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1.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 6(1): dlae011, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328265

RESUMO

Background: Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is accelerating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) (Antibiotic resistant infections and associated deaths increase  https://www.gov.uk/government/news/antibiotic-resistant-infections-and-associated-deaths-increase). Pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) promote good antibiotic prescribing practice. The traditional role of pharmacy technicians in supporting pharmacists and patients has expanded alongside the clinical expansion of pharmacist roles. (Boughen M, Fenn T. Practice, skill mix and education: the evolving role of pharmacy technicians in Great Britain. Pharmacy (Basel) 2020; 8(2): 50. doi:10.3390/pharmacy8020050) This paper focuses on the opinion of pharmacy technicians and their role in the review of acne management and the evaluation of the UKHSA TARGET acne 'How to…' review resources. Aims and objectives: To explore the impact of the TARGET resources on the capability, opportunity and motivation of pharmacy technicians in general practice in managing patients with acne.To evaluate the usefulness of the acne 'How to…' review resources. Materials and methods: A primarily quantitative study using an electronic survey asking UK-based pharmacy technicians to rate their agreement on a five-point Likert scale with 21 predefined statements, themed on the COM-B model and usefulness of the TARGET resources for acne. Discussion: The survey found that capability and opportunity in managing acne in the group familiar with TARGET resources was higher than the group not familiar with TARGET resources. Scores for motivation in both groups were high; pharmacy technicians have the motivation to undertake infection management roles, whether or not they are familiar with the TARGET toolkit.The acne 'How to…' review resources were overall rated as useful in supporting the review of patients with acne. Conclusion: The TARGET materials are effective resources that helps to upskill pharmacy technicians in the area of AMS, increasing capability and opportunity in the management of acne.

2.
Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm ; 11: 100310, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37645452

RESUMO

Introduction: Acne is a common skin condition treated in community pharmacy but moderate to severe cases may need referral to general practice for treatment that may include topical or oral antimicrobial treatments. Pharmacy teams working in the community are well-placed to manage acne treatments in line with NICE guidance. Objectives: To explore the perceived current and future roles of community pharmacy (CP) teams alongside needs to achieve potential future roles. Additionally, usefulness of the TARGET acne 'How to' toolkit to support these roles was sought. Methods: A mixed-methods electronic survey of UK-based CP professionals and stakeholders in March 2023. Results: 54 pharmacy professionals and stakeholders responded to the survey. The current confidence of pharmacy professionals in managing acne was rated as moderate and reviewing long-term medications for acne prescribed by another healthcare professional was seen as a future role. The needs identified to undertake such a role were: training, availability of prescribing or supply frameworks, and appropriate remuneration. The TARGET acne resources were thought of as being very useful for acne management. Conclusions: Potential future roles for CP have been identified, alongside additional needs to undertake these roles; the TARGET acne 'How to' resources could support pharmacy professionals in the management and review of antimicrobial treatment for acne.

3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35885814

RESUMO

The community pharmacy antimicrobial stewardship intervention (PAMSI) is multi-faceted and underpinned by behavioural science, consisting of the TARGET Antibiotic Checklist, staff e-Learning, and patient-facing materials. This mixed-method study evaluated the effect of PAMSI on community pharmacy staffs' self-reported antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) behaviours. Data collection included staff pre- and post-intervention questionnaires, qualitative interviews, and TARGET Antibiotic Checklists. Quantitative data were analysed by a multivariate ordinal linear mixed effect model; qualitative data were analysed thematically. A total of 101 staff participated from 66 pharmacies, and six completed semi-structured interviews. The statistical model indicated very strong evidence (p < 0.001) that post-intervention, staff increased their antibiotic appropriateness checks and patient advice, covering antibiotic adherence, antibiotic resistance, infection self-care, and safety-netting. Staff reported feeling empowered to query antibiotic appropriateness with prescribing clinicians. The TARGET Antibiotic Checklist was completed with 2043 patients. Topics patients identified as requiring advice from the pharmacy team included symptom duration, alcohol and food consumption guidance, antibiotic side-effects, and returning unused antibiotics to pharmacies. Pharmacy staff acknowledged the need for improved communication across the primary care pathway to optimise antimicrobial use, and PAMSI has potential to support this ambition if implemented nationally. To support patients not attending a pharmacy in person, an online information tool will be developed.

