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1.
Cell ; 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733990

RESUMO

Many behaviors require the coordinated actions of somatic and autonomic functions. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. By opto-stimulating different populations of descending spinal projecting neurons (SPNs) in anesthetized mice, we show that stimulation of excitatory SPNs in the rostral ventromedial medulla (rVMM) resulted in a simultaneous increase in somatomotor and sympathetic activities. Conversely, opto-stimulation of rVMM inhibitory SPNs decreased both activities. Anatomically, these SPNs innervate both sympathetic preganglionic neurons and motor-related regions in the spinal cord. Fiber-photometry recording indicated that the activities of rVMM SPNs correlate with different levels of muscle and sympathetic tone during distinct arousal states. Inhibiting rVMM excitatory SPNs reduced basal muscle and sympathetic tone, impairing locomotion initiation and high-speed performance. In contrast, silencing the inhibitory population abolished muscle atonia and sympathetic hypoactivity during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Together, these results identify rVMM SPNs as descending spinal projecting pathways controlling the tone of both the somatomotor and sympathetic systems.

2.
J Infect Public Health ; 17(6): 1086-1094, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of different types/subtypes varies across seasons and countries for seasonal influenza viruses, indicating underlying interactions between types/subtypes. The global interaction patterns and determinants for seasonal influenza types/subtypes need to be explored. METHODS: Influenza epidemiological surveillance data, as well as multidimensional data that include population-related, environment-related, and virus-related factors from 55 countries worldwide were used to explore type/subtype interactions based on Spearman correlation coefficient. The machine learning method Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and interpretable framework SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) were utilized to quantify contributing factors and their effects on interactions among influenza types/subtypes. Additionally, causal relationships between types/subtypes were also explored based on Convergent Cross-mapping (CCM). RESULTS: A consistent globally negative correlation exists between influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1. Meanwhile, interactions between influenza A (A/H3N2, A/H1N1) and B show significant differences across countries, primarily influenced by population-related factors. Influenza A has a stronger driving force than influenza B, and A/H3N2 has a stronger driving force than A/H1N1. CONCLUSION: The research elucidated the globally complex and heterogeneous interaction patterns among influenza type/subtypes, identifying key factors shaping their interactions. This sheds light on better seasonal influenza prediction and model construction, informing targeted prevention strategies and ultimately reducing the global burden of seasonal influenza.

3.
Hum Reprod ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725195

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can exposure to palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated fatty acid, modulate autophagy in both human and mouse trophoblast cells through the regulation of acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: PA exposure before and during pregnancy impairs placental development through mechanisms involving placental autophagy and ACBP expression. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High-fat diets, including PA, have been implicated in adverse effects on human placental and fetal development. Despite this recognition, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell line HTR-8/SVneo and human trophoblast stem cell (hTSC)-derived EVT (hTSCs-EVT) were exposed to PA or vehicle control for 24 h. Female wild-type C57BL/6 mice were divided into PA and control groups (n = 10 per group) and subjected to a 12-week dietary intervention. Afterward, they were mated with male wild-type C57BL/6 mice and euthanized on Day 14 of gestation. Female ACBPflox/flox mice were also randomly assigned to control and PA-exposed groups (each with 10 mice), undergoing the same dietary intervention and mating with ACBPflox/floxELF5-Cre male mice, followed by euthanasia on Day 14 of gestation. The study assessed the effects of PA on mouse embryonic development and placental autophagy. Additionally, the role of ACBP in the pathogenesis of PA-induced placental toxicity was investigated. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The findings were validated using real-time PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and shRNA knockdown approaches. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Exposure to PA-upregulated ACBP expression in both human HTR-8/SVneo cells and hTSCs-EVT, as well as in mouse placenta. PA exposure also induced autophagic dysfunction in HTR-8/SVneo cells, hTSCs-EVT, and mouse placenta. Through studies on ACBP placental conditional knockout mice and ACBP knockdown human trophoblast cells, it was revealed that reduced ACBP expression led to trophoblast malfunction and affected the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3B-II and P62, thereby impacting embryonic development. Conversely, ACBP knockdown partially mitigated PA-induced impairment of placental trophoblast autophagy, observed both in vitro in human trophoblast cells and in vivo in mice. LARGE SCALE DATA: N/A. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Primary EVT cells from early pregnancy are fragile, limiting research use. Maintaining their viability is tough, affecting data reliability. The study lacks depth to explore PA diet cessation effects after 12 weeks. Without follow-up, understanding postdiet impacts on pregnancy stages is incomplete. Placental abnormalities linked to elevated PA diet in embryos lack confirmation due to absence of control groups. Clarifying if issues stem solely from PA exposure is difficult without proper controls. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Consuming a high-fat diet before and during pregnancy may result in complications or challenges in successfully carrying the pregnancy to term. It suggests that such dietary habits can have detrimental effects on the health of both the mother and the developing fetus. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82171664, 82301909) and the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing Municipality of China (CSTB2022NS·CQ-LZX0062, cstc2019jcyj-msxmX0749, and cstc2021jcyj-msxmX0236). The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

