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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141550, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871310

RESUMO

The policy effect of environmental regulations on water pollution has been widely discussed, but few studies have empirically tested the relative effectiveness of heterogeneous environmental regulations-command-and-control environmental regulations and market-based environmental regulations-on water pollution control. Using the difference-in-difference method, this paper takes advantage of two Chinese policies-the National Key Ecological Functional Areas Policy (NKEFAP), which can be regarded as a command-and-control environmental regulation, and the Transfer Payment of Ecological Functional Areas Policy (TPEFAP), which can be regarded as a market-based environmental regulation-as quasi-natural experiments to examine the relative effectiveness of different environmental regulations on water pollution control. The results show that both the NKEFAP and TPEFAP can reduce water pollution, but the reduction effect is higher for the TPEFAP than for the NKEFAP. For underlying mechanisms, the NKEFAP and TPEFAP reduce water pollution mainly by controlling industrial waste discharge, rather than by controlling agricultural and domestic pollution. Heterogeneity analysis reveals that counties with higher initial pollution levels and higher economic levels have a greater water pollution reduction effect. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the effect of heterogeneous environmental regulations on pollution control and are conducive to future policymaking.

2.
J Proteomics ; : 104023, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130111

RESUMO

Large-scale and long-term metabolomic studies have attracted widespread attention in the biomedical studies yet remain challenging despite recent technique progresses. In particular, the ineffective way of experiment integration and limited capacity in metabolite annotation are known issues. Herein, we constructed an online tool MMEASE enabling the integration of multiple analytical experiments with an enhanced metabolite annotation and enrichment analysis (https://idrblab.org/mmease/). MMEASE was unique in capable of (1) integrating multiple analytical blocks; (2) providing enriched annotation for >330 thousands of metabolites; (3) conducting enrichment analysis using various categories/sub-categories. All in all, MMEASE aimed at supplying a comprehensive service for large-scale and long-term metabolomics, which might provide valuable guidance to current biomedical studies. SIGNIFICANCE: To facilitate the studies of large-scale and long-term metabolomic analysis, MMEASE was developed to (1) achieve the online integration of multiple datasets from different analytical experiments, (2) provide the most diverse strategies for marker discovery, enabling performance assessment and (3) significantly amplify metabolite annotation and subsequent enrichment analysis. MMEASE aimed at supplying a comprehensive service for long-term and large-scale metabolomics, which might provide valuable guidance to current biomedical studies.

3.
Carcinogenesis ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165575

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumours, and its morbidity and mortality rates are relatively high. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of CRC have not been clearly elucidated to date. ARID3A (AT-rich interaction domain 3A) is a member of the ARID3 family and a transcription factor that can bind to specific DNA sites to regulate gene expression. It was reported that ARID3A is involved in various biological processes and may be related to carcinogenesis. In this study, by assessing the mRNA level of ARID3A in TCGA database, we found that ARID3A expression increased in CRC tissues, and proposed that ARID3A could act as a tumour-promoting factor in the development of CRC. To verify this hypothesis, we used cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays to assess the effect of ARID3A on CRC cells. We revealed that ARID3A overexpression enhanced tumour cell proliferation, migration and invasion. ARID3A could target Aurora kinase A (AURKA) to facilitate the malignant phenotype of CRC cells, and patients with a higher ratio of AURKA and ARID3A had a better overall survival. Conclusively, this study showed that ARID3A targeted AURKA to facilitate the development of CRC. The ratio of ARID3A and AURKA could be used as a potential biomarkers to predict prognosis, providing a new strategy for the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC.