4.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673111

RESUMO

Community pharmacy services have evolved to include medical and pharmaceutical interventions alongside dispensing. While established pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing is available throughout the Netherlands, this is primarily based in hospital environments and for specialist medicines. The aim of this work was to describe how best to implement PGx services within community pharmacy, considering potential barriers and enablers to service delivery and how to address them. The service was implemented across a selection of community pharmacies in the Netherlands. Data were captured on test outcomes and through a pharmacist survey. Following testing, 17.8% of the clinical samples were recommended to avoid certain medication (based on their current medicines use), and 14.0% to have their dose adjusted. Pre-emptive analysis of genotyped patients showed that the majority (99.2%) had actionable variants. Pharmacists felt confident in their operational knowledge to deliver the service, but less so in applying that knowledge. Delivering the service was believed to improve relationships with other healthcare professionals. These results add to the evidence in understanding how PGx can be delivered effectively within the community pharmacy environment. Training pharmacists in how to respond to patient queries and make clinical recommendations may enhance service provision further.

5.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(7): 2907-2925, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464647

RESUMO

AIMS: Pharmacogenetics (PGx) in the UK is currently implemented in secondary care for a small group of high-risk medicines. However, most prescribing takes place in primary care, with a large group of medicines influenced by commonly occurring genetic variations. The goal of this study is to quantitatively estimate the volumes of medicines impacted by implementation of a population-level, pre-emptive pharmacogenetic screening programme for nine genes related to medicines frequently dispensed in primary care in 2019. METHODS: A large community pharmacy database was analysed to estimate the national incidence of first prescriptions for 56 PGx drugs used in the UK for the period 1 January-31 December 2019. These estimated prescription volumes were combined with phenotype frequency data to estimate the occurrence of actionable drug-gene interactions (DGI) in daily practice in community pharmacies. RESULTS: In between 19.1 and 21.1% (n = 5 233 353-5 780 595) of all new prescriptions for 56 drugs (n = 27 411 288 new prescriptions/year), an actionable drug-gene interaction (DGI) was present according to the guidelines of the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group and/or the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium. In these cases, the DGI would result in either increased monitoring, guarding against a maximum ceiling dose or an optional or immediate drug/dose change. An immediate dose adjustment or change in drug regimen accounted for 8.6-9.1% (n = 2 354 058-2 500 283) of these prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: Actionable drug-gene interactions frequently occur in UK primary care, with a large opportunity to optimise prescribing.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Fenótipo , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reino Unido
6.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(6): 1066-1071, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safe provision of medicines administration is a fundamental challenge faced in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Many residents of LTCFs are frail older persons with multiple morbidities, and in addition to polypharmacy, are particularly at risk of harm due to concomitant disease and disability. One potential method to optimise medication safety and facilitate medicines administration within LTCFs is the introduction of technology. OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the barriers to long-term sustainability concerning the use of an electronic administration system (eMAR) in LTCFs. METHODS: Fifteen in depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with LTCF staff (9), eMAR service commissioners (2), members of the implementation team (2) and care home strategy managers (2) across three LTCF sites. The study participants were purposefully sampled and each interview audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Nvivo 11. In addition to interviews, observational notes were taken by the lead researcher from visits to the LCTFs as a form of data collection. The analysis process consisted of a two-stage process of thematic analysis then theoretical mapping. RESULTS: Barriers identified were split into four main overarching areas: structural, implementation team, system user and operational barriers. The adoption of eMAR within this setting was welcomed by top-level stakeholders, however, LTCF staff displayed concerns over its usability. The lack of co-development and on-going training need highlighted barriers to its sustainability, in addition to risks associated with current legislation. The themes identified throughout the framework highlight challenges faced when exploring the sustainability of eMAR in LTCF. CONCLUSIONS: The use of technology in health care is evolving. Awareness of actors relating to its introduction can have significant impact on success and service sustainability.


Assuntos
Assistência de Longa Duração , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletrônica , Humanos , Polimedicação , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem
7.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287210

RESUMO

Early identification and treatment of malignant melanoma is crucial to prevent mortality. The aim of this work was to describe the uptake, profile of users and service outcomes of a mole scanning service in the community pharmacy setting in the UK. In addition, health care costs saved from the perspective of general practice were estimated. The service allowed patients to have concerning skin lesions scanned with a dermatoscopy device which were analyzed remotely by clinical dermatology specialists in order to provide recommendations for the patient. Patients were followed up to ascertain the clinical outcome. Data were analyzed for 6355 patients and 9881 scans across 50 community pharmacies. The majority of the scans required no further follow-up (n = 8763, 88.7%). Diagnosis was confirmed for 70.4% (n = 757/1118) of scans where patients were recommended to seek further medical attention. Of these, 44.3% were ultimately defined as normal (n = 335) and 6.2% as malignant melanoma (n = 47/757). An estimated 0.7% of scans taken as part of the service led to a confirmed diagnosis of malignant melanoma. This service evaluation has shown that a mole scanning service available within community pharmacies is effective at triaging patients and ultimately playing a part in identifying diagnoses of malignant melanoma.

