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1.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; : e0038424, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847506

RESUMO

We provide the complete genome sequence for a novel Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteriophage named UNO-G1W1. This phage was isolated from a single ice cover sampling. The genome was sequenced on the Nanopore MinION, generated with the direct terminal repeat-phage-pipeline and polished with Illumina short reads. Sequence identity classifies the phage as an otagovirus.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850491

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an increasingly utilized therapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain conditions. Though minimally invasive and reversable, there are several important device-related complications that physicians should be aware of before offering this therapy to patients. The aim of this review is to synthesize recent studies in device-related SCS complications pertaining to cylindrical lead implantation and to discuss etiologies, symptoms and presentations, diagnostic evaluation, clinical implications, and treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Device-related complications are more common than biologic complications. Device-related complications covered in this review include lead migration, lead fracture, lead disconnection, generator failure, loss of charge, generator flipping, hardware related pain, and paresthesia intolerance. The use of SCS continues to be an effective option for neuropathic pain conditions. Consideration of complications prior to moving forward with SCS trials and implantation is a vital part of patient management and device selection. Knowledge of these complications can provide physicians and other healthcare professionals the ability to maximize patient outcomes.

3.
bioRxiv ; 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826208

RESUMO

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) indicates average glucose levels over three months and is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Longitudinal changes in HbA1c (ΔHbA1c) are also associated with aging processes, cognitive performance, and mortality. We analyzed ΔHbA1c in 1,886 non-diabetic Europeans from the Long Life Family Study to uncover gene variants influencing ΔHbA1c. Using growth curve modeling adjusted for multiple covariates, we derived ΔHbA1c and conducted linkage-guided sequence analysis. Our genome-wide linkage scan identified a significant locus on 17p12. In-depth analysis of this locus revealed a variant rs56340929 (explaining 27% of the linkage peak) in the ARHGAP44 gene that was significantly associated with ΔHbA1c. RNA transcription of ARHGAP44 was associated with ΔHbA1c. The Framingham Offspring Study data further supported these findings on the gene level. Together, we found a novel gene ARHGAP44 for ΔHbA1c in family members without T2D. Follow-up studies using longitudinal omics data in large independent cohorts are warranted.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(24): 10729-10739, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829283

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in an array of environmental media due to their ubiquitous use in industrial and consumer products as well as potential release from fluorochemical manufacturing facilities. During their manufacture, many fluorotelomer (FT) facilities rely on neutral intermediates in polymer production including the FT-alcohols (FTOHs). These PFAS are known to transform to the terminal acids (perfluoro carboxylic acids; PFCAs) at rates that vary with environmental conditions. In the current study on soils from a FT facility, we employed gas chromatography coupled with conventional- and high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-HRMS) to investigate the profile of these precursor compounds, the intermediary secondary alcohols (sFTOHs), FT-acrylates (FTAcr), and FT-acetates (FTAce) in soils around the former FT-production facility. Of these precursors, the general trend in detection intensity was [FTOHs] > [sFTOHs] > [FTAcrs], while for the FTOHs, homologue intensities generally were [12:2 FTOH] > [14:2 FTOH] > [16:2 FTOH] > [10:2 FTOH] > [18:2 FTOH] > [20:2 FTOH] > [8:2 FTOH] ∼ [6:2 FTOH]. The corresponding terminal acids were also detected in all soil samples and positively correlated with the precursor concentrations. GC-HRMS confirmed the presence of industrial manufacturing byproducts such as FT-ethers and FT-esters and aided in the tentative identification of previously unreported dimers and other compounds. The application of GC-HRMS to the measurement and identification of precursor PFAS is in its infancy, but the methodologies described here will help refine its use in tentatively identifying these compounds in the environment.