4.
Res Sq ; 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746131

RESUMO

Background The potential benefits of drug combination synergy in cancer medicine are significant, yet the risks must be carefully managed due to the possibility of increased toxicity. Although artificial intelligence applications have demonstrated notable success in predicting drug combination synergy, several key challenges persist: (1) Existing models often predict average synergy values across a restricted range of testing dosages, neglecting crucial dose amounts and the mechanisms of action of the drugs involved. (2) Many graph-based models rely on static protein-protein interactions, failing to adapt to dynamic and context-dependent networks. This limitation constrains the applicability of current methods. Results We introduced SAFER, a Sub-hypergraph Attention-based graph model, addressing these issues by incorporating complex relationships among biological knowledge networks and considering dosing effects on subject-specific networks. SAFER outperformed previous models on the benchmark and the independent test set. The analysis of subgraph attention weight for the lung cancer cell line highlighted JAK-STAT signaling pathway, PRDM12, ZNF781, and CDC5L that have been implicated in lung fibrosis. Conclusions SAFER presents an interpretable framework designed to identify drug-responsive signals. Tailored for comprehending dose effects on subject-specific molecular contexts, our model uniquely captures dose-level drug combination responses. This capability unlocks previously inaccessible avenues of investigation compared to earlier models. Finally, the SAFER framework can be leveraged by future inquiries to investigate molecular networks that uniquely characterize individual patients.

6.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 17(3): 596-602, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721520

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of stromal lenticule addition keratoplasty (SLAK) with corneal crosslinking (CXL) on patients with corneal ectasia secondary to femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). METHODS: A series of 5 patients undertaking SLAK with CXL for the treatment of corneal ectasia secondary to FS-LASIK were followed for 4-9mo. The lenticules were collected from patients undertaking small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for the correction of myopia. Adding a stromal lenticule was aimed at improving the corneal thickness for the safe application of crosslinking and compensating for the thin cornea to improve its mechanical strength. RESULTS: All surgeries were conducted successfully with no significant complications. Their best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 0.05 to 0.8-2 before surgery. The pre-operational total corneal thickness ranged from 345-404 µm and maximum keratometry (Kmax) ranged from 50.8 to 86.3. After the combination surgery, both the corneal keratometry (range 55.9 to 92.8) and total corneal thickness (range 413-482 µm) significantly increased. Four out of 5 patients had improvement of corneal biomechanical parameters (reflected by stiffness parameter A1 in Corvis ST). However, 3 patients showed decreased BCVA after surgery due to the development of irregular astigmatism and transient haze. Despite the onset of corneal edema right after SLAK, the corneal topography and thickness generally stabilized after 3mo. CONCLUSION: SLAK with CXL is a potentially beneficial and safe therapy for advanced corneal ectasia. Future work needs to address the poor predictability of corneal refractometry and compare the outcomes of different surgical modes.