4.
BMC Palliat Care ; 19(1): 167, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The predictive value of the prognostic tool for patients with advanced cancer is uncertain in mainland China, especially in the home-based palliative care (HPC) setting. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI), the Performance Status-Based Palliative Prognostic Index (PS-PPI), and the Chinese Prognosis Scale (ChPS) for patients with advanced cancer in the HPC setting in mainland China. METHODS: Patients with advanced cancer admitted to the hospice center of Yuebei People's Hospital between January 2014 and December 2018 were retrospectively calculated the scores according to the three prognostic tools. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival times among different risk groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the predictive value. The accuracy of 21-, 42- and 90-day survival was compared among the three prognostic tools. RESULTS: A total of 1863 patients were included. Survival time among the risk groups of all prognostic tools was significantly different from each other except for the PPI. The AUROC of the ChPS was significantly higher than that of the PPI and PS-PPI for 7-, 14, 21-, 42-, 90-, 120-, 150- and 180-day survival (P < 0.05). The AUROC of the PPI and PS-PPI were not significantly different from each other (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The ChPS is more suitable than the PPI and PS-PPI for advanced cancer patients in the HPC setting. More researches are needed to verify the predictive value of the ChPS, PPI, and PS-PPI in the HPC setting in the future.

5.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132301

RESUMO

Routine vaccination has proven to be highly effective in reducing the incidence of mumps. However, sporadic cases and/or mumps outbreaks do occur in children and adolescents younger than 15 years old, particularly among those 5-9 years old. To explore the characteristics of such outbreaks in Henan Province, clinical data of patients infected with MuV were collected, and the isolated MuV strains were phylogenetically analyzed. Of a total of 426 samples, MuV RNA targeting the small hydrophobic (SH) gene was detected in 153 samples. MuV-positive cases in each age group (< 5, 5-9,10-15, 16-19, and ≥ 20) accounted for 1%, 17%, 12%, 2% and 4% of the total number of cases, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the SH gene sequences indicated that all of the isolated strains were of genotype F and isolates in the the same subcluster and identical SH gene sequences tended to be derived from the same community or municipalities when analyzed alongside epidemiological data. In conclusion, the incidence of mumps in Henan Province is high. The data provided in this study might promote further research in the clarification of specific cause of mumps outbreaks and which will facilitate the implementation of effective prevention and control measures.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180452

RESUMO

The fundamental challenge for enhancing the thermoelectric performance of n-type PbTe to match p-type counterparts is to eliminate the Pb vacancy and reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. The Cu atom has shown the ability to fill the cationic vacancy, triggering improved mobility. However, the relatively higher solubility of Cu2Te limits the interface density in the n-type PbTe matrix, leading to a higher lattice thermal conductivity. In particular, a quantitative relationship between the precipitate scattering and the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity in the n-type PbTe with low solubility of Cu2Te alloys still remains unclear. In this work, trivalent Sb atoms are introduced, aiming at decreasing the solubility of Cu in PbTe for improving the precipitate volumetric density and ensuring n-type degenerate conduction. Benefiting from the multiscale hierarchical microstructures by Sb and Cu codoping, the lattice thermal conductivity is considerably decreased to 0.38 W m-1 K-1. The Debye-Callaway model quantifies the contribution from point defects and nano/microscale precipitates. Moreover, the mobility increases from 228 to 948 cm2 V-1 s-1 because of the elimination of cationic vacancies. Consequently, a high quality factor is obtained, enabling a superior peak figure of merit ZT of ∼1.32 in n-type Pb0.975Sb0.025Te by alloying with only ∼1.2% Cu2Te. The present finding demonstrates the significant role of low-solubility Cu2Te in advancing thermoelectrics in n-type PbTe.

7.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(17): 2663-2672, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162794

RESUMO

Impacted third molars are commonly seen in teenagers and young adults and can cause considerable suffering. Preventing eruption of the third molars can reduce pain at the source. Our previous study has shown that dexamethasone (DEX) at a certain concentration can prevent the eruption of third molars without damaging alveolar bone in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, but the relevant molecular mechanisms need to be explored. This study aimed to explore the effects of high concentrations of DEX on osteogenic signaling pathways, including BMP/Smad and Wnt/ß-catenin pathways, in rat dental follicle cells (rDFCs) and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. The results showed that BMP7 induced osteogenic differentiation by increasing the activity of ALP and the protein levels of OPN in rDFCs. DEX decreased endogenous BMP7 and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 expression as well as BMP7-induced osteogenic differentiation. DEX also reduced the mRNA and protein levels of ß-catenin by enhancing the expression of GSK-3ß. In addition, regardless of DEX intervention, overexpression of BMP7 promoted the expression of ß-catenin, while knockdown of BMP7 attenuated it. Further investigation revealed that overexpression of BMP7 attenuated the DEX-mediated inhibition of AKT and GSK-3ß phosphorylation, but knockdown of BMP7 exerted the opposite effects. This study suggests that high concentrations of DEX may inhibit the expression of ß-catenin via the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3ß pathway in a manner mediated by BMP7. The findings further illustrate the possible molecular mechanisms by which DEX prevents tooth development.