8.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049965

RESUMO

The misuse of opioids, including codeine which is sold over-the-counter (OTC) in United Kingdom (UK) community pharmacies, is a growing public health concern. An educational Patient Safety Card was developed and piloted to see if it nudged customers into the safe and appropriate use of OTC codeine. Exploratory analysis was conducted by (i) recording quantitative interactions for people requesting OTC codeine in community pharmacies; and (ii) a web-based pharmacy staff survey. Twenty-four pharmacies submitted data on 3993 interactions using the Patient Safety Card. Staff found the majority of interactions (91.3%) to be very or quite easy. Following an interaction using the card, customers known to pharmacy staff as frequent purchasers of OTC codeine were more likely not to purchase a pain relief medicine compared to customers not known to staff (5.5% of known customers did not purchase any pain relief product versus 1.1% for unknown customers (χ2 = 41.73, df = 1, p < 0.001)). These results support both the use of a visual educational intervention to encourage appropriate use of OTC codeine in community pharmacy and the principles behind better self-care.

9.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 8(1)2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204383

RESUMO

In England, 81% of all antibiotic prescriptions originate in primary care/community settings, of which up to 20% are thought to be inappropriate. Community pharmacies are often the first point of community contact for patients with suspected infections; providing an opportunity for community pharmacy teams to promote antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). The objective of the study was to improve the management of infections and antimicrobial stewardship in community pharmacies. The study methodology included a non-blinded cluster randomised control trial with pharmacy staff in 272 community pharmacies in England. The intervention arm received an AMS webinar and a patient facing respiratory tract infection (RTI) leaflet (TARGET TYI-RTI) for use in everyday practice for four weeks. The control arm received a webinar on how to participate in the study. The primary outcome was self-reported referrals to general practitioners (GPs). The secondary outcomes were; provision of self-care advice/ written information to patients, referrals to pharmacists, sign-posting to non-prescription medicines and common barriers and facilitators to advice-giving in community pharmacies. Ethics approval was granted by the Public Health England Research Ethics and Governance Group. 66.91% (182 of 272) of pharmacies provided 3649 patient consultation data reports across both arms. Use of the leaflet was associated with a lower likelihood of referrals to GPs for certain RTIs (p < 0.05) and a more frequent provision of self-care advice than the control (p = 0.06). Opportunities to deliver self-care advice were limited due to lack of time. Pharmacy staff had good motivation and capability for managing self-limiting infections but the opportunity to do so was a perceived barrier. Use of the TARGET leaflet facilitated pharmacy staff to give more self-care advice and decreased referrals to GPs.

10.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 2(4): dlaa089, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community pharmacy staff have an opportunity to play a pivotal role in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) due to their expertise in medicines and accessibility to patients. OBJECTIVES: To develop and test the feasibility of a pharmacy AMS intervention (PAMSI) to increase community pharmacy staff's capability, opportunity and motivation to check antibiotic appropriateness and provide self-care and adherence advice when dispensing antibiotics. METHODS: The PAMSI was centred around an Antibiotic Checklist, completed by patients and pharmacy staff, to facilitate personalized advice to the patient, based on their reported knowledge. An educational webinar for staff and patient-facing materials were also developed. Staff and patients completing Antibiotic Checklists were invited to provide feedback via questionnaires. RESULTS: In February 2019, 12 community pharmacies in England trialled the intervention. Forty-three pharmacy staff evaluated the educational webinar and reported increases in their understanding, confidence, commitment and intention to use the tools provided to give adherence and self-care advice. Over 4 weeks, 931 Antibiotic Checklists were completed. Staff reported being more focused on giving advice and able to address patients' knowledge gaps (mainly: likely symptom duration; alcohol and food consumption advice; possible side effects from antibiotics; returning unused antibiotics to the pharmacy), resulting in increased self-reported effective and meaningful conversations. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a PAMSI is feasible and effectively promotes AMS. Pharmacy staff and commissioners should consider this within their AMS plans. An optional digital format of the Antibiotic Checklist should be explored, for patients who are not collecting their antibiotic prescriptions themselves, and to save printing costs.

