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1.
Biosci Trends ; 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866487

RESUMO

Population aging is a global concern, and Japan currently has the world's highest proportion of an aging population. In 2020, the population age 65 and over accounted for 10% of the global population, while this proportion was 29% in Japan, and it is expected to reach 38.4% in 2065. The average life expectancy in Japan in 2022 was 81.05 for males and 87.09 for females. At the same time, Japan's healthy life expectancy continues to increase, and it is increasing at a faster rate than the average life expectancy, with males expected to live 72.68 years and females expected to live 75.38 years in 2019. This is causing the social role of elderly people in Japan to constantly change. The Japanese Government continues to adjust its policy orientation, to improve the health level and social participation of the elderly, improve the accessibility of long-term nursing services and the treatment of nursing professionals, and improve the pension system. By 2025, one-fifth of people in Japan are expected to suffer from dementia. Japan has implemented a series of policies to create a dementia-inclusive and less risky society. The proportion of the population ages 65 and over living alone in Japan increased from 4.3% among males and from 11.2% among females in 1980 to 15.0% among males and 22.1% among females in 2020, representing a sustained increase. Changes in the composition of the population have prompted sustained attention to the personalization and diversification of elderly care. At the same time, Japanese researchers continue to utilize scientific and information technology to innovate elderly care products, improve the efficiency of elderly care, and provide intelligent elderly care.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864299

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the relationship between cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and emotional disorders in the patients undergoing continuous hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Methods The clinical data of the ESRD patients undergoing continuous hemodialysis were collected.Anxiety and depression of the patients were assessed by the Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Beck depression inventory,respectively.The cerebral hemodynamic changes during the breath holding test were monitored by transcranial Doppler sonography,and the breath-holding index (BHI) was calculated.The BHI≥0.69 and BHI<0.69 indicate normal CVR and abnormal CVR,respectively.Binary Logistic regression was employed to analyze the factors affecting the depressive state of ESRD patients.Results The group with abnormal CVR exhibited higher total cholesterol level (P=0.010),low density lipoprotein level (P=0.006),and incidence of depression (P=0.012) than the group with normal CVR.Compared with the non-depression group,the depression group displayed prolonged disease course (P=0.039),reduced body mass index (P=0.048),elevated HAMA score (P=0.001),increased incidence of anxiety (P<0.001),decreased BHI (P=0.015),and increased incidence of abnormal CVR (P=0.012).Binary Logistic regression analysis indicated anxiety as a contributing factor (OR=22.915,95%CI=2.653-197.956,P=0.004) and abnormal CVR as a risk factor (OR=0.074,95%CI=0.008-0.730,P=0.026) for depression.Conclusion Impaired CVR could pose a risk for depression in the patients with ESRD.

3.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative differentiation of the types of mediastinal tumors is essential. Magnetic resonance (MR) elastography potentially provides a noninvasive method to assess the classification of mediastinal tumor subtypes. PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of MR elastography in anterior mediastinal masses and to characterize the mechanical properties of tumors of different subtypes. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: 189 patients with anterior mediastinal tumors (AMTs) confirmed by histopathology (62 thymomas, 53 thymic carcinomas, 57 lymphomas, and 17 germ cell tumors). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A gradient echo-based 2D MR elastography sequence and a diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence at 3.0 T. ASSESSMENT: Stiffness and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured in AMTs using MR elastography-derived elastograms and DWI-derived ADC maps, respectively. The aim of this study is to identify whether MR elastography can differentiate between the histological subtypes of ATMs. STATISTICAL TESTS: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), two-way ANOVA, Pearson's linear correlation coefficient (r), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis; P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Lymphomas had significantly lower stiffness than other AMTs (4.0 ± 0.63 kPa vs. 4.8 ± 1.39 kPa). The mean stiffness of thymic carcinomas was significantly higher than that of other AMTs (5.6 ± 1.41 kPa vs. 4.2 ± 0.94 kPa). Using a cutoff value of 5.0 kPa, ROC analysis showed that lymphomas could be differentiated from other AMTs with an accuracy of 59%, sensitivity of 97%, and specificity of 38%. Using a cutoff value of 5.1 kPa, thymic carcinomas could be differentiated from other AMTs with an accuracy of 84%, sensitivity of 67%, and specificity of 90%. However, there was an overlap in the stiffness values of individual thymomas (4.2 ± 0.71; 3.9-4.5), thymic carcinomas (5.6 ± 1.41; 5.0-6.1), lymphomas (4.0 ± 0.63; 3.8-4.2), and germ cell tumors (4.5 ± 1.79; 3.3-5.6). DATA CONCLUSION: MR elastography-derived stiffness may be used to evaluate AMTs of various histologies. TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.

