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1.
N Engl J Med ; 390(19): 1745-1755, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage who are receiving factor Xa inhibitors have a risk of hematoma expansion. The effect of andexanet alfa, an agent that reverses the effects of factor Xa inhibitors, on hematoma volume expansion has not been well studied. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, patients who had taken factor Xa inhibitors within 15 hours before having an acute intracerebral hemorrhage to receive andexanet or usual care. The primary end point was hemostatic efficacy, defined by expansion of the hematoma volume by 35% or less at 12 hours after baseline, an increase in the score on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of less than 7 points (scores range from 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating worse neurologic deficit) at 12 hours, and no receipt of rescue therapy between 3 hours and 12 hours. Safety end points were thrombotic events and death. RESULTS: A total of 263 patients were assigned to receive andexanet, and 267 to receive usual care. Efficacy was assessed in an interim analysis that included 452 patients, and safety was analyzed in all 530 enrolled patients. Atrial fibrillation was the most common indication for factor Xa inhibitors. Of the patients receiving usual care, 85.5% received prothrombin complex concentrate. Hemostatic efficacy was achieved in 150 of 224 patients (67.0%) receiving andexanet and in 121 of 228 (53.1%) receiving usual care (adjusted difference, 13.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6 to 22.2; P = 0.003). The median reduction from baseline to the 1-to-2-hour nadir in anti-factor Xa activity was 94.5% with andexanet and 26.9% with usual care (P<0.001). Thrombotic events occurred in 27 of 263 patients (10.3%) receiving andexanet and in 15 of 267 (5.6%) receiving usual care (difference, 4.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.1 to 9.2; P = 0.048); ischemic stroke occurred in 17 patients (6.5%) and 4 patients (1.5%), respectively. There were no appreciable differences between the groups in the score on the modified Rankin scale or in death within 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who were receiving factor Xa inhibitors, andexanet resulted in better control of hematoma expansion than usual care but was associated with thrombotic events, including ischemic stroke. (Funded by Alexion AstraZeneca Rare Disease and others; ANNEXA-I ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03661528.).


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Fator Xa , Hematoma , Proteínas Recombinantes , Humanos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hematoma/induzido quimicamente , Hematoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doença Aguda
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688264

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the epidemiology of many common childhood infections, including Group A streptococcal (GAS) disease. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is a nonsuppurative complication of GAS pharyngitis and pyoderma. It remains the most common cause of pediatric acute glomerulonephritis globally. In Counties Manukau, New Zealand, APSGN rates have previously been shown to be the highest in the country, with marked ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. We performed a retrospective review of children aged 0-14 years who were discharged from Kidz First Hospital, Counties Manukau, between 2015 and 2023 and met the Strep A Vaccine Global Consortium consensus definition of APSGN. We describe a marked, sustained reduction in APSGN hospitalizations, temporally associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This ongoing reduction in APSGN incidence is notable in light of contrasting reports of increasing incidence of rheumatic fever in New Zealand and invasive GAS disease internationally.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012045, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis is not endemic in Aotearoa New Zealand (AoNZ). However, approximately one third of Auckland residents are born in endemic countries. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and management of strongyloidiasis in Auckland, with a focus on migrants from Pacific Island Countries and Territories. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed clinical, laboratory and pharmacy records data for all people diagnosed with strongyloidiasis in the Auckland region between July 2012 and June 2022. People with negative Strongyloides serology were included to estimate seropositivity rate by country of birth. FINDINGS: Over ten years, 691 people were diagnosed with strongyloidiasis. Most diagnoses were made by serology alone (622, 90%). The median age was 63 years (range 15-92), 500 (72%) were male, and the majority were born in Polynesia (350, 51%), Fiji (130, 19%) or were of Pasifika ethnicity (an additional 7%). Twelve participants (1.7%) had severe strongyloidiasis at diagnosis. The total proportion treated with ivermectin was only 70% (484/691), with no differences between immunocompromised and immunocompetent participants, nor by ethnicity. The outcome of treatment (based on a combination of serology and/or eosinophilia and/or stool microscopy) could only be determined in 50% of the treated cohort. One participant failed treatment with ivermectin, experiencing recurrent strongyloidiasis, and another participant died in association with severe strongyloidiasis. The rate of 'positive' Strongyloides serology was highest among participants born in Samoa (48%), Fiji (39%), and Southeast Asian countries (34%). INTERPRETATION: Strongyloidiasis was common and under-treated in Auckland during the study period. Clinicians should have a low threshold for considering strongyloidiasis in migrants from endemic countries, including Polynesia and Fiji.