Assuntos
Fluorocarbonos , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Fluorocarbonos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura
5.
JHEP Rep ; 6(7): 101087, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38882672

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Recent studies demonstrated the importance of fibrosis in promoting an immunosuppressive liver microenvironment and thereby aggressive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth and resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), particularly via monocyte-to-monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (M-MDSC) differentiation triggered by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We thus aimed to identify druggable targets in these immunosuppressive myeloid cells for HCC therapy. Methods: M-MDSC signature genes were identified by integrated transcriptomic analysis of a human HSC-monocyte culture system and tumor-surrounding fibrotic livers of patients with HCC. Mechanistic and functional studies were conducted using in vitro-generated and patient-derived M-MDSCs. The therapeutic efficacy of a M-MDSC targeting approach was determined in fibrosis-associated HCC mouse models. Results: We uncovered over-expression of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A (PPP1R15A), a myeloid cell-enriched endoplasmic reticulum stress modulator, in human M-MDSCs that correlated with poor prognosis and ICB non-responsiveness in patients with HCC. Blocking TGF-ß signaling reduced PPP1R15A expression in HSC-induced M-MDSCs, whereas treatment of monocytes by TGF-ß upregulated PPP1R15A, which in turn promoted ARG1 and S100A8/9 expression in M-MDSCs and reduced T-cell proliferation. Consistently, lentiviral-mediated knockdown of Ppp1r15a in vivo significantly reduced ARG1+S100A8/9+ M-MDSCs in fibrotic liver, leading to elevated intratumoral IFN-γ+GZMB+CD8+ T cells and enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of ICB. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PPP1R15A by Sephin1 reduced the immunosuppressive potential but increased the maturation status of fibrotic HCC patient-derived M-MDSCs. Conclusions: PPP1R15A+ M-MDSC cells are involved in immunosuppression in HCC development and represent a novel potential target for therapies. Impact and implications: Our cross-species analysis has identified PPP1R15A as a therapeutic target governing the anti-T-cell activities of fibrosis-associated M-MDSCs (monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells). The results from the preclinical models show that specific inhibition of PPP1R15A can break the immunosuppressive barrier to restrict hepatocellular carcinoma growth and enhance the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade. PPP1R15A may also function as a prognostic and/or predictive biomarker in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

6.
Langmuir ; 40(20): 10825-10833, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700247

RESUMO

A key knowledge gap in the emerging field of nanofluidics concerns how the ionic composition and ion-transport properties of a nanoconfined solution differ from those of a contacting bulk solution. We and others have been using potentiometric concentration cells, where a nanopore or nanotube membrane separates salt solutions of differing concentrations to explore this issue. The membranes studied contained a fixed pore/tube wall anionic charge, which ideally would prohibit anions and salt from entering the pore/tube-confined solution. We have been investigating experimental conditions that allow for this ideally permselective cation state to be achieved. Results of potentiometric investigations of a polymeric nanopore membrane (10 ± 2 nm-diameter pores) with anionic charge due to carbonate are presented here. While studies of this type have been reported using alkaline metal and alkaline earth cations, there have been no analogous studies using organic cations. This paper uses a homologous series of tetraalkylammonium ions to address this knowledge gap. The key result is that, in contrast to the inorganic cations, the ideal cation-permselective state could not be obtained under any experimental conditions for the organic cations. We propose that this is because these hydrophobic cations adsorb onto the polymeric pore walls. This makes ideality impossible because each adsorbed alkylammonium must bring a charge-balancing anion, Cl-, with it into the nanopore solution. The alkylammonium adsorption that occurred was confirmed and quantified by using surface contact angle measurements.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 358: 408-415, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the influence of subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and full PTSD on quality of life following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: Participants were 734 service members and veterans (SMV) classified into two injury groups: uncomplicated mild TBI (MTBI; n = 596) and injured controls (IC, n = 139). Participants completed a battery of neurobehavioral measures, 12-or-more months post-injury, that included the PTSD Checklist Civilian version, Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, and select scales from the TBI-QOL and MPAI. The MTBI group was divided into three PTSD subgroups: No-PTSD (n = 266), Subthreshold PTSD (n = 139), and Full-PTSD (n = 190). RESULTS: There was a linear relationship between PTSD severity and neurobehavioral functioning/quality of life in the MTBI sample. As PTSD severity increased, significantly worse scores were found on 11 of the 12 measures (i.e. , MTBI: Full-PTSD > Sub-PTSD > No-PTSD). When considering the number of clinically elevated scores, a linear relationship between PTSD severity and neurobehavioral functioning/quality of life was again observed in the MTBI sample (e.g., 3-or-more elevated scores: Full-PTSD = 92.1 %, Sub-PTSD = 61.9 %, No-PTSD = 19.9 %). LIMITATIONS: Limitations included the use of a self-report measure to determine diagnostic status that may under/overcount or mischaracterize individuals. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms, whether at the level of diagnosable PTSD, or falling short of that because of the intensity or characterization of symptoms, have a significant negative impact on one's quality of life following MTBI. Clinicians' treatment targets should focus on the symptoms that are most troubling for an individual and the individual's perception of quality of life, regardless of the diagnosis itself.