7.
J Med Virol ; 96(5): e29657, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727035

RESUMO

The H1N1pdm09 virus has been a persistent threat to public health since the 2009 pandemic. Particularly, since the relaxation of COVID-19 pandemic mitigation measures, the influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 have been concurrently prevalent worldwide. To determine the antigenic evolution pattern of H1N1pdm09 and develop preventive countermeasures, we collected influenza sequence data and immunological data to establish a new antigenic evolution analysis framework. A machine learning model (XGBoost, accuracy = 0.86, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.89) was constructed using epitopes, physicochemical properties, receptor binding sites, and glycosylation sites as features to predict the antigenic similarity relationships between influenza strains. An antigenic correlation network was constructed, and the Markov clustering algorithm was used to identify antigenic clusters. Subsequently, the antigenic evolution pattern of H1N1pdm09 was analyzed at the global and regional scales across three continents. We found that H1N1pdm09 evolved into around five antigenic clusters between 2009 and 2023 and that their antigenic evolution trajectories were characterized by cocirculation of multiple clusters, low-level persistence of former dominant clusters, and local heterogeneity of cluster circulations. Furthermore, compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus, the potential cluster-transition determining sites of H1N1pdm09 were restricted to epitopes Sa and Sb. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of machine learning methods for characterizing antigenic evolution of viruses, developed a specific model to rapidly identify H1N1pdm09 antigenic variants, and elucidated their evolutionary patterns. Our findings may provide valuable support for the implementation of effective surveillance strategies and targeted prevention efforts to mitigate the impact of H1N1pdm09.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Evolução Molecular , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
8.
Phytomedicine ; 129: 155623, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alkaloids have attracted enduring interest worldwide due to their remarkable therapeutic effects, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties, thus offering a rich source for lead compound design and new drug discovery. However, some of these alkaloids possess intrinsic toxicity. Processing (Paozhi) is a pre-treatment step before the application of herbal medicines in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinics, which has been employed for centuries to mitigate the toxicity of alkaloid-rich TCMs. PURPOSE: To explore the toxicity phenotypes, chemical basis, mode of action, detoxification processing methods, and underlying mechanisms, we can gain crucial insights into the safe and rational use of these toxic alkaloid-rich herbs. Such insights have the great potential to offer new strategies for drug discovery and development, ultimately improving the quality of life for millions of people. METHODS: Literatures published or early accessed until December 31, 2023, were retrieved from databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and CNKI. The following keywords, such as "toxicity", "alkaloid", "detoxification", "processing", "traditional Chinese medicine", "medicinal plant", and "plant", were used in combination or separately for screening. RESULTS: Toxicity of alkaloids in TCM includes hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and other forms of toxicity, primarily induced by pyrrolizidines, quinolizidines, isoquinolines, indoles, pyridines, terpenoids, and amines. Factors such as whether the toxic-alkaloid enriched part is limited or heat-sensitive, and whether toxic alkaloids are also therapeutic components, are critical for choosing appropriate detoxification processing methods. Mechanisms of alkaloid detoxification includes physical removal, chemical decomposition or transformation, as well as biological modifications. CONCLUSION: Through this exploration, we review toxic alkaloids and the mechanisms underlying their toxicity, discuss methods to reduce toxicity, and unravel the intricate mechanisms behind detoxification. These offers insights into the quality control of herbs containing toxic alkaloids, safe and rational use of alkaloid-rich TCMs in clinics, new strategies for drug discovery and development, and ultimately helping improve the quality of life for millions of people.

9.
Mod Pathol ; : 100508, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704029

RESUMO

Image based deep learning models are used to extract new information from standard H&E pathology slides, however, biological interpretation of the features detected by artificial intelligence (AI) remains a challenge. High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) is characterized by aggressive behavior and chemotherapy resistance, but also by striking variability in outcome. Our understanding of this disease is limited, partly due to considerable tumor heterogeneity. We previously trained an AI model to identify HGSC tumor regions that are highly associated with outcome status but are indistinguishable by conventional morphologic methods. Here we applied spatial transcriptomics to further profile the AI-identified tumor regions in 16 patients (8 per outcome group) and identify molecular features related to disease outcome in patients who underwent primary debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. We examined FFPE tissue from 1) regions identified by the AI model as highly associated with short or extended chemotherapy response, and 2) background tumor regions (not identified by the AI model as highly associated with outcome status) from the same tumors. We show that the transcriptomic profiles of AI-identified regions are more distinct than background regions from the same tumors, are superior in predicting outcome, and differ in several pathways including those associated with chemoresistance in HGSC. Further, we find that poor outcome and good outcome regions are enriched by different tumor subpopulations, suggesting distinctive interaction patterns. In summary, our work presents proof of concept that AI-guided spatial transcriptomic analysis improves recognition of biologic features relevant to patient outcome.