Assuntos
Strongyloides stercoralis , Estrongiloidíase , Migrantes , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Etnicidade , Resultado do Tratamento , População das Ilhas do Pacífico
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514137

RESUMO

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of pharyngitis in children. GAS causes significant suppurative and non-suppurative complications including invasive GAS disease and acute rheumatic fever. This article describes the current epidemiology and clinical presentation of GAS pharyngitis and explores how diagnostic and treatment decisions differ globally. Several key decision support tools are discussed including international guidelines, clinical decision scores and laboratory tests along with the evidence for treatment choice and duration. With recent international reports describing an increase in GAS infections, clinicians should be familiar with their local GAS pharyngitis guidelines and the rationale for diagnosis and treatment of this common childhood illness.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318942

RESUMO

AIM: Mindfulness-based interventions have been tested as preventive programs for childhood internalizing difficulties, but most research has been at a 'universal' level with small to null effects. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children (MBCT-C) has similar effects to Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) when used as a small-group, targeted preventive program. Knowledge gaps include the longer-term effectiveness of MBCT-C relative to CBT and the benefits of adding a parent module. This trial aims to compare MCBT-C to traditional CBT, including a parent module, to 15-months post-intervention and to test the feasibility and acceptability of adding a parent module. METHODS: Participants will be recruited from primary schools in areas of socio-economic disadvantage in South Australia (n = 194). Children (aged 9-12) years with signs of internalizing difficulties (e.g., shy, withdrawn, worried), and their parents, will be eligible for this two-armed randomized controlled non-inferiority trial (RCT). Children will participate in 10 group sessions of MBCT-C or CBT, facilitated by psychologists, and parents from both conditions will participate in two parent-only group sessions. Child self-report measures include depression and anxiety, as well as attention, mindfulness and self-compassion. Parent measures include symptoms of depression and anxiety, mindfulness, and parent-child relationship strength. The primary outcome will be child anxiety and depression (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-25). Measures will be collected pre and post intervention, and at 3, 6, 12 and 15-month follow up. RESULTS: Schools will be recruited from October 2022. Nomination of children will commence from February 2023. Program implementation will begin May 2023. CONCLUSIONS: This trial will have implications for the feasibility of involving parents in preventative programs, as well as whether mindfulness-based interventions prevent internalizing difficulties over time.

7.
Kidney Int Rep ; 9(2): 464-477, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344720

RESUMO

Introduction: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is an ultrarare renal disease characterized by deposition of complement component C3 in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Rare and novel genetic variation in complement genes and autoantibodies to complement proteins are commonly identified in the C3G population and thought to drive the underlying complement dysregulation that results in renal damage. However, disease heterogeneity and rarity make accurately defining characteristics of the C3G population difficult. Methods: Here, we present a retrospective analysis of the Molecular Otolaryngology and Renal Research Laboratories C3G cohort. This study integrated complement biomarker testing and in vitro tests of autoantibody function to achieve the following 3 primary goals: (i) define disease profiles of C3G based on disease drivers, complement biomarkers, and age; (ii) determine the relationship between in vitro autoantibody tests and in vivo complement dysregulation; and (iii) evaluate the association between autoantibody function and disease progression. Results: The largest disease profiles of C3G included patients with autoantibodies to complement proteins (48%) and patients for whom no genetic and/or acquired drivers of disease could be identified (43%). The correlation between the stabilization of convertases by complement autoantibodies as measured by in vitro modified hemolytic assays and systemic biomarkers that reflect in vivo complement dysregulation was remarkably strong. In patients positive for autoantibodies, the degree of stabilization capacity predicted worse renal function. Conclusion: This study implicates complement autoantibodies as robust drivers of systemic complement dysregulation in approximately 50% of C3G but also highlights the need for continued discovery-based research to identify novel drivers of disease.