Assuntos
Militares , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Militares/psicologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Relevância Clínica
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nerve scarring after traumatic or iatrogenic exposure can lead to impaired function and pain. Nerve-adjacent biomaterials promoting a regenerative tissue response may help reduce perineural fibrosis. Our prior work suggests testosterone may promote fibrotic skin scarring, but it is unknown how testosterone alters nerve fibrosis or shifts the response to biomaterials. APPROACH: Sterilized Lewis rats received either testosterone cypionate (+T) or placebo (-T) biweekly. Fifteen days later, wounds were created over the sciatic nerve and covered with acellular extracellular matrix (AM) or closed primarily (PC). At day 42, force gauge testing measured the force required to mobilize the nerve and wound tissue was analyzed. RESULTS: Nerve mobilization force was greater in +T vs -T wounds (p<0.01). Nerves tore before gliding in 60% of +T vs 6% of -T rats. Epidermal gap (p<0.01), scar width (p<0.01), and cross-sectional scar tissue area (p=0.02) were greater in +T vs -T rats. -T vs +T rats expressed more Col-3 (p=0.02) and CD68 (p=0.02). Nerve mobilization force trended non-significantly higher for PC versus AM wounds and for +T versus -T wounds within the AM cohort. INNOVATION: Testosterone increases nerve tethering in the wound healing milieu, altering repair and immune cell balances. CONCLUSION: Testosterone significantly increases the force required to mobilize nerves in wound beds and elevates histologic markers of scarring, suggesting that testosterone-induced inflammation may increase perineural adhesion. Testosterone may reduce the potential anti-tethering protective effect of AM. Androgen receptor antagonism may represent a therapeutic target to reduce scar-related nerve morbidity.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammography (MG) has demonstrated its effectiveness in diminishing mortality and advanced-stage breast cancer incidences in breast screening initiatives. Notably, research has accentuated the superior diagnostic efficacy and cost-effectiveness of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). However, the scope of evidence validating the cost-effectiveness of DBT remains limited, prompting a requisite for more comprehensive investigation. The present study aimed to rigorously evaluate the cost-effectiveness of DBT plus MG (DBT-MG) compared to MG alone within the framework of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program. METHODS: All parameters for the Markov decision tree model, encompassing event probabilities, costs, and utilities (quality-adjusted life years, QALYs), were sourced from reputable literature, expert opinions, and official records. With 10,000 iterations, a 2-year cycle length, a 30-year time horizon, and a 2% annual discount rate, the analysis determined the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to compare the cost-effectiveness of the two screening methods. Probabilistic and one-way sensitivity analyses were also conducted to demonstrate the robustness of findings. RESULTS: The ICER of DBT-MG compared to MG was US$5971.5764/QALYs. At a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of US$33,004 (Gross Domestic Product of Taiwan in 2021) per QALY, more than 98% of the probabilistic simulations favored adopting DBT-MG versus MG. The one-way sensitivity analysis also shows that the ICER depended heavily on recall rates, biopsy rates, and positive predictive value (PPV2). CONCLUSION: DBT-MG shows enhanced diagnostic efficacy, potentially diminishing recall costs. While exhibiting a higher biopsy rate, DBT-MG aids in the detection of early-stage breast cancers, reduces recall rates, and exhibits notably superior cost-effectiveness.