4.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 147, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a critical role in regulating brain function through the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with neurological impairment in Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Our previous study found that TBI results in a decrease in the abundance of Prevotella copri (P. copri). P. copri has been shown to have antioxidant effects in various diseases. Meanwhile, guanosine (GUO) is a metabolite of intestinal microbiota that can alleviate oxidative stress after TBI by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of P. copri transplantation on TBI and its relationship with GUO-PI3K/Akt pathway. METHODS: In this study, a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model was used to induce TBI in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Subsequently, P. copri was transplanted by intragastric gavage for 7 consecutive days. To investigate the effect of the GUO-PI3K/Akt pathway in P. copri transplantation therapy, guanosine (GUO) was administered 2 h after TBI for 7 consecutive days, and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) was administered 30 min before TBI. Various techniques were used to assess the effects of these interventions, including quantitative PCR, neurological behavior tests, metabolite analysis, ELISA, Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, Evans blue assays, transmission electron microscopy, FITC-dextran permeability assay, gastrointestinal transit assessment, and 16 S rDNA sequencing. RESULTS: P. copri abundance was significantly reduced after TBI. P. copri transplantation alleviated motor and cognitive deficits tested by the NSS, Morris's water maze and open field test. P. copri transplantation attenuated oxidative stress and blood-brain barrier damage and reduced neuronal apoptosis after TBI. In addition, P. copri transplantation resulted in the reshaping of the intestinal flora, improved gastrointestinal motility and intestinal permeability. Metabolomics and ELISA analysis revealed a significant increase in GUO levels in feces, serum and injured brain after P. copri transplantation. Furthermore, the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt was found to be increased after P. copri transplantation and GUO treatment. Notably, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 treatment attenuated the observed improvements. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate for the first time that P. copri transplantation can improve GI functions and alter gut microbiota dysbiosis after TBI. Additionally, P. copri transplantation can ameliorate neurological deficits, possibly via the GUO-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway after TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Prevotella , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo
5.
ACS Nano ; 18(24): 15671-15680, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837180

RESUMO

While nanostructural engineering holds promise for improving the stability of high-capacity silicon (Si) anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), challenges like complex synthesis and the high cost of nano-Si impede its commercial application. In this study, we present a local reduction technique to synthesize micron-scale monolithic layered Si (10-20 µm) with a high tap density of 0.9-1.0 g cm-3 from cost-effective montmorillonite, a natural layered silicate mineral. The created mesoporous structure within each layer, combined with the void spaces between interlayers, effectively mitigates both lateral and vertical expansion throughout repeated lithiation/delithiation cycles. Furthermore, the remaining SiO2 network fortifies the layered structure, preventing it from collapsing during cycling. Half-cell tests reveal a capacity retention of 92% with a reversible capacity of 1130 mAh g-1 over 500 cycles. Moreover, the pouch cell integrated with this Si anode (with a mass loading of 3.0 mg cm-2) and a commercial NCM811 cathode delivers a high energy density of 655 Wh kg-1 (based on the total mass of the cathode and anode) and maintains 82% capacity after 200 cycles. This work demonstrates a cost-efficient and scalable strategy to manufacture high-performance micron Si anodes for the ever-growing demand for high-energy LIBs.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(23): 30147-30156, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822780

RESUMO

The pretreatment of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorption layer using an alkali element can effectively improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of CIGS solar cells. Here, we propose using NaF layer pretreatment below the CIGS absorption layer deposited by a three-stage process. Sodium ions in NaF can effectively suppress the diffusion of Ga elements and form a steep gradient backscatter layer on the back of the CIGS absorption layer, thereby passivating solar cell defects, inhibiting carrier recombination, promoting carrier transmission and collection, improving open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current (Jsc), and filling factor (FF), and further improving the PCE.