8.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 93(5): 439-453, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270613

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Midostaurin, approved for treating FLT-3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia and advanced systemic mastocytosis, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 to two major metabolites, and may inhibit and/or induce CYP3A, CYP2B6, and CYP2C8. Two studies investigated the impact of midostaurin on CYP substrate drugs and oral contraceptives in healthy participants. METHODS: Using sentinel dosing for participants' safety, the effects of midostaurin at steady state following 25-day (Study 1) or 24-day (Study 2) dosing with 50 mg twice daily were evaluated on CYP substrates, midazolam (CYP3A4), bupropion (CYP2B6), and pioglitazone (CYP2C8) in Study 1; and monophasic oral contraceptives (containing ethinylestradiol [EES] and levonorgestrel [LVG]) in Study 2. RESULTS: In Study 1, midostaurin resulted in a 10% increase in midazolam peak plasma concentrations (Cmax), and 3-4% decrease in total exposures (AUC). Bupropion showed a 55% decrease in Cmax and 48-49% decrease in AUCs. Pioglitazone showed a 10% decrease in Cmax and 6% decrease in AUC. In Study 2, midostaurin resulted in a 26% increase in Cmax and 7-10% increase in AUC of EES; and a 19% increase in Cmax and 29-42% increase in AUC of LVG. Midostaurin 50 mg twice daily for 28 days ensured that steady-state concentrations of midostaurin and the active metabolites were achieved by the time of CYP substrate drugs or oral contraceptive dosing. No safety concerns were reported. CONCLUSION: Midostaurin neither inhibits nor induces CYP3A4 and CYP2C8, and weakly induces CYP2B6. Midostaurin at steady state has no clinically relevant PK interaction on hormonal contraceptives. All treatments were well tolerated.


Assuntos
Bupropiona , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6 , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8 , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Interações Medicamentosas , Midazolam , Estaurosporina , Humanos , Área Sob a Curva , Bupropiona/farmacocinética , Bupropiona/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacologia , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacocinética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etinilestradiol/farmacocinética , Etinilestradiol/administração & dosagem , Etinilestradiol/farmacologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Levanogestrel/farmacocinética , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Levanogestrel/farmacologia , Midazolam/farmacocinética , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Pioglitazona/farmacocinética , Estaurosporina/análogos & derivados , Estaurosporina/farmacologia , Estaurosporina/farmacocinética , Estaurosporina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Psoriasis (Auckl) ; 14: 1-10, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226336

RESUMO

Objective: Cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to decrease biologic efficacy in patients treated for inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a qualitative evaluation of studies investigating biologic response among psoriasis patients with cardiometabolic comorbidities. Methods: A comprehensive review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Guidelines for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines to screen for studies including patients with cardiometabolic risk factors receiving biologic therapy for psoriasis. Studies not including a Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score to evaluate treatment outcomes were not included. All studies underwent quality/bias analysis using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale. Results: Obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) were the most studied cardiometabolic risk factors. The majority of the studies reported a lower frequency of achieving PASI75 and PASI90 response with increasing BMI/obesity rates. Diabetes and hypertension showed similar findings but were not studied as frequently. Hyperlipidemia and other lipid disorders were less frequently studied. Conclusion: Relationships between cardiometabolic risk factors and lower frequencies of achieving PASI75/90 exist in current literature. This qualitative systematic review reports evidence of lower PASI75 and PASI90 response rates in the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