10.
China CDC Wkly ; 6(15): 324-331, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736991

RESUMO

Introduction: In the first half of 2023, a global shift was observed towards the predominance of XBB variants. China faced a significant epidemic between late 2022 and early 2023 due to Omicron subvariants BA.5.2 and BF.7. This study aims to depict the evolving variant distribution among provincial-level administrative divisions (PLADs) in China and explore the factors driving the predominance of XBB replacement. Methods: Sequences from local and imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases recorded between January 1 and June 30, 2023, were included. The study analyzed the changing distribution of viral variants and assessed how the prior dominance of specific variants, XBB subvariants, and imported cases influenced the prevalence of the XBB replacement variant. Results: A total of 56,486 sequences were obtained from local cases, and 8,669 sequences were from imported cases. Starting in April, there was a shift in the prevalence of XBB from imported to local cases, with varying dominance among PLADs. In PLADs previously high in BF.7, the rise of XBB was delayed. A positive correlation was found between XBB proportions in imported cases from January to March and local cases in April. The distribution pattern of XBB subvariants differed between local and imported cases within the same PLAD. No significant differences were noted in the replacement rates of XBB subvariants. Conclusions: The timing of XBB dominance differed among various PLADs in China in the first half of 2023, correlating closely with the prevalence of XBB variants among imported cases.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1303693, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738181

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat human diseases. Recently, many databases have been devoted to studying TCM pharmacology. Most of these databases include information about the active ingredients of TCM herbs and their disease indications. These databases enable researchers to interrogate the mechanisms of action of TCM systematically. However, there is a need for comparative studies of these databases, as they are derived from various resources with different data processing methods. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the existing TCM databases. We found that the information complements each other by comparing herbs, ingredients, and herb-ingredient pairs in these databases. Therefore, data harmonization is vital to use all the available information fully. Moreover, different TCM databases may contain various annotation types for herbs or ingredients, notably for the chemical structure of ingredients, making it challenging to integrate data from them. We also highlight the latest TCM databases on symptoms or gene expressions, suggesting that using multi-omics data and advanced bioinformatics approaches may provide new insights for drug discovery in TCM. In summary, such a comparative study would help improve the understanding of data complexity that may ultimately motivate more efficient and more standardized strategies towards the digitalization of TCM.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 668: 154-160, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38677204

RESUMO

Plasmon-mediated chemical reaction (PMCR) is a highly attractive field of research. Here we report in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) monitoring of plasmonic-mediated SS bond-forming reaction. The reaction is thought to be a self-coupling reaction proceeding by photoinduced aromatic SC bond arylation. Surprisingly, the SC arylation and SS coupling are found to be occurred on both partially oxidized silver and silver nanoparticles. The results demonstrated that silver oxide or hydroxide and small molecule donor sacrifice agent played a crucial role in the reaction. This work facilitates the in-situ manipulation and characterization of the active silver electrode interface in conjunction with electrochemistry, and also establishes a promising new guideline for surface plasmon resonance photocatalytic reactions on metal nanostructures with high efficiency.