7.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2400371, 2024 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879779

RESUMO

Diversity in solvent selection bestows the organic gel with appealing characteristics embracing anti-drying, anti-icing, and antifouling abilities. However, organic gel, subjected to the "toxic" inherent property of solvent, is not able to be manipulated on skin. Herein, we envisaged that introducing the hydrogel layer amid organic gel and skin to realize application of organic gel on skin. Hydrogel, inserted as the medium layer, works for the coupling role between skin and organic gel, also avoids the direct contact of organic gel towards skin. First, hydrogel system composed of acrylic acid was fabricated, meanwhile organic gel was prepared employing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol (EG) as solvent. Organic gel was able to adhere to hydrogel by hydrogen bonding resulting from carboxyl groups of polyacrylic acid (PAA) chains and hydroxyl groups occurring on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or EG. Additionally, hydrogen bonding enabled the hydrogel to be firmly attached to skin, thus organic gel/hydrogel/skin assembly was produced. The further application of organic gel was exploited by incorporating stimuli-responsive dyes including spiropyran (SP) and rhodamine derivative (RD). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 212: 108754, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824693

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba L. is a relict plant endemic to China that is commonly considered a "living fossil". It contains unique medicinal compounds that play important roles in its response to various stresses and help maintain human health. Ginkgo terpenoids are known to be important active ingredients but have received less attention than flavonoids. Hence, this review focuses on recent progress in research on the pharmacological effects of ginkgo terpenoid and the bioactivities of different terpenoid monomers. Many key structural genes, enzyme-encoding genes, transcription factors, and noncoding RNAs involved in the ginkgo terpenoid pathway were identified. Finally, many external factors (ecological factors, hormones, etc.) that regulate the biosynthesis and metabolism of terpenoids were proposed. All these findings improve the understanding of the biosynthesis, accumulation, and medicinal functions of terpenoids. Finally, this review includes an in-depth discussion regarding the limitations of terpenoid-related studies and potential future research directions.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Terpenos , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
10.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(3): 368-395, 2024 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influencing factors of body weight retention in woman at 1 year postpartum, and to construct and evaluate a nomogram prediction model for postpartum 1-year weight retention. METHODS: From September 2010 to February 2011, 468 pregnant women in the third trimester were recruited from Yuexiu District and Baiyun District Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Guangzhou, and followed up to 1 year postpartum. The basic demographic information of pregnant women was collected by self-made questionnaire. Dietary intake in the third trimester was investigated by 3-day 24-hour dietary review. The weight of women before delivery and one year after delivery were measured. According to whether the weight retention at 1 year postpartum is greater than 0 kg, the study subjects were divided into the 1-year postpartum weight retention group and weight recovery group. Logistic regression analysis were used to screen the influencing factors of weight retention at 1 year postpartum. R 4.2.3 software was used to construct the nomogram prediction model. The subject working characteristic curve, calibration curve, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test and clinical decision curve were used to evaluate the model's differentiation, accuracy and clinical applicability. RESULTS: Among 329 subjects in the model training set, the 1-year postpartum weight retention was 68.09%, and the median and quartile levels of retained body weight were 5.0(3.0, 10.0)kg. After Logistic analysis, a nomogram prediction model was constructed based on five factors: pre-pregnancy body mass index(BMI), pregnancy weight gain, parity, gravitity, 0-6 months postpartum feeding pattern. The model had good discrimination(AUC_(training)=0.778, AUC_(testing)=0.767) and accuracy(Hosmer-Lemeshow test: P_(training)=0.946, P_(testing)=0.891). CONCLUSION: The 1-year postnatal weight retention nomogram model based on women's pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy weight gain, parity, gravitity, 0-6 months postpartum feeding pattern has good differentiation, accuracy and clinical applicability.