10.
Int J Stroke ; 19(4): 470-477, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic ischemic lesions (CILs) are frequent findings in patients with acute ischemic stroke, but their phenotypes and relevance in young adults with embolic stroke of undetermined source (Y-ESUS) remains uncertain. We aimed to compare Y-ESUS patients with CIL to those without CIL and assessed the association of CIL and its phenotypes with the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO). METHODS: This prospective longitudinal, multicenter cohort study enrolled consecutive patients 50 years and younger with ESUS from October 2017 to October 2019 in 41 stroke research centers in 13 countries. Local investigators adjudicated presence and phenotypes of CIL on routine brain imaging (either magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT)). RESULTS: Overall, 535 patients were enrolled (mean age = 40.4 (standard deviation (SD) = 7.3) years, 238 (44%) female). CILs were present in 76/534 (14.2%) patients with a median count CIL count of 1.0 (interquartile range (IQR) = 1-2), 42/76 (55%) had at least one cortical phenotype and 38/76 (50%) at least one non-cortical phenotype. Y-ESUS with CIL were less often female (32% vs 47% in non-CIL Y-ESUS), were older (mean 43 vs 40 years), had more often hypertension (42% vs 19%), diabetes (17% vs 7%), and hyperlipidemia (34% vs 18%). CIL Y-ESUS were independently associated with lower stroke recurrence (relative risk (RR) = 0.17 (0.05-0.61)). In Y-ESUS with PFO, CILs were less frequent in probable pathogenic PFO than with probable non-pathogenic PFO (6.1% vs 30% p< 0.001). CONCLUSION: One in seven Y-ESUS patients has additional CIL. CILs were associated with several vascular risk factors, lower probability of a pathogenic PFO, and lower stroke recurrence.


Assuntos
AVC Embólico , Forame Oval Patente , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Forame Oval Patente/complicações , Forame Oval Patente/diagnóstico por imagem , Forame Oval Patente/epidemiologia , AVC Embólico/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Sistema de Registros
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(11)2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37878292

RESUMO

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) primary peritonitis is a rare cause of pediatric acute abdomen (sudden onset of severe abdominal pain); only 26 pediatric cases have been reported in the English language literature since 1980. We discuss 20 additional cases of pediatric primary peritonitis caused by GAS among patients at Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand, during 2010-2022. We compare identified cases of GAS primary peritonitis to cases described in the existing pediatric literature. As rates of rates of invasive GAS increase globally, clinicians should be aware of this cause of unexplained pediatric acute abdomen.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo , Peritonite , Humanos , Criança , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes , Peritonite/epidemiologia
12.
Res Sq ; 2023 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37720046

RESUMO

In functional magnetic resonance imaging, the hemodynamic response function (HRF) is a transient, stereotypical response to local changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism due to briefly (< 4 s) evoked neural activity. Accordingly, the HRF is often used as an impulse response with the assumption of linearity in data analysis. In cognitive aging studies, it has been very common to interpret differences in brain activation as age-related changes in neural activity. Contrary to this assumption, however, evidence has accrued that normal aging may also significantly affect the vasculature, thereby affecting cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism, confounding interpretation of fMRI aging studies. In this study, use was made of a multisensory stimulus to evoke the HRF in ~ 87% of cerebral cortex in cognitively intact adults with ages ranging from 22-75 years. The stimulus evokes both positive and negative HRFs, which were characterized using model-free parameters in native-space coordinates. Results showed significant age trends in HRF parameter distributions in terms of both amplitudes (e.g., peak amplitude and CNR) and temporal dynamics (e.g., full-width-at-half-maximum). This work sets the stage for using HRF methods as a biomarker for age-related pathology.