10.
Neurology ; 102(11): e209453, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Degeneration of the presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is one of the main biological features of Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), which can be measured using single-photon emission CT imaging for diagnostic purposes. Despite its widespread use in clinical practice and research, the diagnostic properties of presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DAT) imaging in parkinsonism have never been evaluated against the diagnostic gold standard of neuropathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic parameters of DAT imaging compared with pathologic diagnosis in patients with parkinsonism. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with DAT imaging for the investigation of a clinically uncertain parkinsonism with brain donation between 2010 and 2021 to the Queen Square Brain Bank (London). Patients with DAT imaging for investigation of pure ataxia or dementia syndromes without parkinsonism were excluded. Those with a pathologic diagnosis of PD, MSA, PSP, or CBD were considered presynaptic dopaminergic parkinsonism, and other pathologies were considered postsynaptic for the analysis. DAT imaging was performed in routine clinical practice and visually classified by hospital nuclear medicine specialists as normal or abnormal. The results were correlated with neuropathologic diagnosis to calculate diagnostic accuracy parameters for the diagnosis of presynaptic dopaminergic parkinsonism. RESULTS: All of 47 patients with PD, 41 of 42 with MSA, 68 of 73 with PSP, and 6 of 10 with CBD (sensitivity 100%, 97.6%, 93.2%, and 60%, respectively) had abnormal presynaptic dopaminergic imaging. Eight of 17 patients with presumed postsynaptic parkinsonism had abnormal scans (specificity 52.9%). DISCUSSION: DAT imaging has very high sensitivity and negative predictive value for the diagnosis of presynaptic dopaminergic parkinsonism, particularly for PD. However, patients with CBD, and to a lesser extent PSP (of various phenotypes) and MSA (with predominant ataxia), can show normal DAT imaging. A range of other neurodegenerative disorders may have abnormal DAT scans with low specificity in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. DAT imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism, although clinicians should be aware of its diagnostic properties and limitations. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that DAT imaging does not accurately distinguish between presynaptic dopaminergic parkinsonism and non-presynaptic dopaminergic parkinsonism.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas , Transtornos Parkinsonianos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/patologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/patologia , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/metabolismo , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/patologia , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/metabolismo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Degeneração Corticobasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Corticobasal/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Imageamento Dopaminérgico
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3542, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719802

RESUMO

Understanding the functional connectivity between brain regions and its emergent dynamics is a central challenge. Here we present a theory-experiment hybrid approach involving iteration between a minimal computational model and in vivo electrophysiological measurements. Our model not only predicted spontaneous persistent activity (SPA) during Up-Down-State oscillations, but also inactivity (SPI), which has never been reported. These were confirmed in vivo in the membrane potential of neurons, especially from layer 3 of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices. The data was then used to constrain two free parameters, yielding a unique, experimentally determined model for each neuron. Analytic and computational analysis of the model generated a dozen quantitative predictions about network dynamics, which were all confirmed in vivo to high accuracy. Our technique predicted functional connectivity; e. g. the recurrent excitation is stronger in the medial than lateral entorhinal cortex. This too was confirmed with connectomics data. This technique uncovers how differential cortico-entorhinal dialogue generates SPA and SPI, which could form an energetically efficient working-memory substrate and influence the consolidation of memories during sleep. More broadly, our procedure can reveal the functional connectivity of large networks and a theory of their emergent dynamics.


Assuntos
Córtex Entorrinal , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Animais , Neurônios/fisiologia , Masculino , Conectoma , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Camundongos
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 580, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccine confidence among healthcare personnel in the safety net sector of the United States and Puerto Rico. This study aimed to examine the extent to which increased knowledge and positive attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccine safety and efficacy were associated with healthcare workers' COVID-19 vaccination status and their recommendation of the vaccine to all patients. METHODS: Online survey data were collected from health care workers working in Free and Charitable Clinics across the United States and Federally Qualified Health Centers in Puerto Rico. The survey consisted of 62 questions covering various demographic measures and constructs related to healthcare workers' vaccination status, beliefs, and recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination. Statistical analyses, including multivariate analysis, were conducted to identify the factors associated with the COVID-19 vaccine status and recommendations among healthcare personnel. RESULTS: Among the 2273 respondents, 93% reported being vaccinated against COVID-19. The analysis revealed that respondents who believed that COVID-19 vaccines were efficacious and safe were three times more likely to be vaccinated and twice as likely to recommend them to all their patients. Respondents who believed they had received adequate information about COVID-19 vaccination were 10 times more likely to be vaccinated and four times more likely to recommend it to all their patients. CONCLUSIONS: The study results indicate that healthcare workers' confidence in COVID-19 vaccines is closely tied to their level of knowledge, positive beliefs, and attitudes about vaccine safety and efficacy. The study emphasizes the significance of healthcare workers feeling well informed and confident in their knowledge to recommend the vaccine to their patients. These findings have important implications for the development of strategies to boost COVID-19 vaccine confidence among healthcare workers and increase vaccine uptake among patients.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Porto Rico , Feminino , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2794: 33-43, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630218