11.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 2(1): dlaa010, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women consulting primary healthcare, taking up GP resources. Delayed consultation can increase the risk of serious infections such as pyelonephritis or bacteraemia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and uptake of a lower UTI test-and-treat service for women presenting with urinary symptoms within a community pharmacy in supporting self-care and appropriate use of antibiotics and reducing demand on other NHS resources. METHODS: The service was aligned to national guidelines to diagnose and treat lower UTI in women aged 16-64 years and used national resources to provide safety-netting and self-care advice. Consultation included clinical assessment and a urine dipstick test alongside a novel smartphone app, with diagnosis informed by test results. Women were provided with safety-netting advice and either advised on self-care, supplied with antibiotics or referred to their GP. RESULTS: Data were analysed for 764 women who presented to 23 pharmacies during December 2018 to April 2019. Lower UTI was found to be likely in 372/496 (75.0%) women, most of whom purchased antibiotics on the same day. Had the service not been available, approximately three-quarters of women who had completed the service and responded to the question would have visited their GP (214/301) and more than one-third would have used self-care with or without going to see their GP (116/301). CONCLUSIONS: A community pharmacy-led UTI test-and-treat service for women aged 16-64 years presenting with urinary symptoms provided accessible and timely care aligned to national guidance, with 75.0% of consultations requiring antibiotic treatment.

12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(7): 2083-2090, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of people in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are aged 65 years and older, and most of their care needs are provided by the LTCF staff. Provision of healthcare services for residents in LTCFs is variable and can result in disjointed care between carers and NHS healthcare professionals. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to understand the use of antibiotics in LTCFs across the UK and to identify potential gaps in knowledge and support for carers and residents when using antibiotics, in order to determine how community pharmacy teams can provide additional support. METHODS: A point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted by community pharmacists (n = 57) when they carried out visits to LTCFs across the UK between 13 November and 12 December 2017. Anonymized data were recorded electronically by the individual pharmacists. RESULTS: Data were analysed for 17909 residents in 644 LTCFs across the UK. The mean proportion of residents on antibiotics on the day of the visit was as follows: 6.3% England (536 LTCFs), 7.6% Northern Ireland (35 LTCFs), 8.6% Wales (10 LTCFs) and 9.6% Scotland (63 LTCFs). The percentage of antibiotics prescribed for prophylactic use was 25.3%. Antibiotic-related training was reported as being available for staff in 6.8% of LTCFs and 7.1% of LTCFs reported use of a catheter passport scheme. Pharmacists conducting the PPS intervened during the survey for 9.5% of antibiotic prescription events; 53.4% of interventions were for clinical reasons and 32.2% were for administration reasons. CONCLUSIONS: This survey identified high prophylactic use of antibiotics. There are opportunities for community pharmacy teams to improve antimicrobial stewardship in LTCF settings, including workforce education.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/normas , Masculino , Prevalência
13.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 7(1)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909409

RESUMO

Community pharmacies are commonly used to screen for patients with diabetes. The aim of this paper is to estimate the cost per test and cost per appropriately referred patient from a pharmacy perspective using a one-year decision tree model. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the effect of geographical location and patient self-referral rate. Data was used from 164 patients screened and located in an area with average social deprivation and largely white European inhabitants and 172 patients in an area with higher social deprivation (lower than average ability to access society's resources) and a mixed ethnicity population in England. The diabetes screening consisted of initial risk assessment via questionnaire followed by HbA1c test for those identified as high risk. The cost per person screened was estimated as £28.65. The cost per appropriately referred patient with type 2 diabetes was estimated to range from £7638 to £11,297 in deprived mixed ethnicity and non-deprived areas respectively. This increased to £12,730 and £18,828, respectively, if only 60% of patients referred chose to inform their general practitioner (GP). The cost per test and identification rates through community pharmacies was similar to that reported through medical practices. Locating services in areas of suspected greater diabetes prevalence and increasing the proportion of patients who follow pharmacist advice to attend their medical practice improves cost-effectiveness.