13.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1231769, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37701529

RESUMO

Novel therapies are needed for treatment of gliomas. Mebendazole previously demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects on canine glioma cell lines at in vitro mean inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 10 ng/mL. Our study aimed to titrate the oral dose of mebendazole necessary to achieve concentrations ≥10 ng/mL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy dogs. We hypothesized that an oral dose up to 200 mg/kg would be necessary. Phase one was a dose titration study using a total of 6 mixed breed dogs that described dose vs. plasma concentrations for 72 h after single oral dosing of either 50 mg/kg (n = 2), 100 mg/kg (n = 2), or 200 mg/kg (n = 2). Based on phase one, phase two dogs (total of 9) received 100 mg/kg (n = 4) or 200 mg/kg (n = 5) orally and blood samples were collected intermittently for 60 h with CSF samples collected intermittently for 24 h. Mebendazole was quantitated in plasma and CSF using high performance liquid chromatography. Median peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were reached at 7 ± 2 h (100 mg/kg) of 220 ng/mL (81, 283) and at 15 ± 4 h (200 mg/kg) of 147 ng/ml (112, 298). The respective area under the curve (AUC: ng/ml/h) reported as a median was 2,119 (1,876, 3,288) vs. 3,115 (1,559, 4,972). Median plasma concentrations (ng/ml) for 100 vs. 200 mg/kg were 47 (32, 52) vs. 65 (35, 104), respectively. For CSF, the median value for Cmax (at 100 mg/kg vs. 200 mg/kg) was 8 (2, 28) vs. 21 (12, 27) and AUC was 87 (22, 157) vs. 345 (92, 372), respectively. Relative bioavailability in CSF vs. plasma was 4 to 10%. Although several animals demonstrated clinical signs indicative of gastrointestinal upset [i.e., vomiting (n = 2), diarrhea (n = 2), or both (n = 1)], these events were not considered serious. The in vitro IC50 for gliomas can be reached in CSF at 100 mg/kg (n = 1), however a 200 mg/kg dose yielded more consistent concentrations.