8.
Analyst ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206065

RESUMO

The formation of G-quadruplexes (G4) in human telomere and other important biological regions inhibits the replication and transcription of DNA, thereby influencing further cell proliferation. The investigation of G4 formation and unfolding is vital for understanding their modulation in biological processes and life science. Photo regulation is a facile and sensitive approach for monitoring the structures of biomacromolecules and material surface properties. The nanopore-based technique is also prevalent for label-free single-molecule characterization with high accuracy. This study provides a combination of solid-state nanopore technology with light-switch as a platform for the modulation of human telomere G4 formation and splitting under switchable light exposure. The introduction of molecular switch, namely azobenzene moiety at different positions of the DNA sequence influences the formation and stability of G4. Three azobenzenes immobilized on each of the G-quartet plane (hTelo-3azo-p) or four azobenzenes on the same plane (hTelo-4azo-4p) of the human telomere G4 sequence realized the reversible control of G4 folding/unfolding at the temporal scale upon photo regulation, and the formation and splitting of G4 with hTelo-4azo-4p is slower and not thorough compared to that with hTelo-3azo-p due to the coplanar steric hindrance. Moreover, the G4 formation recorded with the combined nanopore and photo-responsive approach was also characterized with fluorescence, and the variation in the fluorescence intensity of the NMM and G4 complex exhibited a different tendency under reverse light irradiation due to the distinct interactions of NMM with the azobenzene-modified G4. Our study demonstrated a controllable and sensitive way for the manipulation of G4 structures, which will be inspiring for the intervention of G4-related cell senescence, cancer diagnosis and drug exploration.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Drug combination screening has advantages in identifying cancer treatment options with higher efficacy without degradation in terms of safety. A key challenge is that the accumulated number of observations in in-vitro drug responses varies greatly among different cancer types, where some tissues are more understudied than the others. Thus, we aim to develop a drug synergy prediction model for understudied tissues as a way of overcoming data scarcity problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected a comprehensive set of genetic, molecular, phenotypic features for cancer cell lines. We developed a drug synergy prediction model based on multitask deep neural networks to integrate multimodal input and multiple output. We also utilized transfer learning from data-rich tissues to data-poor tissues. RESULTS: We showed improved accuracy in predicting synergy in both data-rich tissues and understudied tissues. In data-rich tissue, the prediction model accuracy was 0.9577 AUROC for binarized classification task and 174.3 mean squared error for regression task. We observed that an adequate transfer learning strategy significantly increases accuracy in the understudied tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our synergy prediction model can be used to rank synergistic drug combinations in understudied tissues and thus help to prioritize future in-vitro experiments. Code is available at https://github.com/yejinjkim/synergy-transfer.

10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045729

RESUMO

Besides the environmental factors having tremendous impacts on the composition of microbial community, the host factors have recently gained extensive attentions on their roles in shaping human microbiota. There are two major types of host factors: host genetic factors (HGFs) and host immune factors (HIFs). These factors of each type are essential for defining the chemical and physical landscapes inhabited by microbiota, and the collective consideration of both types have great implication to serve comprehensive health management. However, no database was available to provide the comprehensive factors of both types. Herein, a database entitled 'Host Genetic and Immune Factors Shaping Human Microbiota (GIMICA)' was constructed. Based on the 4257 microbes confirmed to inhabit nine sites of human body, 2851 HGFs (1368 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 186 copy number variations (CNVs), and 1297 non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs)) modulating the expression of 370 microbes were collected, and 549 HIFs (126 lymphocytes and phagocytes, 387 immune proteins, and 36 immune pathways) regulating the abundance of 455 microbes were also provided. All in all, GIMICA enabled the collective consideration not only between different types of host factor but also between the host and environmental ones, which is freely accessible without login requirement at: https://idrblab.org/gimica/.