13.
Spine J ; 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) necessitates accurate spinal curvature assessment for effective clinical management. Traditional two-dimensional (2D) Cobb angle measurements have been the standard, but the emergence of three-dimensional (3D) automatic measurement techniques, such as those using weight-bearing 3D imaging (WR3D), presents an opportunity to enhance the accuracy and comprehensiveness of AIS evaluation. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare traditional 2D Cobb angle measurements with 3D automatic measurements utilizing the WR3D imaging technique in patients with AIS. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: A cohort of 53 AIS patients was recruited, encompassing 88 spinal curves, for comparative analysis. PATIENT SAMPLE: The patient sample consisted of 53 individuals diagnosed with AIS. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cobb angles were calculated using the conventional 2D method and three different 3D methods: the Analytical Method (AM), the Plane Intersecting Method (PIM), and the Plane Projection Method (PPM). METHODS: The 2D cobb angle was manually measured by 3 experienced clinicians with 2D frontal whole-spine radiographs. For 3D cobb angle measurements, the spine and femoral heads were segmented from the WR3D images using a 3D-UNet deep-learning model, and the automatic calculations of the angles were performed with the 3D slicer software. RESULTS: AM and PIM estimates were found to be significantly larger than 2D measurements. Conversely, PPM results showed no statistical difference compared to the 2D method. These findings were consistent in a subgroup analysis based on 2D Cobb angles. CONCLUSION: Each 3D measurement method provides a unique assessment of spinal curvature, with PPM offering values closely resembling 2D measurements, while AM and PIM yield larger estimations. The utilization of WR3D technology alongside deep learning segmentation ensures accuracy and efficiency in comparative analyses. However, additional studies, particularly involving patients with severe curves, are required to validate and expand on these results. This study emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate measurement method considering the imaging modality and clinical context when assessing AIS, and it also underlines the need for continuous refinement of these techniques for optimal use in clinical decision-making and patient management.

14.
J Inflamm (Lond) ; 21(1): 10, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beyond their crucial role in hemostasis, platelets possess the ability to regulate inflammation and combat infections through various mechanisms. Stringent control of macrophage activation is essential during innate immune responses in sepsis. Macrophages are considered crucial phagocytic cells that aid in the elimination of pathogens. Platelet interactions with monocytes-macrophages are known to be significant in the response against bacterial infections, but the primary mediator driving these interactions remains unclear. EGFR plays critical role in the regulation of inflammation and infection through various mechanisms. RESULTS: The overexpression of platelets by thrombopoietin (TPO) leads to the sequestration of both pro-inflammatory (IL-6/IL-1) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the organ tissue of septic mice. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is critical for platelet activation in sepsis. EGFR-licensed platelets enhance macrophage immune function, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the clearance of bacteria. Platelet EGFR also induces M1 macrophage polarization by increasing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and CD64. CONCLUSION: EGFR can activate platelet immune function. Moreover, activated platelets efficiently regulate bacterial phagocytosis and pro-inflammatory function of macrophages through an EGFR-dependent pathway.

15.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 88, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive status is prevalent in cancer patients and increases the complexity of tumor immunotherapy. It has been found that Listeria-vectored tumor vaccines had the potential ability of two-side regulatory effect on the immune response during immunotherapy. RESULTS: The results show that the combined immunotherapy with the LM∆E6E7 and LI∆E6E7, the two cervical cancer vaccine candidate strains constructed by our lab, improves the antitumor immune response and inhibits the suppressive immune response in tumor-bearing mice in vivo, confirming the two-sided regulatory ability of the immune response caused by Listeria-vectored tumor vaccines. The immunotherapy reduces the expression level of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)-inducing factors and then inhibits the phosphorylation level of STAT3 protein, the regulatory factor of MDSCs differentiation, to reduce the MDSCs formation ability. Moreover, vaccines reduce the expression of functional molecules associated with MDSCs may by inhibiting the phosphorylation level of the JAK1-STAT1 and JAK2-STAT3 pathways in tumor tissues to attenuate the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Immunotherapy with Listeria-vectored cervical cancer vaccines significantly reduces the level and function of MDSCs in vivo, which is the key point to the destruction of immunosuppression. The study for the first to elucidate the mechanism of breaking the immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Células Supressoras Mieloides , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/patologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(2): 441-446, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38645870