14.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(5): 1447-1451, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health problem. Elderly residents in long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) are frequently prescribed antibiotics, particularly for urinary tract infections. Optimizing appropriate antibiotic use in this vulnerable population requires close collaboration between NHS healthcare providers and LTCF providers. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to identify and quantify antibiotic prescribing in elderly residents in UK LTCFs. This is part of a wider programme of work to understand opportunities for pharmacy teams in the community to support residents and carers. METHODS: This was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study. Data were extracted from a national pharmacy chain database of prescriptions dispensed for elderly residents in UK LTCFs over 12 months (November 2016-October 2017). RESULTS: Data were analysed for 341536 residents in LTCFs across the four UK nations, from which a total of 544796 antibiotic prescriptions were dispensed for 167002 residents. The proportion of residents prescribed at least one antibiotic over the 12 month period varied by LTCF, by month and by country. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst national data sets on antibiotic prescribing are available for hospitals and primary care, this is the first report on antibiotic prescribing for LTCF residents across all four UK nations, and the largest reported data set in this setting. Half of LTCF residents were prescribed at least one antibiotic over the 12 months, suggesting that there is an opportunity to optimize antibiotic use in this vulnerable population to minimize the risk of AMR and treatment failure. Pharmacy teams are well placed to support prudent antibiotic prescribing and improved antimicrobial stewardship in this population.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Uso de Medicamentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(1): 84-92, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UK Community Pharmacy Future group developed the Pharmacy Care Plan (PCP) service with a focus on patient activation, goal setting and therapy management. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the PCP service from a health services perspective. METHODS: Patients over 50 years of age prescribed one or more medicines including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were eligible. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and actions towards achieving them. Clinical, process and cost-effectiveness data were collected at baseline and 12-months between February 2015 and June 2016. Mean differences are reported for clinical and process measures. Costs (NHS) and quality-adjusted life year scores were estimated and compared for 12 months pre- and post-baseline. RESULTS: Seven hundred patients attended the initial consultation and 54% had a complete set of data obtained. There was a significant improvement in patient activation score (mean difference 5.39; 95% CI 3.9-6.9; p < 0.001), systolic (mean difference -2.90 mmHg; 95% CI -4.7 to -1; p = 0.002) and diastolic blood pressure (mean difference -1.81 mmHg; 95% CI -2.8 to -0.8; p < 0.001), adherence (mean difference 0.26; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; p < 0.001) and quality of life (mean difference 0.029; 95% CI 0.015-0.044; p < 0.001). HDL cholesterol reduced significantly and QRisk2 scores increased significantly over the course of the 12 months. The mean incremental cost associated with the intervention was estimated to be £202.91 (95% CI 58.26 to £346.41) and the incremental QALY gain was 0.024 (95% CI 0.014 to 0.034), giving an incremental cost per QALY of £8495. CONCLUSIONS: Enrolment in the PCP service was generally associated with an improvement over 12 months in key clinical and process metrics. Results also suggest that the service would be cost-effective to the health system even when using worst case assumptions.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/economia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Colesterol/sangue , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Reino Unido
16.
BMJ Open ; 8(12): e025101, 2018 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Community pharmacists and their staff have the potential to contribute to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). However, their barriers and opportunities are not well understood. The aim was to investigate the experiences and perceptions of community pharmacists and their teams around AMS to inform intervention development. DESIGN: Interviews and focus groups were used to explore the views of pharmacists, pharmacy staff, general practitioners (GPs), members of pharmacy organisations and commissioners. The questioning schedule was developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework which helped inform recommendations to facilitate AMS in community pharmacy. RESULTS: 8 GPs, 28 pharmacists, 13 pharmacy staff, 6 representatives from pharmacy organisations in England and Wales, and 2 local stakeholders participated.Knowledge and skills both facilitated or hindered provision of self-care and compliance advice by different grades of pharmacy staff. Some staff were not aware of the impact of giving self-care and compliance advice to help control antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The pharmacy environment created barriers to AMS; this included lack of time of well-qualified staff leading to misinformation from underskilled staff to patients about the need for antibiotics or the need to visit the GP, this was exacerbated by lack of space. AMS activities were limited by absent diagnoses on antibiotic prescriptions.Several pharmacy staff felt that undertaking patient examinations, questioning the rationale for antibiotic prescriptions and performing audits would allow them to provide more tailored AMS advice. