Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.498
Filtrar
1.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464679

RESUMO

Mud crabs, found throughout the Indo-Pacific region, are coastal species that are important fisheries resources in many tropical and subtropical Asian countries. Here, we present a chromosome-level genome assembly of a mud crab (Scylla paramamosain). The genome is 1.55 Gb (contig N50 191 kb) in length and encodes 17,821 proteins. The heterozygosity of the assembled genome was estimated to be 0.47%. Effective population size analysis suggested that an initial large population size of this species was maintained until 200 thousand years ago. The contraction of cuticle protein and opsin genes compared with Litopenaeus vannamei is assumed to be correlated with shell hardness and light perception ability, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of three chemoreceptor gene families, the odorant receptor (OR), gustatory receptor (GR) and ionotropic receptor (IR) families, suggested that the mud crab has no OR genes and shows a contraction of GR genes and expansion of IR genes. The numbers of the three gene families were similar to those in three other decapods but different from those in two non-decapods and insects. In addition, IRs were more diversified in decapods than in non-decapod crustaceans, and most of the expanded IRs in the mud crab genome were clustered with the antennal IR clades. These findings suggested that IRs might exhibit more diverse functions in decapods than in non-decapods, which may compensate for the smaller number of GR genes. Decoding the S. paramamosain genome not only provides insight into the genetic changes underpinning ecological traits but also provides valuable information for improving the breeding and aquaculture of this species.

2.
Brain Dev ; 43(2): 331-336, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the XPR1 gene are associated with primary familial brain calcifications (PFBC). All reported mutations are missense and inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. PFBC patients exhibited movement disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other associated symptoms with diverse severity, even within the same family. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified and enrolled a patient with PFBC. Clinical data were comprehensively collected, including the age of onset, seizure types and frequency, trigger factors of paroxysmal dyskinesia, response to drugs, and general and neurological examination results. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed to detect pathogenic variants. We further systematically reviewed the phenotypic and genetic features of patients with XPR1 mutations. RESULTS: The patient showed bilateral calcification involving basal ganglia and cerebellar dentate. Clinically, he presented as paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) with favorable outcome. We identified a compound heterozygous XPR1 mutation (c.786_789delTAGA/p.D262Efs*6, c.1342C>T/p.R448W), which were inherited from unaffected parents respectively. Further literature review shows a wide range of clinical manifestations of patients with XPR1 mutations, with movement disorders being the most common. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of biallelic mutations in XPR1. The findings suggest for the first time a possible link between PKD/IC and XPR1 mutations.

3.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448324

RESUMO

Numerous studies have found that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are aberrantly expressed when sepsis occurs. The present study aimed to investigate the role of miR­101­3p in sepsis­induced myocardial injury and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Models of myocardial injury were established both in vivo and in vitro. The results revealed that miR­101­3p was upregulated in the serum of patients with sepsis­induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) and positively correlated with the levels of pro­inflammatory cytokines (including IL­1ß, IL­6 and TNF­α). Subsequently, rats were treated with miR­101­3p inhibitor to suppress miR­101­3p and were then exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results revealed that LPS induced marked cardiac dysfunction, apoptosis and inflammation. The inhibition of miR­101­3p markedly attenuated sepsis­induced myocardial injury by attenuating apoptosis and the expression of pro­inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistically, dual specificity phosphatase­1 (DUSP1) was found to be a functional target of miR­101­3p. The downregulation of miR­101­3p led to the overexpression of DUSP1, and the inactivation of the MAPK p38 and NF­κB pathways. Moreover, blocking DUSP1 by short hairpin RNA against DUSP1 (sh­DUSP1) significantly reduced the myocardial protective effects mediated by the inhibition of miR­101­3p. Collectively, the findings of the present study demonstrate that the inhibition of miR­101­3p exerts cardioprotective effects by suppressing MAPK p38 and NF­κB pathway activation, and thus attenuating inflammation and apoptosis dependently by enhancing DUSP1 expression.