14.
Clin Transl Sci ; 16(10): 1758-1767, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37688315

RESUMO

Triclabendazole is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for human fascioliasis. A placebo- and positive-controlled, four-sequence by four-period crossover study was conducted in 45 healthy participants to assess the effect of therapeutic (10 mg/kg twice daily [b.i.d.] for 1 day) and supratherapeutic (10 mg/kg b.i.d. for 3 days) oral doses of triclabendazole on corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation. Moxifloxacin (400 mg, oral) was used as a positive control. The highest mean placebo-corrected change from baseline in QTcF (ΔΔQTcF) on day 4 with triclabendazole was 9.2 at therapeutic dose ms and 21.7 ms at supratherapeutic dose, at 4 h postdose. The upper limit of the two-sided 90% confidence interval exceeded 10 ms across all timepoints, except at predose timepoint on day 4 in the therapeutic group indicating that an effect of triclabendazole on cardiac repolarization could not be excluded. However, triclabendazole had no clinically significant effects on heart rate and cardiac conduction at the studied doses. In the moxifloxacin group, the mean ΔΔQTcF peak value was 13.7 ms at 3 h on day 4. The assay sensitivity was confirmed. Maximum plasma concentration of triclabendazole, sulfoxide metabolite, and sulfone metabolite occurred at ~3-, 4-, and 6-h postdose, respectively. No deaths, serious adverse events, study discontinuations due to treatment-emergent adverse events, or clinically relevant abnormalities in laboratory evaluations and vital sign values were observed. This study showed that triclabendazole had no clinically relevant effects on heart rate and cardiac conduction; however, an effect on cardiac repolarization (ΔΔQTcF >10 ms) could not be excluded.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Fluoroquinolonas , Humanos , Moxifloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas/efeitos adversos , Triclabendazol/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Voluntários Saudáveis , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
15.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 219, 2023 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37573307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-desiccant is a class of agrochemicals widely used to protect plants from water stresses, rapid temperature variations, heat and sunburn, frost and freeze damages, transplant shock, and pathogen and pest attack. Although anti-desiccants are generally considered non-toxic to organisms, it is unclear whether they may impact the phyllosphere microbial communities. In this study, three film-forming anti-desiccant products, TransFilm, Vapor Gard, and Wilt-Pruf were applied to the canopy of two boxwood cultivars 'Vardar Valley' and 'Justin Brouwers' on April 13 and August 26, 2021. Shoot samples were collected from boxwood plants treated with each of the three products, as well as nontreated control on June 16, August 26 (before the second treatment), and October 18. Microbial and plant genomic DNA was isolated together and 16S rRNA gene and the extended internal transcribed spacer regions were amplified with PCR and sequenced on a Nanopore MinION platform for bacterial and fungal identification. RESULTS: Bacterial communities were more diverse than fungal communities. At the phylum level, the boxwood phyllosphere was dominated by Proteobacteria and Ascomycota; at the genus level, Methylobacterium and Shiraia were the most abundant bacteria and fungi, respectively. Among the three film-forming anti-desiccants, Vapor Gard and Wilt-Pruf had more impact than TransFilm on the microbial communities. Specifically, broader impacts were observed on fungal than bacterial community composition and structure, with most affected fungi being suppressed while bacteria promoted. CONCLUSION: This study addressed several major knowledge gaps regarding boxwood phyllosphere microbiota and the impact of anti-desiccants on plant microbiome. We identified diverse microbial communities of boxwood, a major evergreen woody crop and an iconic landscape plant. We also found differential effects of three film-forming anti-desiccants on the composition and structure of bacterial and fungal communities. These findings advanced our understanding of the associated microbiome of this landmark plant, enabling growers to fully utilize the potentials of microbiome and three anti-desiccants in improving boxwood health and productivity.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Buxus , Microbiota , Buxus/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiota/genética , Ascomicetos/genética , Plantas , Bactérias
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(30): e2300981120, 2023 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37459510

RESUMO

Assessing the distribution of geographically restricted and evolutionarily unique species and their underlying drivers is key to understanding biogeographical processes and critical for global conservation prioritization. Here, we quantified the geographic distribution and drivers of phylogenetic endemism for ~320,000 seed plants worldwide and identified centers and drivers of evolutionarily young (neoendemism) and evolutionarily old endemism (paleoendemism). Tropical and subtropical islands as well as tropical mountain regions displayed the world's highest phylogenetic endemism. Most tropical rainforest regions emerged as centers of paleoendemism, while most Mediterranean-climate regions showed high neoendemism. Centers where high neo- and paleoendemism coincide emerged on some oceanic and continental fragment islands, in Mediterranean-climate regions and parts of the Irano-Turanian floristic region. Global variation in phylogenetic endemism was well explained by a combination of past and present environmental factors (79.8 to 87.7% of variance explained) and most strongly related to environmental heterogeneity. Also, warm and wet climates, geographic isolation, and long-term climatic stability emerged as key drivers of phylogenetic endemism. Neo- and paleoendemism were jointly explained by climatic and geological history. Long-term climatic stability promoted the persistence of paleoendemics, while the isolation of oceanic islands and their unique geological histories promoted neoendemism. Mountainous regions promoted both neo- and paleoendemism, reflecting both diversification and persistence over time. Our study provides insights into the evolutionary underpinnings of biogeographical patterns in seed plants and identifies the areas on Earth with the highest evolutionary and biogeographical uniqueness-key information for setting global conservation priorities.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Sementes , Geologia
17.
New Phytol ; 240(4): 1548-1560, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37264995