RESUMO

Objective: To study the immunoadjuvant effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), including the immune activation and the triggering of lysosomal escape, and to explore whether COS can be used as an adjuvant for attenuated live bacteria vector vaccines. Methods: 1) Mouse macrophages RAW264.7 cells were cultured with COS at 0 mg/mL (the control group) and 0.1-4 mg/mL for 24 h and the effect on cell viability was measured by CCK8 assay. Mouse macrophages RAW264.7 were treated with COS at 0 (the control group), 1, 2, and 4 mg/mL for 24 h. Then, the mRNA expression levels of the cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-ß, and TLR4, were determined by RT-qPCR assay. 2) RAW264.7 cells were treated with 1 mL of PBS containing different components, including calcein at 50 µg/mL, COS at 2 mg/mL, and bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor, at 1 µmol/mL, for culturing. The cells were divided into the Calcein group, Calcein+COS group, and Calcein+COS+Bafilomycin A1 group accordingly. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to observe the phagocytosis and the intracellular fluorescence distribution of calcein, a fluorescent dye, in RAW264.7 cells in the presence or absence of COS intervention to determine whether COS was able to trigger lysosomal escape. 3) LM∆E6E7 and LI∆E6E7, the attenuated Listeria vector candidate therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer, were encapsulated with COS at the mass concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL , 4 mg/mL, and 8 mg/mL. Then, the changes in zeta potential were measured to select the concentration of COS that successfully encapsulated the bacteria. Phagocytosis of the vaccine strains by RAW264.7 cells was measured before and after LM∆E6E7 and LI∆E6E7 were coated with COS at 2 mg/mL. Results: 1) CCK8 assays showed that, compared with the findings for the control group, the intervention of RAW264.7 cells with COS at different concentrations for 24 h was not toxic to the cells and promoted cell proliferation, with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.05). According to the RT-qPCR results, compared with those of the control group, the COS intervention up-regulated the mRNA levels of TLR4 and IFN-γ in RAW264.7 cells, while it inhibited the mRNA expression levels of TGF-ß and IL-10, with the most prominent effect being observed in the 4 mg/mL COS group (P<0.05). 2) Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that the amount of fluorescent dye released from lysosomes into the cells was greater in the Calcein+COS group than that in the Calcein group. In other words, a greater amount of fluorescent dye was released from lysosomes into the cells under COS intervention. Furthermore, this process could be blocked by bafilomycin A1. 3) The zeta potential results showed that COS could successfully encapsulate the surface of bacteria when its mass concentration reached 2 mg/mL. Before and after the vaccine strain was encapsulated by COS, the phagocytosis of LM∆E6E7 by RAW264.7 cells was 5.70% and 22.00%, respectively, showing statistically significant differences (P<0.05); the phagocytosis of LI∆E6E7 by RAW264.7 cells was 1.55% and 6.12%, respectively, showing statistically significant differences (P<0.05). Conclusion: COS has the effect of activating the immune response of macrophages and triggering lysosomal escape. The candidates strains of coated live attenuated bacterial vector vaccines can promote the phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages. Further research is warranted to develop COS into an adjuvant for bacterial vector vaccine.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Vacinas Bacterianas , Quitosana , Oligossacarídeos , Animais , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1305: 342580, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38677837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accurate and rapid detection of blood lead concentration is of paramount importance for assessing human lead exposure levels. Fluorescent protein-based probes, known for their high detection capabilities and low toxicity, are extensively used in analytical sciences. However, there is currently a shortage of such probes designed for ultrasensitive detection of Pb2+, and no reported probes exist for the quantitative detection of Pb2+ in blood samples. This study aims to fill this critical void by developing and evaluating a novel fluorescent protein-based probe that promises accurate and rapid lead quantification in blood. RESULTS: A simple and small-molecule fluorescent protein-based probe was successfully constructed herein using a peptide PbrBD designed for Pb2+ recognition coupled to a single fluorescent protein, sfGFP. The probe retains a three-coordinate configuration to identify Pb2+ and has a high affinity for it with a Kd' of 1.48 ± 0.05 × 10-17 M. It effectively transfers the conformational changes of the peptide to the chromophore upon Pb2+ binding, leading to fast fluorescence quenching and a sensitive response to Pb2+. The probe offers a broad dynamic response range of approximately 37-fold and a linear detection range from 0.25 nM to 3500 nM. More importantly, the probe can resist interference of metal ions in living organisms, enabling quantitative analysis of Pb2+ in the picomolar to millimolar range in serum samples with a recovery percentage of 96.64%-108.74 %. SIGNIFICANCE: This innovative probe, the first to employ a single fluorescent protein-based probe for ultrasensitive and precise analysis of Pb2+ in animal and human serum, heralds a significant advancement in environmental monitoring and public health surveillance. Furthermore, as a genetically encoded fluorescent probe, this probe also holds potential for the in vivo localization and concentration monitoring of Pb2+.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Chumbo , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Animais , Humanos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Limite de Detecção , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética
18.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e29020, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38617917