4.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(1): 157-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390784

RESUMO

Juniperus indica Bertol. is an herbal plant that belongs to the genus Juniperus, which is commonly used in traditional medicine to refresh the mind and for diuretic use. However, few studies have reported the function of J. indica Bertol. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and synergistic potential of J. indica Bertol. extract (JIB extract) for melanoma cells. Our results indicated the anti-melanoma activity of JIB extract. JIB extract induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and decreased cyclin and cdk protein expressions. In addition, AKT/mTOR signaling and MAPK signaling were inhibited by JIB extract to suppress melanoma cell growth and proliferation. Additionally, JIB extract induced B16/F10 cell apoptosis via the caspase cascade. According to the JIB extract's anti-melanoma capacity, to assess the synergistic effects of cisplatin and JIB extract. The results demonstrated that JIB extract combined with cisplatin enhanced the inhibition of cell growth, proliferation, and survival through the obstruction of cell cycle progression and AKT/mTOR and MAPK signaling as well as the induction of cell apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicate that JIB extract showed anti-tumor effects and synergized with cisplatin against B16/F10 cells, indicating the possibility of JIB extract to be developed as adjuvant therapy for melanoma.

5.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to investigate the association between the urinary microbiome and bladder cancer, including the difference between nonmuscle-invasive (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive (MIBC) bladder cancer, and Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) responsive vs. BCG-refractory NMIBC. METHODS: Urine specimens were collected from consecutive patients with bladder cancer and healthy volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing to identify and compare any present bacteria. Alteration in the urinary microbiome was described in terms of alpha (diversity of populations within a sample) and beta diversities (differences between populations among different samples). Analyses were corrected for age, sex, method of sample preservation, and method of collection (mid-stream catch vs. catheterized urine). RESULTS: Fifty-three samples (43 patients with bladder cancer, and 10 controls) were included. For bladder cancer patients, mean age was 70 years, 7 (16%) were females; and 29 (67%) had NMIBC. Among patients with NMIBC, 11 (38%) patients received BCG, 6 of which had recurrence or progression after a median follow up of 13 months. Comparing the microbiome of bladder cancer patients vs. healthy controls, beta-diversity was significantly different, with Actinomyces, Achromobacter, Brevibacterium, and Brucella significantly more abundant in urine samples of bladder cancer patients. Comparing NMIBC and MIBC, Hemophilus and Veillonella were significantly more abundant in urine of MIBC patients, while Cupriavidus was significantly more abundant in NMIBC patients. Among NMIBC patients, Serratia and Brochothrix, Negativicoccus, Escherichia-Shigella, and Pseudomonas were significantly more abundant in patients who responded to BCG in comparison to those who did not. CONCLUSION: Urinary microbiome varied between patients with bladder cancer and healthy controls. Moreover, urinary microbial profiles differed among patient with NMIBC vs. MIBC, and among BCG responsive vs. BCG refractory NMIBC.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 20, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, urogenital and intestinal parasitosis remain significant health challenges. They are associated with rising morbidity, death, and many harmful outcomes. A little is known concerning parasitosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study planned to investigate the urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections among type 2 diabetes patients compare to non-diabetic (Control) individuals and examine the intensity of helminthiasis in both groups. METHODS: At Kosti Teaching Hospital (Sudan), 300 Urine and 300 stool samples have collected from 150 type 2 diabetes and 150 control individuals, along with the socio-demographic data using a structured questionnaire. The parasitic infections were examined by direct sedimentation technique for urine specimens. Whereas, for fecal samples, simple-direct saline, formal-ether concentration, Kato-Katz, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques were used. RESULTS: Out of 150 type 2 diabetes patients studied, 31 (20.6%) and 14 (9.3%) had intestinal parasitosis and urogenital schistosomiasis, respectively. Whereas, 16 (10.6%) and 8 (5.3%) of the control group were infected, respectively. Compared to the control group, the odds of testing positive for either urogenital schistosomiasis (AOR: 2.548, 95% CI: 0.836-7.761, P = 0.100) or intestinal parasitic diseases (AOR: 2.099, 95% CI: 0.973-4.531, P = 0.059) were greater in diabetic individuals. Likewise, the intensities of helminthiasis were much higher in the diabetic patients and positively correlated with the duration of illness. The rate of urogenital schistosomiasis was also significantly different among the disease duration subcategories. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has highlighted the relationship of type 2 diabetes with urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections and enhanced our knowledge about the frequency of particular urogenital and intestinal parasites as well as the intensity of helminths infection in type 2 diabetes compared to non-diabetic individuals, which are important for further studies.