11.
Biomed Eng Online ; 19(1): 78, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening for prediabetes and asymptomatic diabetes is important for preventing development to an irreversible stage. The current diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes is based on blood glucose or HbA1c (an invasive method). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of DS21, a new noninvasive technology, for noninvasive screening for prediabetes and diabetes. METHODS: A total of 939 subjects were divided into a normal control group (NC, n = 308), impaired glucose regulation group (IGR, n = 312), and diabetes (DM) group (n = 319). All subjects underwent the DS21 test, and mean hands-feet, hand, and feet conductance values were analyzed. The diagnostic accuracy of the conductance value was analyzed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: The conductance values for hands-feet, hands, and feet in the DM and IGR groups were significantly lower than those in the NC group (all P < 0.01). The area under the ROC curve  (AUCROC) for distinguishing NC/IGR was highest when using hands-feet conductance values (0.766 [95% confidence interval, CI 0.730, 0.803]). However, the AUCROCs of distinguishing NC/abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM, including IGR+DM), non-diabetes (NDM)/DM, and IGR/DM were highest when using conductance values for hands at 0.782 [95% CI 0.752, 0.812], 0.688 [95% CI 0.653, 0.723] and 0.573 [95% CI 0.528, 0.617], respectively (all P < 0.01). Hand conductance of values 75.0 (sensitivity 0.769, specificity 0.660), 77.1 (sensitivity 0.718, specificity 0.695), 68.4 (sensitivity 0.726, specificity 0.555), and 58.1 (sensitivity 0.384, specificity 0.744) were recommended as the screening thresholds for NC/AGM, NC/IGR, NDM/DM, and IGR/DM, respectively. A hand conductance value 66.0 was also recommended to distinguish NC/AGM due to its high sensitivity and high PPV. No adverse events occurred in the test. CONCLUSIONS: DS21 is fast, noninvasive, low cost, reliable and safe, which makes it a feasible device for screening for prediabetes and diabetes, especially in a large population.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100001

RESUMO

p-Type and n-type thermoelectric semiconductor materials with compatible performance are key components for thermoelectric devices. Great improvement in thermoelectric performance has been achieved in p-type PbTe, whereas the n-type counterpart still shows much inferior thermoelectric performance compared to that of the p-type PbTe. This inspires many strategies focused on advancing n-type PbTe thermoelectrics. Herein, not only effective mass engineering, resonance states, point defects, and nanostructures but also newly developed concepts including dynamic doping for stabilizing the optimal carrier concentration and introducing dislocations for reducing lattice thermal conductivity are summarized. In addition, the synergistic effects for further enhancing the thermoelectric performance are outlined, together with a discussion and outlook for boosting the advancement in n-type PbTe thermoelectric materials. Strategies discussed here are expected to be applicable to other thermoelectric materials.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 49(41): 14361-14372, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030153

RESUMO

The large-scale use of pesticides such as organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) has led to serious environmental problems worldwide, and their high toxicity could cause serious damage to human health. It is crucial to remove and track them precisely in the environment and food resources. As novel nanomaterials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant attention in the fields of adsorption and luminescence sensing due to their rich topology, tunable pore size and shape, high surface area, and abundant active sites. Luminescent metal-organic frameworks (LMOFs) have sprung up as great potential chemical sensors to detect pesticides with fast response, high sensitivity, high selectivity and easy operation. Therefore, in this highlight, we focus on recent progress of MOFs in sensing and adsorbing pesticides, as well as in the possible mechanism of sensing, so as to attract more attention to pesticide detection and adsorption.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16320, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005025