Assuntos
Nomogramas , Período Pós-Parto , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Aumento de Peso , China , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(3): 382-388, 2024 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the situation of women's dietary quality during pregnancy and explore the correlations between maternal dietary index and fetal immune function. METHODS: From September 2010 to February 2011, pregnant women who had routine physical examination in Yuexiu District and Baiyun District Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangzhou were recruited as study objects to use 3-day 24-hour dietary review to investigate diet during pregnancy, and general demographic information of pregnant women was collected through questionnaire, and the neonatal umbilical cord blood was collected during delivery. Laboratory detection of immunological indicators included IgG, IgA, IgM, IFN-γ and IL-6. The quality of diet during pregnancy was evaluated by diet quality index for pregnancy(DQI-P), dietary balance index for pregnancy(DBI-P) and alternate Medierranean diet score(aMED). Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to explore the correlations between dietary quality during pregnancy and fetal immune function. RESULTS: The mean score of total DQI-P score of the study subjects was 55.8±10.0, and the mean score of overall food diversity and protein food source diversity was as high as 12.0±2.4 and 4.8±0.7. The mean score of nutrient energy ratio and fatty acid energy ratio was only 0.3±1.0 and 0.4±1.0, indicating that the population had good dietary diversity during pregnancy, but the dietary adequacy, suitability and balance were poor. The total score of DBI-P score was-19.2±9.4. The positive end score was 4.6±2.9, only 7.2% of the subjects had a high degree of dietary intake during pregnancy. The negative end score was 23.9±7.9, indicating the status of moderate dietary intake. Dietary quality was 28.5±7.1. Only 0.6% of the study population had a balanced dietary situation, and more than 67.9% of pregnant women had high intake imbalance. The mean total score of aMED score was 4.9±1.3, and the proportion of the food intake of beans and nuts was less than the median population was 62.5% and 79.1%, respectively, indicating that the food intake of beans and nuts was insufficient in this population. After adjusting for confounding factors such as maternal age, parity, parity, prepregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, and mode of delivery, multiple linear regression analysis showed DQI-P during pregnancy and negatively with IL-6(ß=0.143, ß=-0.155, P<0.05). DBI-P was negatively associated with IL-6(ß=-0.177, P<0.01) and aMED and IFN-γ(ß=-0.161, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The dietary quality of women in late pregnancy in Guangzhou is low, the dietary structure is unbalanced. Higher dietary quality during pregnancy can promote the development of fetal immune system and improve fetal immune function.


Assuntos
Dieta , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , China , Adulto , Feto/imunologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Sangue Fetal/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Interleucina-6/sangue
12.
13.
Clin Nutr ; 43(7): 1725-1735, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging-related type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is characterized by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and ß-cell dysfunction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be unclear. METHODS: We conducted non-targeted metabolomics to compare human serum samples from young adults (YA), elderly adults (EA), and elderly adults with diabetes (EA + DM) of Chinese population. Adult mice and aged mice were intragastrically administered with varespladib every day for two weeks and metabolic characteristics were monitored. Serum levels of arachidonic acid, insulin, and C-peptide, as well as serum activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) were detected in mice. Mouse islet perfusion assays were used to assess insulin secretion ability. Phosphorylated AKT levels were measured to evaluate insulin sensitivities of peripheral tissues in mice. RESULTS: Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of human serum samples revealed differential metabolic signatures among the YA, EA, and EA + DM groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed significant enhancement of arachidonic acid metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism in the EA group compared with the YA group. Further analysis identified two metabolic fluxes that favored the accumulation of arachidonic acid in the elderly. Increased levels of arachidonic acid were also confirmed in aged mice with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with subsequent glucose intolerance. Conversely, inhibiting the generation of arachidonic acid with varespladib, an inhibitor of sPLA2, reduced aging-associated diabetes by improving hyperinsulinemia and hepatic insulin resistance in aged mice but not in adult mice. Islet perfusion assays also showed that varespladib treatment suppressed the enhanced insulin secretion observed in aged islets. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings uncover that arachidonic acid serves as a metabolic hub in Chinese elderly population. Our results also suggest that arachidonic acid plays a fundamental role in regulating ß-cell function during aging and point to a novel therapy for aging-associated diabetes.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845103