7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(2): 213-218, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the virologic and immunologic outcomes among people living with HIV (PLHIV) coinfected with SARS-CoV-2. SETTING: Wuhan, China. METHODS: Thirty-five coinfected patients were identified by matching the reported cases in National Notifiable Infectious Disease Report system for COVID-19 and HIV in Wuhan by time of April 19, 2020. Questionnaire-based survey and follow-up with blood sample collection were used to obtain characteristics before COVID-19 and after recovery. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, χ2, or Fisher exact test, Mcnemar test, and Wilcoxon test were conducted. RESULTS: Twenty of the 35 coinfected patients were identified as asymptomatic/mild/moderate COVID-19 (nonsevere group) and 15 were identified as severe/critical (severe group). The severe and nonsevere group had no differences in demographics, HIV baseline status, the intervals between last tests and follow-up tests for CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 viral load (all P > 0.05). Overall, there was a significantly increased number of coinfected patients with HIV-1 viral load ≥20 copies/mL after recovery (P = 0.008). The median viral load increased significantly after recovery in severe group (P = 0.034), whereas no significant change of HIV-1 viral load was observed in the nonsevere group. Limited change of CD4+ cell count was found (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 may put PLHIV at greater risk for HIV-1 viral rebound especially for severe/critical COVID-19, whereas it had limited impacts on CD4+ cell count. Whether continuous antiretroviral therapy against HIV infection would have significant impacts on CD4+ cell count among PLHIV coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 needs further research.

8.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; 231(2): e13558, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920982

RESUMO

AIM: Abnormally activated vascular smooth muscle cells are key factors in pulmonary artery remodelling (PAR) and pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Keratin 1 is involved in inflammatory diseases; however, its role in PAH is unknown. We speculated that keratin 1 could regulate PASMCs and prevent PAH. METHODS: Rats were exposed to hypoxia (10% O2 ) or MCT (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or treated with AAV6 virus. PAR was measured through HE and Masson staining. PASMC activities were measured using MTS assay, EdU and Western blot analyses after cell knockdown with siRNAs or overexpression with Krt1 vectors. RESULTS: 1. Hypoxic PAR was associated with a decrease in keratin 1, especially in PASMCs. 2. Keratin 1 knockdown led to cell proliferation, migration and contraction to synthetic transformation, while keratin 1 overexpression attenuated hypoxia-induced changes in PASMCs. 3. Decreased keratin 1 induced TLR7 upregulation and mediated increases in the inflammatory factors S100a8 and S100a9. 4. Keratin 1 overexpression reduced the inflammatory factor expression induced by TLR7 activation. 5. Further studies demonstrated that keratin 1 expression was negatively correlated with pulmonary vascular pressure following prolonged hypoxia. 6. Pre-treatment with keratin 1 decreased pulmonary artery pressure and the right heart hypertrophy index and alleviated PAR in two model rats. 7. Keratin 1 exhibited a hypermethylation status in hypoxic pulmonary arteries in the sequencing. Hypoxia-induced decrease in keratin 1 expression was associated with Dnmt1 upregulation induced by YY1 downregulation in PASMCs. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that keratin 1 regulates PASMC expansion and has a preventive effect on PAH.