RESUMO

A convenient method to evaluate bone cement distribution following vertebral augmentation is lacking, and therefore so is our understanding of the optimal distribution. To address these questions, we conducted a retrospective study using data from patients with a single-segment vertebral fracture who were treated with vertebral augmentation at our two hospitals. Five evaluation methods based on X-ray film were compared to determine the best evaluation method and the optimal cement distribution. Of the 263 patients included, 49 (18.63%) experienced re-collapse of treated vertebrae and 119 (45.25%) experienced new fractures during follow-up. A 12-score evaluation method (kappa value = 0.652) showed the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting new fractures (0.591) or re-collapse (0.933). In linear regression with the 12-score method, the bone cement distribution showed a negative correlation with the re-collapse of treated vertebra, but it showed a weak correlation with new fracture. The two prediction curves intersected at a score of 10. We conclude that an X-ray-based method for evaluation of bone cement distribution can be convenient and practical, and it can reliably predict risk of new fracture and re-collapse. The 12-score method showed the strongest predictive power, with a score of 10 suggesting optimal bone cement distribution.

15.
Theranostics ; 10(24): 11144-11158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042275

RESUMO

Rationale: Radioresistance remains the major cause of local relapse and distant metastasis in lung cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. This study aimed to investigate the role and regulatory mechanism of Cyclin K in lung cancer radioresistance. Methods: Expression levels of Cyclin K were measured by immunohistochemistry in human lung cancer tissues and adjacent normal lung tissues. Cell growth and proliferation, neutral comet and foci formation assays, G2/M checkpoint and a xenograft mouse model were used for functional analyses. Gene expression was examined by RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Protein-protein interaction was assessed by immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Results: We report that Cyclin K is frequently overexpressed and correlates with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Functionally, we demonstrate that Cyclin K depletion results in reduced proliferation, defective G2/M checkpoint and enhanced radiosensitivity in lung cancer. Mechanistically, we reveal that Cyclin K interacts with and promotes the stabilization of ß-catenin protein, thereby upregulating the expression of Cyclin D1. More importantly, we show that Cyclin D1 is the major effector that mediates the biological functions of Cyclin K in lung cancer. Conclusions: These findings suggest that Cyclin K positively modulates the ß-catenin/Cyclin D1 axis to promote tumorigenesis and radioresistance in lung cancer, indicating that Cyclin K may represent a novel attractive biomarker for lung cancer radiotherapy.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In mainland China, seasonal influenza disease burden at community level is unknown. The incidence rate of influenza virus infections in the community is difficult to determine due to the lack of well-defined catchment populations of influenza-like illness surveillance sentinel hospitals. OBJECTIVES: We established a community-based cohort to estimate incidence of seasonal influenza infections indicated by serology and protection conferred by antibody titers against influenza infections during 2018-2019 influenza season in northern China. METHODS: We recruited participants in November 2018 and conducted follow-up in May 2019 with collection of sera every survey. Seasonal influenza infections were indicated by a 4-fold or greater increase of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody between paired sera. RESULTS: Two hundred and three children 5-17 years of age and 413 adults 18-59 years of age were followed up and provided paired sera. The overall incidence of seasonal influenza infection and incidence of A(H3N2) infection in children (31% and 17%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in adults (21% and 10%, respectively). The incidences of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in children and adults were both about 10%, while the incidences of B/Victoria and/Yamagata infection in children and adults were from 2% to 4%. HI titers of 1:40 against A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses were associated with 63% and 75% protection against infections with the two subtypes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the community, we identified considerable incidence of seasonal influenza infections. A HI titer of 1:40 could be sufficient to provide 50% protection against influenza A virus infections indicated by serology.