RESUMO

High-voltage (>4.35 V) lithium nickel-cobalt-manganese batteries are star candidates due to their higher energy density for next-generation power batteries. This poses higher demands for electrolyte design, including compatibility with lithium metals, stability on high-voltage cathodes, speedy interfacial ion transport kinetics, and appropriate concentration. However, electrolytes at the current level of research struggle to balance these demands. Here, we took advantage of the reduced affinity with Li+ and enhanced oxidative stability of three fluorinated linear carbonates to design a series of weakly solvating electrolytes (WSEs) at a low salt concentration of 1 M, which contain abundant ionic cluster structures, leading to the optimization of interfacial chemistry. As a result, WSEs can support the stable cycling of 4.6 V high-voltage Li||NCM811 cells for 300 cycles with a capacity retention of nearly 80%. Moreover, benefiting from the lower desolvation energy of Li+, WSEs achieve superior cycling stability and low polarization under -20 °C. Our work extends the application of WSEs for high-voltage LMBs, providing a promising solution in electrolytes for high-specific-energy lithium batteries.

15.
Opt Express ; 32(9): 15893-15911, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859229

RESUMO

Optical mirror misalignments, which are caused by assembly mistakes and changes in the surrounding environment (such as gravity, temperature, and atmosphere), degrade the system's imaging performance. Therefore, active misalignment correction is essential for ensuring the image quality of the off-axis telescope. In this paper, a novel misalignment correction method without wavefront sensors is proposed. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the system are analytically related to the optical mirror misalignments. On this basis, a fully connected neural network (FCNN) is used to establish the mapping relationship between the misalignments and the discrete orthogonal unbiased finite impulse response (UFIR) moment features, which can effectively characterize changes of intensity and geometric of the spot image. The simulation and experimental results in this paper justify the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed method. This approach offers a low-cost and straightforward technical method for achieving high imaging quality throughout the alignment and observation phases. This approach can prevent the accumulation of errors caused by wavefront detection and the high delay of multiple iterations.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(20): 11405-11414, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717990

RESUMO

This study investigated the multiple herbicide resistance (MHR) mechanism of one Echinochloa crus-galli population that was resistant to florpyrauxifen-benzyl (FPB), cyhalofop-butyl (CHB), and penoxsulam (PEX). This population carried an Ala-122-Asn mutation in the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene but no mutation in acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) and transport inhibitor response1 (TIR1) genes. The metabolism rate of PEX was 2-fold higher, and the production of florpyrauxifen-acid and cyhalofop-acid was lower in the resistant population. Malathion and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) could reverse the resistance, suggesting that cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) contribute to the enhanced metabolism. According to RNA-seq and qRT-PCR validation, two CYP450 genes (CYP71C42 and CYP71D55), one GST gene (GSTT2), two glycosyltransferase genes (rhamnosyltransferase 1 and IAAGLU), and two ABC transporter genes (ABCG1 and ABCG25) were induced by CHB, FPB, and PEX in the resistant population. This study revealed that the target mutant and enhanced metabolism were involved in the MHR mechanism in E. crus-galli.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Echinochloa , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Echinochloa/genética , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Echinochloa/metabolismo , Echinochloa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/genética , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Butanos , Nitrilas , Sulfonamidas , Uridina/análogos & derivados
17.
Cancer Cell ; 42(6): 1106-1125.e8, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788718

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are extremely lethal malignancies that can arise at almost any anatomic site. Characterization of NECs is hindered by their rarity and significant inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity. Herein, through an integrative analysis of over 1,000 NECs originating from 31 various tissues, we reveal their tissue-independent convergence and further unveil molecular divergence driven by distinct transcriptional regulators. Pan-tissue NECs are therefore categorized into five intrinsic subtypes defined by ASCL1, NEUROD1, HNF4A, POU2F3, and YAP1. A comprehensive portrait of these subtypes is depicted, highlighting subtype-specific transcriptional programs, genomic alterations, evolution trajectories, therapeutic vulnerabilities, and clinicopathological presentations. Notably, the newly discovered HNF4A-dominated subtype-H exhibits a gastrointestinal-like signature, wild-type RB1, unique neuroendocrine differentiation, poor chemotherapeutic response, and prevalent large-cell morphology. The proposal of uniform classification paradigm illuminates transcriptional basis of NEC heterogeneity and bridges the gap across different lineages and cytomorphological variants, in which context-dependent prevalence of subtypes underlies their phenotypic disparities.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(23): 30228-30238, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810990