9.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(1): 20-30, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883110

RESUMO

IMPACT STATEMENT: Baicalein exhibits anti-cancer roles in several cancers. However, the factors influencing the antitumorigenic efficiencies of baicalein in CC remain largely unclear. Here, we provide convincing evidences that lncRNA SNHG1 attenuates the tumor-suppressive roles of baicalein in CC cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and CC tumor growth. This study further demonstrates that the influences of SNHG1 in the antitumorigenic process of baicalein are achieved through modulating the miR-3127-5p/FZD4Wnt/ß-catenin axis. SNHG1 attenuates the repressive role of baicalein on Wnt/ß-catenin. Therefore, SNHG1 is a novel modulator of the tumor-suppressive roles of baicalein and SNHG1 represents a therapeutic intervention target to reinforce the tumor-suppressive roles of baicalein in CC.

10.
Thyroid ; 31(1): 12-22, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600220

RESUMO

Background: Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, it is still unclear whether SCH affects male fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the association between paternal SCH and clinical outcomes after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). Methods: This retrospective study included 2511 couples with paternal euthyroidism (n = 2282) or SCH (n = 229) who visited our clinic for infertility treatment between April 1, 2017, and September 30, 2019. The primary outcomes were the fertilization rate and clinical pregnancy rate; the secondary outcomes were the good-quality embryo rate, blastocyst formation rate, implantation rate, and early miscarriage rate. These outcomes were compared between the euthyroid and the SCH groups after adjusting for various potential confounders. Results: The mean paternal ages in the euthyroid and SCH groups were 34.5 and 36.0 years, respectively (p = 0.002). Semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation index were similar between the two groups (all p > 0.05). The adjusted fertilization (0.69 vs. 0.71, p = 0.30), good-quality embryo (0.49 vs. 0.52, p = 0.31), blastocyst formation (0.51 vs. 0.53, p = 0.57), and early miscarriage (0.11 vs. 0.10, p = 0.81) rates were also similar between the two groups. There was a significantly decreased adjusted clinical pregnancy rate [confidence interval, CI] and implantation rate [CI] in the paternal SCH group compared with the euthyroid group (0.32 [0.26-0.40] vs. 0.42 [0.40-0.45], p = 0.009 for the clinical pregnancy rate; 0.24 [0.19-0.29] vs. 0.29 [0.27-0.31], p = 0.037 for the implantation rate). Stratified analysis indicated that these differences were only significant in men aged ≥35 years (p = 0.009 and 0.022, respectively) and not in men <35 years (p = 0.39 and 0.45, respectively). Conclusions: Paternal SCH was associated with worse clinical outcomes after IVF/ICSI, whereas this detrimental impact was only present in males ≥35 years old. Prospective studies and basic research are warranted to confirm these results and to clarify the mechanisms underlying these associations, respectively.

11.
Laryngoscope ; 131(1): E34-E44, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (ECRSwNP and NECRSwNP) show distinguished clinical pathology, but their underlying mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the clinical, hematological, and histopathological changes in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) endotypes and its association with microbiota. STUDY DESIGN: A comparative cross-sectional study. METHODS: A comparative study of 46 patients with CRSwNP (34.69 ± 16.39 years old) who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery were recruited and subdivided into ECRSwNP and NECRSwNP groups based on eosinophilic tissue inflammation; 12 healthy controls were also included. A structured histopathological analysis was conducted, and complete blood count was determined in patients. Endoscopic-guided middle meatus swabs and fecal samples were collected from the patients and controls and subsequently subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing on Illumina MiSeq. RESULTS: Compared to NECRSwNP, ECRSwNP showed a statistically significant increase in the computed tomography score, endoscopic score, blood eosinophil percentage, tissue eosinophil count, inflammation degree, subepithelial edema, and eosinophil aggregation. Airway microbiota communities differed among the three groups. The abundance of Moraxella and Parvimonas was significantly higher in the ECRSwNP group. Distinct microbiota dysbiosis in CRSwNP endotypes was found to be correlated with different clinical pathologies. Moreover, the gut microbiota in ECRSwNP and NECRSwNP showed dysbiosis, that is, significant decrease in the abundance of Actinobacteria in the former and significant increase in the abundance of Enterobacterales and several genera in NECRSwNP. CONCLUSIONS: Significant clinical pathology and microbiota changes were evident in patients with ECRSwNP and NECRSwNP. Distinct microbiota dysbiosis was correlated with different clinical pathologies. Understanding these differences may improve the prognosis and treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E34-E44, 2021.