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are required to overcome a lack of qualified staff, time and space to give patients AMS advice. Staff need to understand how self-care and antibiotic compliance advice can help control AMR. A multifaceted educational intervention including information for staff with feedback about the advice given may help. Indication for a prescription would enable pharmacists to provide more targeted antibiotic advice. Commissioners should consider the pharmacists' role in examining patients, and giving advice about antibiotic prescriptions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/organização & administração , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 91, 2018 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As part of the NHS desire to move services closer to where people live, and provide greater accessibility and convenience to patients, Brighton and Hove Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) underwent a review of their anticoagulation services during 2008. The outcome was to shift the initiation and monitoring service in secondary care for non-complex patients, including domiciliary patients, into the community. This was achieved via a procurement process in 2008 resulting in the Community Pharmacy Anticoagulation Management Service (CPAMs) managed by Boots UK (a large chain of community pharmacies across the United Kingdom). METHODS: This evaluation aims to review the outcomes (International Normalised Ratio [INR] readings) and experiences of those patients attending the anticoagulation monitoring service provided by community pharmacists in Brighton and Hove. All patients on warfarin are given a target INR range they need to achieve; dosing of and frequency of appointment are dependent on the INR result. Outcome measures for patients on the CPAM service included percentage INR readings that were within target range and the percentage time the patient was within therapeutic range. Data collected from 2009 to 2016 were analysed and results compared to the service targets. Patient experience of the service was evaluated via a locally developed questionnaire that was issued to patients annually in the pharmacy. RESULTS: The evaluation shows that community pharmacy managed anticoagulation services can achieve outcomes at a level consistently exceeding national and local targets for both percentage INR readings in therapeutic target range (65.4%) compared to the recommended minimum therapeutic target range of 60.0% and percentage time in therapeutic range (72.5%, CI 71.9-73.1%) compared to the national target of 70.0%. Patients also indicated they were satisfied with the service, with over 98.6% patients rating the service as good, very good or excellent. CONCLUSION: The Brighton and Hove CPAM service achieved above average national target management of INR and positive patient feedback, demonstrating that community pharmacy is ideally placed to provide this service safely and deliver enhanced clinical outcomes and positive patient experience.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/normas , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos/organização & administração , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/normas , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
18.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0174500, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. OBJECTIVE: Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service. METHOD: Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service. RESULTS: Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2%) patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1%) setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify their own personalised goals was seen as a positive approach to providing patient services.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Medicina de Precisão , Idoso , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Polimedicação , Qualidade de Vida , Reino Unido
19.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 38(2): 218-22, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to increase influenza vaccination rates in England particularly among those who are under 65 years of age and at-risk because of other conditions and treatments. OBJECTIVE: To understand the profile of people accessing flu vaccination services within a large pharmacy chain. METHOD: Pharmacists requested people who had been vaccinated in 2014/15 to complete a questionnaire. Data was captured electronically on vaccine delivery levels across 1201 pharmacies. Deprivation profiles were calculated using the Carstairs index. RESULTS: 1741 patients from a total of 55 pharmacies completed the survey. Convenience and accessibility remain the key reasons for attending pharmacy. Pharmacy services are accessed by people from all postcode areas, including some from the most deprived localities. CONCLUSION: Pharmacy flu vaccination services complement those provided by general practitioners to help improve overall coverage and vaccination rates for patients in at-risk groups. These services are highly accessed by patients from all socio demographic areas, and seem to be particularly attractive to carers, frontline healthcare workers, and those of working age.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Vigilância da População , Vacinação/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 23(6): 407-14, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25847545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inappropriate prescribing and nonadherence have a significant impact on hospital admissions and patient quality of life. The English government has identified that community pharmacy could make a significant contribution to reducing nonadherence and improving the quality of prescribing, reducing both hospital admissions and medicines wastage. The objective of this study is to evaluate a community pharmacy service aimed at patients over the age of 65 years prescribed four or more medicines. METHODS: Patients were invited to participate in the service by the community pharmacy team. The pharmacist held regular consultations with the patient and discussed risk of falls, pain management, adherence and general health. They also reviewed the patient's medication using STOPP/START criteria. Data were analysed for the first 6 months of participation in the service. KEY FINDINGS: Six hundred twenty patients were recruited with 441 (71.1%) completing the 6-month study period. Pharmacists made 142 recommendations to prescribers in 110 patients largely centred on potentially inappropriate prescribing of NSAIDs, PPIs or duplication of therapy. At follow-up, there was a significant decrease in the total number of falls (mean -0.116 (-0.217--0.014)) experienced and a significant increase in medicine adherence (mean difference in Morisky Measure of Adherence Scale-8: 0.513 (0.337-0.689)) and quality of life. Cost per quality-adjusted life year estimates ranged from £11 885 to £32 466 depending on the assumptions made. CONCLUSION: By focussing on patients over the age of 65 years with four or more medicines, community pharmacists can improve medicine adherence and patient quality of life.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Polimedicação , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Inglaterra , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Papel Profissional , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
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