RESUMO

Two-photon FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) and FLIM (fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy) enable the detection of FRET changes of fluorescence reporters in deep brain tissues, which provide a valuable approach for monitoring target molecular dynamics and functions. Here, we describe two-photon FRET and FLIM imaging techniques that allow us to visualize endogenous and optogenetically induced cAMP dynamics in living neurons with genetically engineered FRET-based cAMP reporters.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Engenharia Genética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Neurônios , Fótons
14.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559230

RESUMO

Centenarians provide a unique lens through which to study longevity, healthy aging, and resiliency. Moreover, models of human aging and resilience to disease that allow for the testing of potential interventions are virtually non-existent. We obtained and characterized over 50 centenarian and offspring peripheral blood samples including those connected to functional independence data highlighting resistance to disability and cognitive impairment. Targeted methylation arrays were used in molecular aging clocks to compare and contrast differences between biological and chronological age in these specialized subjects. Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were then successfully reprogrammed into high-quality induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines which were functionally characterized for pluripotency, genomic stability, and the ability to undergo directed differentiation. The result of this work is a one-of-a-kind resource for studies of human longevity and resilience that can fuel the discovery and validation of novel therapeutics for aging-related disease.

15.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584392

RESUMO

AIMS: Identifying patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) who are at high risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) may allow for early interventions, reducing the development of T2D and associated morbidity. The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate the CVD2DM model to estimate the 10-year and lifetime risks of T2D in patients with established CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sex-specific, competing risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were derived in 19 281 participants with established CVD and without diabetes at baseline from the UK Biobank. The core model's pre-specified predictors were age, current smoking, family history of diabetes mellitus, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and HDL cholesterol. The extended model also included HbA1c. The model was externally validated in 3481 patients from the UCC-SMART study. During a median follow-up of 12.2 years (interquartile interval 11.3-13.1), 1628 participants with established CVD were diagnosed with T2D in the UK Biobank. External validation c-statistics were 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-0.82] for the core model and 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84) for the extended model. Calibration plots showed agreement between predicted and observed 10-year risk of T2D. CONCLUSION: The 10-year and lifetime risks of T2D can be estimated with the CVD2DM model in patients with established CVD, using readily available clinical predictors. The model would benefit from further validation across diverse ethnic groups to enhance its applicability. Informing patients about their T2D risk could motivate them further to adhere to a healthy lifestyle.


In this study, we developed and externally validated the CVD2DM model, which predicts the 10-year and lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals who already have cardiovascular disease (CVD). The key findings are as follows: The CVD2DM model is the first model to estimate the risk of developing T2D applicable in all patients with atherosclerotic CVD. The model is based on several factors available in clinical practice, such as age, fasting plasma glucose, family history of diabetes, and body mass index. It was developed in 19 281 patients from the UK Biobank. The model performed well in 3481 patients from the UCC-SMART study.Informing patients about their T2D risk could motivate them further to adhere to a healthy lifestyle.

16.
Osteoporos Int ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587674

RESUMO

Antiresorptive medications do not negatively affect fracture healing in humans. Teriparatide may decrease time to fracture healing. Romosozumab has not shown a beneficial effect on human fracture healing. BACKGROUND: Fracture healing is a complex process. Uncertainty exists over the influence of osteoporosis and the medications used to treat it on fracture healing. METHODS: Narrative review authored by the members of the Fracture Working Group of the Committee of Scientific Advisors of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), on behalf of the IOF and the Société Internationale de Chirurgie Orthopédique et de Traumatologie (SICOT). RESULTS: Fracture healing is a multistep process. Most fractures heal through a combination of intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Radiographic imaging is important for evaluating fracture healing and for detecting delayed or non-union. The presence of callus formation, bridging trabeculae, and a decrease in the size of the fracture line over time are indicative of healing. Imaging must be combined with clinical parameters and patient-reported outcomes. Animal data support a negative effect of osteoporosis on fracture healing; however, clinical data do not appear to corroborate with this. Evidence does not support a delay in the initiation of antiresorptive therapy following acute fragility fractures. There is no reason for suspension of osteoporosis medication at the time of fracture if the person is already on treatment. Teriparatide treatment may shorten fracture healing time at certain sites such as distal radius; however, it does not prevent non-union or influence union rate. The positive effect on fracture healing that romosozumab has demonstrated in animals has not been observed in humans. CONCLUSION: Overall, there appears to be no deleterious effect of osteoporosis medications on fracture healing. The benefit of treating osteoporosis and the urgent necessity to mitigate imminent refracture risk after a fracture should be given prime consideration. It is imperative that new radiological and biological markers of fracture healing be identified. It is also important to synthesize clinical and basic science methodologies to assess fracture healing, so that a convergence of the two frameworks can be achieved.