12.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 57(1): 225-234, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed the level of knowledge about schizophrenia, insight into illness, and internalized stigma and their associated factors among patients with schizophrenia in Jordan. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 135 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, who had been admitted to the largest psychiatric hospital in Jordan. FINDINGS: The participants had a low level of knowledge, insight, and a high level of internalized stigma. No correlation was found between these variables. Meanwhile, the educational level and vacation were found to be predictors of knowledge. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This can help psychiatric nurses to identify which area needs to be improved to ensure the best service and care is provided to patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 537: 15-21, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383559

RESUMO

A disintegrin and metalloproteinases 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17 are transmembrane metalloproteinases that cleave the membrane-anchored proteins. They act as α-secretase that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP), precluding the production of amyloid-ß, thus protecting against the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the degradation pathway of ADAM10 and ADAM17 remains unknown. In this study, we show that ADAM10 and ADAM17 are degraded through the lysosomal pathway. The lysosomal cysteine protease, AEP, plays an important role in the degradation of ADAM10/17. AEP directly cleaves ADAM10/17. Knockout of AEP increases the content of ADAM10/17 in the brain. Given the protective role of ADAM10 and ADAM17 against AD, AEP-mediated degradation of ADAM10/17 may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD.

14.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 118: 111443, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255035

RESUMO

The construction of metal-oxide heterojunction architecture has greatly widened applications in the fields of optoelectronics, energy conversions and electrochemical sensors. In this study, olive-like hetero-structured MnO-Mn3O4 microparticles wrapped by reduced graphene oxide (MnO-Mn3O4@rGO) were synthesized through a facile solvothermal-calcination treatment. The morphology and structure of MnO-Mn3O4@rGO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The as-synthesized MnO-Mn3O4@rGO exhibited prominent catalyzing effect on the electroreduction of H2O2, due to the combination of good electrical conductivity of rGO and the synergistic effect of MnO and Mn3O4. The MnO-Mn3O4@rGO modified glassy carbon electrode provided a wide linear response from 0.004 to 17 mM, a low detection limit of 0.1 µM, and high sensitivity of 274.15 µA mM-1 cm-2. The proposed sensor displayed noticeable selectivity and long-term stability. In addition, the biosensor has been successfully applied for detecting H2O2 in tomato sauce with good recovery, revealing its promising potential applications for practical electrochemical sensors.

15.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123384, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763687

RESUMO

Characterizing the composition of mercury (Hg) isotopes in the atmospheric emissions of cement plants is critical to understand the global circulation of Hg because large quantities of Hg are released from this source annually. A pre-calciner cement plant in Guizhou Province in Southwest China was selected to investigate the mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg in the entire production process and the speciated Hg isotope composition in stack gas. Significant MDF and insignificant MIF were observed in this cement plant. Different raw/correction materials have δ202Hg signals ranging from -1.68 to -2.19‰. Raw meal is featured with lighter Hg (δ202Hg = -2.83 ± 0.18‰) as results of Hg circulation and accumulation during the clinker production. Cement products possess negative δ202Hg values (-1.98 ± 0.02‰) due to the input of light δ202Hg isotopes through additives/retarder limestone, and fly ash and gypsum from coal-fired power plant (CFPPs). Speciated Hg isotopes in the stack gas of the kiln tail and kiln head show no significant differences, and δ202Hg and Δ199Hg in the discharged flue gas averaged at -2.03 ± 0. 31‰ and -0.03 ± 0.07‰, respectively, which has negative δ202Hg characteristics with other anthropogenic sources.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115842, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120338