18.
J Comp Neurol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965038

RESUMO

Chronic stress can induce cognitive impairment, and synapse number was significantly decreased in the hippocampus of rats suffering from chronic stress. Lingo-1 is a potent negative regulator of axonal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. In the current study, the effects of anti-Lingo-1 antibody on the spatial learning and memory abilities and hippocampal synapses of stressed rats were investigated. After 4 weeks of stress exposure, the model group was randomly divided into a chronic stress group and an anti-Lingo-1 group. Then, the anti-Lingo-1 group rats were treated with anti-Lingo-1 antibody (8 mg/kg) for 3 weeks. The effects of anti-Lingo-1 antibody on the spatial learning and memory abilities were investigated with the Morris water maze test. Immunohistological staining and an unbiased stereological method were used to estimate the total number of dendritic spine synapses in the hippocampus. At the behavioral level, after 3 weeks of treatment, the anti-Lingo-1 group rats displayed significantly more platform location crossings in the Morris water maze test than the chronic stress group rats. Anti-Lingo-1 significantly prevented the declines in dendritic spine synapses and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) expression in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. The present results indicated that anti-Lingo-1 antibody may be a safe and effective drug for alleviating memory impairment in rats after chronic stress and protecting synapses in the hippocampus of stressed rats.

19.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 275, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium species are the fungal pathogens most commonly responsible for the mycotic keratitis, which are resistant to the majority of currently available antifungal agents. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of a combination of low doses chlorhexidine with two other commonly used drugs (voriconazole and natamycin) to treat Fusarium infections. RESULTS: We utilized combinations of chlorhexidine and natamycin or voriconazole against 20 clinical Fusarium strains in vitro using a checkerboard-based microdilution strategy. In order to more fully understand the synergistic interactions between voriconazole and chlorhexidine, we utilized a Galleria mellonella model to confirm the combined antifungal efficacy of chlorhexidine and voriconazole in vivo. We found that for voriconazole, natamycin, and chlorhexidine as single agents, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges were 2-8, 4-16, and > 16 µg/ml, respectively. In contrast, the MIC values for voriconazole and chlorhexidine were reduced to 0.25-1 and 1-2 µg/ml, respectively, when these agents were administered in combination, with synergy being observed for 90% of tested Fusarium strains. Combined chlorhexidine and natamycin treatment, in contrast, exhibited synergistic activity for only 10% of tested Fusarium strains. We observed no evidence of antagonism. Our in vivo model results further confirmed the synergistic antifungal activity of chlorhexidine and voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Our results offer novel evidence that voriconazole and chlorhexidine exhibit synergistic activity when used to suppress the growth of Fusarium spp., and these agents may thus offer value as a combination topical antifungal treatment strategy.

20.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875586

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drug consultation is an important part of pharmaceutical care offered by clinical pharmacists. We explored the characteristics of telephone drug consultations in an obstetrics and gynaecology speciality hospital to provide a reference as to how to improve drug consultation and pharmaceutical care. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed records of telephone consultations regarding medication use between 2014 and 2019 in our hospital. Any consultation cases with incomplete records were excluded from our analysis. Of the 1353 consultation cases included in our study, we further classified them into different categories based on the content of the consultations, the type of medications being inquired about, and the groups of people who sought medication guidance. Pareto analysis was performed to separate the main issues the callers were concerned about from the more minor concerns. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The medication issues that prompted the caller to consult with our clinical pharmacists could be divided into 12 categories, among which the main issues concerned usage and dosage, choice of drug variety, drug incompatibility (drug mixture in infusion bag or tube), adjustment of the treatment plan, and skin tests (cumulative percentage 76.3%). The minor issues involved medication use during pregnancy and lactation and adverse reactions. The top three types of drugs that callers asked about were antimicrobials (600 cases, 44.4%), anti-tumour drugs (151 cases, 11.2%) and reproductive system drugs (111 cases, 8.2%). The callers could be divided into four groups as follows: doctors (865 cases, 63.9%), nurses (280 cases, 20.7%), patients (116 cases, 8.6%) and other medical professionals (92 cases, 6.8%). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Usage and dosage, choice of drug variety, drug incompatibility, adjustment of treatment plan and skin tests represented the main issues for telephone drug consultations in our hospital. Doctors and nurses were most likely to consult clinical pharmacists regarding these issues. Improved drug consultation services are needed to allow more patients to have access to advice from pharmacists. Such access would better enable pharmacists to fulfil their roles in advising the appropriate use of drugs to ensure better patient care and medication compliance.

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