17.
IJTLD Open ; 1(2): 90-95, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38655375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isoniazid (INH) is an important drug in many TB regimens, and unfavorable treatment outcomes can be caused by suboptimal pharmacokinetics. Dose adjustment can be personalized by measuring peak serum concentrations; however, the process involves cold-chain preservation and laboratory techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS), which are unavailable in many high-burden settings. Urine spectrophotometry could provide a low-cost alternative with simple sampling and quantification methods. METHODS: We enrolled 56 adult patients on treatment for active TB. Serum was collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h for measurement of INH concentrations using validated LC-MS/MS methods. Urine was collected at 0-4, 4-8, and 8-24 h intervals, with INH concentrations measured using colorimetric methods. RESULTS: The median peak serum concentration and total serum exposure over 24 h were 4.8 mg/L and 16.4 mg*hour/L, respectively. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for urine values predicting a subtherapeutic serum concentration (peak <3.0 mg/L) were as follows: 0-4 h interval (AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.7-0.96), 0-8 h interval (AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-0.96), and 0-24 h urine collection interval (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.68-0.96). CONCLUSION: Urine spectrophotometry may improve feasibility of personalized dosing in high TB burden regions but requires further study of target attainment following dose adjustment based on a urine threshold.


CONTEXTE: L'isoniazide (INH) est un médicament important dans de nombreux schémas thérapeutiques contre la TB, et des résultats thérapeutiques défavorables peuvent être dus à une pharmacocinétique sous-optimale. L'ajustement de la dose peut être personnalisé en mesurant les concentrations sériques maximales ; cependant, le processus implique la conservation de la chaîne du froid et des techniques de laboratoire telles que la chromatographie liquide (LC)/spectrométrie de masse (MS), qui ne sont pas disponibles dans de nombreuses régions à forte charge de morbidité. La spec-trophotométrie urinaire pourrait constituer une alternative peu coûteuse avec des méthodes d'échantillonnage et de quantification simples. MÉTHODES: Nous avons recruté 56 patients adultes sous traitement pour une TB active. Le sérum a été prélevé à 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 et 8 h pour mesurer les concentrations d'INH à l'aide de méthodes LC-MS/MS validées. L'urine a été prélevée à des intervalles de 0­4, 4­8 et 8­24 h, et les concentrations d'INH ont été mesurées à l'aide de méthodes colorimétriques. RÉSULTATS: La concentration sérique maximale médiane et l'exposition sérique totale sur 24 h étaient respectivement de 4,8 mg/L et de 16,4 mg*heure/L. L'aire sous les courbes caractéristiques de l'opérateur récepteur a été mesurée à l'aide de méthodes color-imétriques. Les aires sous les courbes caractéristiques des récepteurs pour les valeurs urinaires prédisant une concentration sérique sous-thérapeutique (pic <3,0 mg/L) étaient les suivantes : intervalle 0­4 h (AUC 0,85 ; IC 95% 0,7­0,96), intervalle 0­8 h (AUC 0,85 ; IC 95% 0,71­0,96), et intervalle de collecte d'urine 0­24 h (AUC 0,84 ; IC 95% 0,68­0,96). CONCLUSION: La spectrophotométrie urinaire peut améliorer la faisabilité d'un dosage personnalisé dans les régions à forte charge de TB, mais nécessite une étude plus approfondie de l'atteinte de la cible après l'ajustement de la dose sur la base d'un seuil urinaire.