RESUMO

Ecological floating beds (EFBs) have become a superior method for treating secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plant. However, insufficient electron donor limited its denitrification efficiency. Iron scraps from lathe cutting waste consist of more than 95% iron could be used as electron donors to enhance denitrification. In this study, EFBs with and without iron scraps supplementation (EFB-Fe and EFB, respectively) were conducted to explore the impacts of iron scraps addition on nitrogen removal, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and microbial communities. Results showed the total nitrogen (TN) removal in EFB-Fe improved to 79% while that in EFB was 56%. N2O emission was 0-6.20 mg m-2 d-1 (EFB-Fe) and 1.74-15.2 mg m-2 d-1 (EFB). Iron scraps could not only improve nitrogen removal efficiency, but also reduce N2O emissions. In addition, high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that adding iron scraps could improve the sum of denitrification related genera, among which Novosphingobium accounted for the highest proportion (6.75% of PFe1, 4.24% of PFe2, 3.18% of PFe3). Iron-oxidizing bacteria and iron-respiring bacteria associated with and nitrate reducing bacteria mainly concentrated on the surface of iron scraps. Principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA) indicated that iron scraps were the key factor affecting microbial community composition. The mechanism of iron scraps enhanced nitrogen removal was realized by enhanced biological denitrification process. Iron release dynamic from iron scraps was detected in bench-scale experiment and the electron transfer mechanism was that Fe0 transferred electrons directly to NO3--N, and biological iron nitrogen cycle occurred in EFB-Fe without secondary pollution.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Óxido Nitroso , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Ferro , Nitrogênio
17.
World J Diabetes ; 11(11): 501-513, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (DVH) is a common complication of diabetes. While the diagnostic methods nowadays only concentrate on the eye injury in DVH patients, whether DVH leads to abnormalities of other visual systems, including the eye, the visual cortex, and other brain regions, remains unknown. AIM: To explore the potential changes of brain activity in DVH using regional homogeneity (ReHo) and their relationships with clinical features. METHODS: Thirty-one DVH patients and 31 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. All subjects were examined by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The neural homogeneity in the brain region was estimated by ReHo method. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between average ReHo values and clinical manifestations in DVH patients. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, the ReHo values in the bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes, right superior (RS)/middle occipital gyrus (MOG), and bilateral superior frontal gyrus were significantly increased. In contrast, in the right insula, bilateral medial frontal gyri, and right middle frontal gyrus, the ReHo values were significantly decreased. Furthermore, we found that best-corrected visual acuity of the contralateral eye in patients with DVH presented a positive correlation with the mean ReHo value of the RS/MOG. We also found that depression score of the DVH group presented a negative correlation with the mean ReHo values of the right insula, bilateral medial frontal gyrus, and right middle frontal gyrus. CONCLUSION: We found that DVH may cause dysfunction in multiple brain areas, which may benefit the exploration of pathologic mechanisms in DVH patients.