RESUMO

A bottom-contact organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is easily adaptable to the standard lithography process because the contact electrodes are deposited before the organic semiconductor (OSC). However, the low surface energy of bare electrodes limits utilizing solution-processed single-crystal OSCs. Additionally, the bare electrode usually leads to a significant charge injection barrier, owing to its relatively low work function (WF). Here, we simultaneously improved the surface energy and WF of gold electrodes by conducting oxygen plasma treatment to achieve high-performance OFET based on solution-processed organic single crystals. We cultivated a thin layer of gold oxide on Au electrodes to increase the WF by ∼0.7 eV. The surface energy of Au electrodes was enhanced to the same as AlOx dielectric surface, enabling the seamless growth of large-area C8-BTBT (2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene) organic single-crystal thin films via solution shearing. This technique facilitates the production of high-performance OFETs with the highest carrier mobility of 6.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 and sharp switching characterized by a subthreshold swing of 63.6 mV dec-1. The bottom-contact OFETs exhibited a lower contact resistance of 1.19 kΩ cm than its F4-TCNQ-doped top-contact control device. This method offers a straightforward and effective strategy for producing high-quality single-crystal OFETs, which are potentially suitable for commercial applications.

19.
Phytochemistry ; 225: 114165, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815884

RESUMO

Ten C-geranylated flavonoids, along with three known analogues, were isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis. The chemical structures of these compounds were unambiguously determined via comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments, and quantum chemical electronic circular dichroism calculations. Structurally, artocarones A-I (1-9) represent a group of unusual, highly modified C-geranylated flavonoids, in which the geranyl chain is cyclised with the ortho-hydroxy group of flavonoids to form various heterocyclic scaffolds. Notably, artocarones E and G-I (5 and 7-9) feature a 6H-benzo[c]chromene core that is hitherto undescribed in C-geranylated flavonoids. Artocarone J (10) is the first example of C-9-C-16 connected C-geranylated aurone. Meanwhile, the plausible biosynthetic pathways for these rare C-geranylated flavonoids were also proposed. Notably, compounds 1, 2, 4, 8, 11, and 12 exhibited promising in vitro inhibitory activities against respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus type 1.

20.
Research (Wash D C) ; 7: 0393, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812533

RESUMO

One of the fundamental principles of electrostatics is that an uncharged object will be attracted to a charged object through electrostatic induction as the two approaches one another. We refer to the charged object as a single electrode and examine the scenario where a positive voltage is applied. Because of electrostatic induction phenomenon, single-electrode electrostatics only generates electrostatic attraction forces. Here, we discover that single-electrode electrostatics can generate electrostatic repulsion forces and define this new phenomenon as single-electrode electrostatic repulsion phenomenon. We investigate the fundamental electrostatic phenomena, giving a curve of electrostatic force versus voltage and then defining 3 regions. Remote actuation and manipulation are essential technologies that are of enormous concern, with tweezers playing an important role. Various tweezers designed on the basis of external fields of optics, acoustics, and magnetism can be used for remote actuation and manipulation, but some inherent drawbacks still exist. Tweezers would benefit greatly from our discovery in electrostatics. On the basis of this discovery, we propose the concept of electrostatic tweezers, which can achieve noncontact and remote actuation and manipulation. Experimental characterizations and successful applications in metamaterials, robots, and manipulating objects demonstrated that electrostatic tweezers can produce large deformation rates (>6,000%), fast actuation (>100 Hz), and remote manipulating distance (~15 cm) and have the advantages of simple device structure, easy control, lightweight, no dielectric breakdown, and low cost. Our work may deepen people's understanding of single-electrode electrostatics and opens new opportunities for remote actuation and manipulation.

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