18.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38645061

RESUMO

In previous work we used a Somalogic platform targeting approximately 5000 proteins to generate a serum protein signature of centenarians that we validated in independent studies that used the same technology. We set here to validate and possibly expand the results by profiling the serum proteome of a subset of individuals included in the original study using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Following pre-processing, the LC-MS/MS data provided quantification of 398 proteins, with only 266 proteins shared by both platforms. At 1% FDR statistical significance threshold, the analysis of LC-MS/MS data detected 44 proteins associated with extreme old age, including 23 of the original analysis. To identify proteins for which associations between expression and extreme-old age were conserved across platforms, we performed inter-study conservation testing of the 266 proteins quantified by both platforms using a method that accounts for the correlation between the results. From these tests, a total of 80 proteins reached 5% FDR statistical significance, and 26 of these proteins had concordant pattern of gene expression in whole blood. This signature of 80 proteins points to blood coagulation, IGF signaling, extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, and complement cascade as important pathways whose protein level changes provide evidence for age-related adjustments that distinguish centenarians from younger individuals.

19.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 28(4): 176-182, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563339

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDTanzanian TB guidelines recommend facility-based TB screening for symptomatic household contacts (HHCs) or those aged <5 years, but cost remains a major barrier. In this study, we evaluate the use of unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) to facilitate completion of HHC TB screening.METHODSIn this prospective interventional study, we enrolled index people diagnosed with TB (PWTB) within 8 weeks of TB treatment initiation from the TB clinic at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Haydom, Tanzania, and surrounding TB dispensaries in rural Tanzania. The study provided at the time of enrollment an UCT up to 40,000 Tanzanian shillings (USD16.91) directly to heads of households with PWTB, covered medical costs from screening activities and provided three bi-weekly phone reminders to facilitate HHC TB screening. The primary outcome was TB screening completion for all HHCs compared to the same period of the preceding year.RESULTSWe enrolled 120 index PWTB, including 398 HHCs between July and December 2022. The median age for index PWTB was 35 years; 38% were females. Sixty-five (54%) households completed screening for all HHCs, compared to 7% during the same period of the preceding year.CONCLUSIONThese interventions may considerably improve completion of HHC TB screening in rural Tanzania..


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Tuberculose/terapia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Programas de Rastreamento , Características da Família
20.
mSystems ; 9(5): e0026124, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606974

RESUMO

Corals establish symbiotic relationships with microorganisms, especially endosymbiotic photosynthetic algae. Although other microbes have been commonly detected in coral tissues, their identity and beneficial functions for their host are unclear. Here, we confirm the beneficial outcomes of the inoculation of bacteria selected as probiotics and use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to define their localization in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Our results show the first evidence of the inherent presence of Halomonas sp. and Cobetia sp. in native coral tissues, even before their inoculation. Furthermore, the relative enrichment of these coral tissue-associated bacteria through their inoculation in corals correlates with health improvements, such as increases in photosynthetic potential, and productivity. Our study suggests the symbiotic status of Halomonas sp. and Cobetia sp. in corals by indicating their localization within coral gastrodermis and epidermis and correlating their increased relative abundance through active inoculation with beneficial outcomes for the holobiont. This knowledge is crucial to facilitate the screening and application of probiotics that may not be transient members of the coral microbiome. IMPORTANCE: Despite the promising results indicating the beneficial outcomes associated with the application of probiotics in corals and some scarce knowledge regarding the identity of bacterial cells found within the coral tissue, the correlation between these two aspects is still missing. This gap limits our understanding of the actual diversity of coral-associated bacteria and whether these symbionts are beneficial. Some researchers, for example, have been suggesting that probiotic screening should only focus on the very few known tissue-associated bacteria, such as Endozoicomonas sp., assuming that the currently tested probiotics are not tissue-associated. Here, we provide specific FISH probes for Halomonas sp. and Cobetia sp., expand our knowledge of the identity of coral-associated bacteria and confirm the probiotic status of the tested probiotics. The presence of these beneficial microorganisms for corals (BMCs) inside host tissues and gastric cavities also supports the notion that direct interactions with the host may underpin their probiotic role. This is a new breakthrough; these results argue against the possibility that the positive effects of BMCs are due to factors that are not related to a direct symbiotic interaction, for example, that the host simply feeds on inoculated bacteria or that the bacteria change the water quality.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Probióticos , Simbiose , Antozoários/microbiologia , Antozoários/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Animais , Probióticos/farmacologia , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Halomonas/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia
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