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to systematically evaluate the quality of content and information in videos related to gestational diabetes mellitus on Chinese social media platforms. Methods: The videos on various platforms, TikTok, Bilibili, and Weibo, were searched with the keyword "gestational diabetes mellitus" in Chinese, and the first 50 videos with a comprehensive ranking on each platform were included for subsequent analysis. Characteristic information of video was collected, such as their duration, number of days online, number of likes, comments, and number of shares. DISCREN, JAMA (The Journal of the American Medical Association) Benchmark Criteria, and GQS (Global Quality Scores) were used to assess the quality of all videos. Finally, the correlation analysis was performed among video features, video sources, DISCERN scores, and JAMA scores. Results: Ultimately, 135 videos were included in this study. The mean DISCERN total score was 31.84 ± 7.85, the mean JAMA score was 2.33 ± 0.72, and the mean GQS was 2.00 ± 0.40. Most of the videos (52.6%) were uploaded by independent medical professionals, and videos uploaded by professionals had the shortest duration and time online (P < 0.001). The source of the video was associated with numbers of "likes", "comments", and "shares" for JAMA scores (P < 0.001), but there was no correlation with DISCERN scores. Generally, videos on TikTok with the shortest duration received the most numbers of "likes", "comments", and "shares", but the overall quality of videos on Weibo was higher. Conclusion: Although the majority of the videos were uploaded by independent medical professionals, the overall quality appeared to be poor. Therefore, more efforts and actions should be taken to improve the quality of videos related to gestational diabetes mellitus.

19.
Biol Reprod ; 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in placental development and fetal growth. METHODS: We employed the Cre-loxP recombination system to establish a placenta-specific HMGB1 knockout mouse model. Breeding HMGB1flox/flox mice with Elf5-Cre mice facilitated the knockout, leveraging Elf5 expression in extra-embryonic ectoderm, ectoplacental cone, and trophoblast giant cells at 12.5 days of embryonic development. The primary goal of this model was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HMGB1 in placental development, assessing parameters such as placental weight, fetal weight, and bone development. Additionally, we utilized lentiviral interference and overexpression of HMGB1 in human trophoblast cells to further investigate HMGB1's functional role. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that HMGB1flox/floxElf5cre/+ mouse display fetal growth restriction (FGR), characterized by decreased placental and fetal weight and impaired bone development. And the absence of HMGB1 inhibits autophagosome formation, impairs lysosomal degradation, and disrupts autophagic flux. Depletion of HMGB1 in human trophoblast cells also suppresses cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion by inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway. Overexpression of HMGB1 observed the opposite phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: HMGB1 participates in the regulation of autophagy through the ERK signaling pathway and affects placental development.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662414

RESUMO

Atomically precise metal nanoclusters (NCs) present new opportunities for creating innovative solar-powered photoanodes due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Nevertheless, ultrasmall metal NCs tend to aggregate and lack active sites under light irradiation, which severely limits their widespread application. We have developed a strategy to design efficient ternary photoanodes by successively modifying AgAu NCs and CoNi-LDH on BiVO4 substrates using versatile impregnation and electrodeposition. The electronic properties of AgAu NCs facilitate the rapid transfer of photogenerated carriers on BiVO4 and CoNi-LDH. Additionally, ultrathin CoNi-LDH acts as a hole-collecting layer, which quickly extracts holes to the electrode/electrolyte interface. The synergistic effect and the matched energy levels between the ternary heterostructures promote the OER process, which significantly improved the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation performance. This study presents a new idea for further exploration of metal nanocluster-based PEC systems.

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