density (OD): 0.10-0.48 in Cirrus 5000 and 0.15-0.51 in Triton). Signal strength (SS) and signal strength intensity (SSI) were provided by the built-in software in Cirrus 5000 and Triton, respectively. FAZ area, perimeter and circularity were measured automatically using the built-in software as well as a customised MATLAB program. FAZ metrics were also measured manually. The correlations between the OD, SS/SSI and FAZ metrics were analysed using Spearman correlation. RESULTS: Increased OD significantly correlated with decreased SS/SSI (rs =-0.602 and -0.925, respectively, both p<0.001), decreased automated FAZ area (rs =-0.344 and -0.766, respectively, both p<0.001), but increased manual FAZ area in both Cirrus 5000 and Triton (rs =0.423 and 0.543, respectively, both p<0.001). Similar results were found for FAZ perimeter and circularity. There was a positive correlation between SS/SSI with the automated FAZ area but negative correlation with the manual FAZ area. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of media opacity on quantitative measurement of FAZ is different between automated and manual measurements. Cautions must be taken when interpreting FAZ measurement in eyes with media opacity.

16.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 22(8): 77, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632670

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) are two important categories of AI algorithms. Nowadays, AI technology has been gradually applied to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI), covering the fields of myocardial contrast enhancement (MCE) pattern and automatic ventricular segmentation. This paper mainly discusses the relationship between machine learning and deep learning based on AI and pattern of MCE in CMRI. RECENT FINDINGS: It found that some histogram and GLCM parameters in ML algorithm had significant statistical differences in diagnosis of cardiomyopathy and differentiation of fibrosis and normal myocardial tissue. In the DL algorithm, there was no significant difference between CNN and observers in measuring myocardial fibrosis. The rapid development of texture parameter analysis methods would promote the medical imaging based on AI into a new era. Histogram and GLCM parameters are the research hotspot of unsupervised learning of MCE images. CNN has a great advantage in automatically identifying and quantifying myocardial fibrosis reflected by LGE images.

17.
Psychol Health ; : 1-15, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610269

RESUMO

Objective: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses an unprecedented threat to public health. Current measures to control the spread include social distancing and quarantine, which may trigger mental health problems.Design and Main Outcome Measures: The sample (N = 1160) constituted three groups: people quarantined in an affected area, unaffected areas, and people not in quarantine. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-20) and the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scale (GAD-7) were administered as measures of depression and anxiety, respectively. The multi-variant logistic and multiple linear regression identified factors associated with depression and anxiety.Results: Probable depression and anxiety were reported by 26.47% and 70.78% of all respondents, respectively. After adjusting for demographic and community variables, quarantined respondents reported a higher likelihood to exhibit symptoms of depression and anxiety than those not quarantined. Respondents living in communities where screening for COVID-19 was required were less likely to report depression and anxiety symptoms.Conclusion: The incidence of depression and anxiety among quarantined respondents was significantly higher than that of respondents not quarantined, and twice as common among quarantined respondents in unaffected areas as those in affected areas. Appropriate community screening may reduce the risk of depression and anxiety during an epidemic.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511257

RESUMO

The AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) proteins, which belong to the AP2 family, play important roles in regulating the growth and development of plant organs. The AIL family has not yet been comprehensively studied in rapeseed (Brassica napus), an allotetraploid and model organism for the study of polyploid evolution. In the present study, 99 AIL family genes were identified and characterized from B. rapa, B. oleracea, B. napus, B. juncea, and B. nigra using a comprehensive genome-wide study, including analyses of phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern. Using a phylogenetic analysis, the AIL genes were divided into eight groups, which were closely related to the eight AtAIL genes, and which shared highly conserved structural features within the same subfamily. The non-synonymous/synonymous substitution ratios of the paralogs and orthologs were less than 1, suggesting that the AIL genes mainly experienced purifying selection during evolution. In addition, the RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the B. napus AIL genes exhibited organ- and developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Certain genes were highly expressed in the developing seeds (BnaAIL1, BnaAIL2, BnaAIL5, and BnaAIL6), the roots (BnaANT, BnaAIL5, and BnaAIL6), and the stem (BnaAIL7B). Our results provide valuable information for further functional analysis of the AIL family in B. napus and related Brassica species.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Brassica/genética , Genes de Plantas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sintenia
20.
Psychol Health ; : 1-15, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567952

RESUMO

Objective: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses an unprecedented threat to public health. Current measures to control the spread include social distancing and quarantine, which may trigger mental health problems.Design and Main Outcome Measures: The sample (N = 1160) constituted three groups: people quarantined in an affected area, unaffected areas, and people not in quarantine. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-20) and the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scale (GAD-7) were administered as measures of depression and anxiety, respectively. The multi-variant logistic and multiple linear regression identified factors associated with depression and anxiety.Results: Probable depression and anxiety were reported by 26.47% and 70.78% of all respondents, respectively. After adjusting for demographic and community variables, quarantined respondents reported a higher likelihood to exhibit symptoms of depression and anxiety than those not quarantined. Respondents living in communities where screening for COVID-19 was required were less likely to report depression and anxiety symptoms.Conclusion: The incidence of depression and anxiety among quarantined respondents was significantly higher than that of respondents not quarantined, and twice as common among quarantined respondents in unaffected areas as those in affected areas. Appropriate community screening may reduce the risk of depression and anxiety during an epidemic.

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