RESUMO

Plant life and growth forms (shortened to 'plant forms') represent key functional strategies of plants in relation to their environment and provide important insights into the ecological constraints acting on the distribution of biodiversity. Despite their functional importance, how the spectra of plant forms contribute to global gradients of plant diversity is unresolved. Using a novel dataset comprising > 295 000 species, we quantify the contribution of different plant forms to global gradients of vascular plant diversity. Furthermore, we establish how plant form distributions in different biogeographical regions are associated with contemporary and paleoclimate conditions, environmental heterogeneity and phylogeny. We find a major shift in representation of woody perennials in tropical latitudes to herb-dominated floras in temperate and boreal regions, following a sharp latitudinal gradient in plant form diversity from the tropics to the poles. We also find significant functional differences between regions, mirroring life and growth form responses to environmental conditions, which is mostly explained by contemporary climate (18-87%), and phylogeny (6-62%), with paleoclimate and heterogeneity playing a lesser role (< 23%). This research highlights variation in the importance of different plant forms to diversity gradients world-wide, shedding light on the ecological and evolutionary pressures constraining plant-trait distributions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Traqueófitas , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Clima , Plantas , Clima Tropical
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6718, 2023 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37185616

RESUMO

Quantitative assessments of endemism, evolutionary distinctiveness and extinction threat underpin global conservation prioritization for well-studied taxa, such as birds, mammals, and amphibians. However, such information is unavailable for most of the world's taxa. This is the case for the Orchidaceae, a hyperdiverse and cosmopolitan family with incomplete phylogenetic and threat information. To define conservation priorities, we present a framework based on phylogenetic and taxonomic measures of distinctiveness and rarity based on the number of regions and the area of occupancy. For 25,434 orchid species with distribution data (89.3% of the Orchidaceae), we identify the Neotropics as hotspots for richness, New Guinea as a hotspot for evolutionary distinctiveness, and several islands that contain many rare and distinct species. Orchids have a similar proportion of monotypic genera as other Angiosperms, however, more taxonomically distinct orchid species are found in a single region. We identify 278 species in need of immediate conservation actions and find that more than 70% of these do not currently have an IUCN conservation assessment and are not protected in ex-situ collections at Botanical Gardens. Our study highlights locations and orchid species in urgent need of conservation and demonstrates a framework that can be applied to other data-deficient taxa.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Orchidaceae , Animais , Biodiversidade , Filogenia , Orchidaceae/genética , Evolução Biológica , Mamíferos
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(7): e232-e234, 2023 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37054392

RESUMO

New Zealand (NZ) initially adopted an elimination approach to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Pre-Omicron variant, the NZ pediatric population was immunologically naïve to SARS-CoV-2. This study, utilizing national data sources, describes the NZ incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following infection with the Omicron variant. MIS-C incidence was 1.03 of 100,000 age-specific population and 0.04 of 1000 recorded SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia
20.
Cureus ; 15(3): e35834, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37033499

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic ravaged China, made its way to Thailand and Japan, and ultimately spread across the globe. Despite all efforts to contain the virus, hundreds of millions of positive cases and millions of deaths have been reported worldwide. Due to the vastness and severity of this virus, there was a desperate need for a vaccine, quickly. The COVID-19 vaccination was created urgently under emergency use authorization (EUA) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in less than one year, a process typically taking over 10 years. With this expedited creation time, there is also a shortened time frame for clinical trials, which is commonly used to evaluate for effectiveness and identify any potential side effects or adverse reactions to the created vaccine. We will discuss some potential side effects of receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. In this case report, we discuss one individual who received two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine and experienced a previous unreported adverse side effect of non-self-remitting bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. This reaction was not originally seen during the clinical trial phase of the vaccine creation, which caused this individual to obtain a full medical workup including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, and blood work and ultimately needing surgical intervention to have the axillary lymphadenopathy excised. We aim to shed light on a new, undocumented adverse reaction that should be included in physicians' differential diagnoses in individuals after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, particularly the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. This information could help future patients avoid unnecessary extensive medical workups, surgical procedures, being exposed to anesthesia, or having the burden of additional unwarranted healthcare costs.

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