18.
Acc Chem Res ; 53(12): 2777-2790, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258577

RESUMO

T cells, a key component in adaptive immunity, are central to many immunotherapeutic modalities aimed at treating various diseases including cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune disorders. The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in immunotherapy, which aims at activation or suppression of the immune responses for disease treatments. Most strikingly, cancer immunotherapy has led to curative responses in a fraction of patients with relapsed or refractory cancers. However, extending those clinical benefits to a majority of cancer patients remains challenging. In order to improve both efficacy and safety of T cell-based immunotherapies, significant effort has been devoted to modulating biochemical signals to enhance T cell proliferation, effector functions, and longevity. Such strategies include discovery of new immune checkpoints, design of armored chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, and targeted delivery of stimulatory cytokines and so on.Despite the intense global research effort in developing novel cancer immunotherapies, a major dimension of the interactions between cancer and the immune system, its biomechanical aspect, has been largely underappreciated. Throughout their lifecycle, T cells constantly survey a multitude of organs and tissues and experience diverse biomechanical environments, such as shear force in the blood flow and a broad range of tissue stiffness. Furthermore, biomechanical properties of tissues or cells may be altered in disease and inflammation. Biomechanical cues, including both passive mechanical cues and active mechanical forces, have been shown to govern T cell development, activation, migration, differentiation, and effector functions. In other words, T cells can sense, respond to, and adapt to both passive mechanical cues and active mechanical forces.Biomechanical cues have been intensively studied at a fundamental level but are yet to be extensively incorporated in the design of immunotherapies. Nonetheless, the growing knowledge of T cell mechanobiology has formed the basis for the development of novel engineering strategies to mechanically modulate T cell immunity, a nascent field that we termed "mechanical immunoengineering". Mechanical immunoengineering exploits biomechanical cues (e.g., stiffness and external forces) to modulate T cell differentiation, proliferation, effector functions, etc., for diagnostic or therapeutic applications. It provides an additional dimension, complementary to traditional modulation of biochemical cues (e.g., antigen density and co-stimulatory signals), to tailor T cell immune responses and enhance therapeutic outcomes. For example, stiff antigen-presenting matrices have been shown to enhance T cell proliferation independently of the intensity of biochemical stimulatory signals. Current strategies of mechanical immunoengineering of T cells can be categorized into two major fields including passive mechanical cue-oriented and active force-oriented strategies. In this Account, we first present a brief overview of T cell mechanobiology. Next, we summarize recent advances in mechanical immunoengineering, discuss the roles of chemistry and material science in the development of these engineering strategies, and highlight potential therapeutic applications. Finally, we present our perspective on the future directions in mechanical immunoengineering and critical steps to translate mechanical immunoengineering strategies into therapeutic applications in the clinic.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(52): 57710-57720, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320520

RESUMO

There is a continuing, urgent need for an ophthalmic (eye) drop for the clinical therapy of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness. Here, we report the first formulation of an eye drop that is effective via autophagy for AMD treatment. This eye drop is based on a single natural product derivative (ACD), which is an amphiphilic molecule containing a 6-aminohexanoate group (H2N(CH2)5COO-). We demonstrate that this eye drop reverses the abnormal angiogenesis induced in a primate model of AMD that has the pathological characteristics close to that of human AMD. The ACD molecule was self-assembled in an aqueous environment leading to nanoparticles (NPs) about 9.0 nm in diameter. These NPs were encapsulated in calcium alginate hydrogel. The resulting eye drop effectively slowed the release of ACD and displayed extended release periods in both simulated blood (pH 7.4) and inflammatory (pH 5.2) environments. We show that the eye drop penetrated both the corneal and blood-eye barriers and reached the fundus. With low cellular toxicity, the drop targeted S1,25D3-membrane-associated rapid response steroid-binding protein (1,25D3-MARRS) promoting autophagy in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the drop inhibited cell migration and tubular formation. On the other hand, when protein 1,25D3-MARRS was knocked down, the eye drop did not exhibit such inhibition functionalities. Our study indicates that the 6-aminohexanoate group on self-assembled NPs encapsulated in hydrogel leads to the positive in vivo outcomes. The present formulation offers a promising approach for clinical treatment of human AMD.

20.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(24)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339294

RESUMO

The vibration of the periodic oscillator coupled damping beam model is reduced through the band gaps designing method, which can be applied in equivalent engineering structures. In this paper, the flexural wave dispersion relations of the infinite long periodic oscillator coupled damping beam were calculated using the reverberation-ray matrix method combined with the Bloch theorem. The flexural wave vibration frequency response function of the finite long periodic oscillator coupled damping beam was carried out using the finite element method. The flexural wave vibration band gaps occur in the infinite long periodic oscillator coupled damping beam model in both the analytical and numerical results. In these band gaps, flexural waves' propagation is prohibited, and flexural vibration is significantly suppressed. Furthermore, the effects of structure and material parameters on the flexural wave vibration band gaps characteristics are studied. Thus, the structural vibration reduction design can be realized by adjusting the related parameters of the periodic coupled damping beam structures and the equivalent 2D periodic stiffened plate structures.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA